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IT-gestütztes Service-Level-Management

IT-gestütztes Service-Level-Management

Diese beiden Ziele Integration von SLM mit anderen Disziplinen und keine An- nahmen über die Ausgestaltung der jeweiligen Managementsysteme sind natür- lich konfliktär und in dieser Ausprägung unvereinbar. Daher wird im Rahmen des Kommunikationsmodells ein Ansatz verfolgt, der an dieser Stelle einen Kompromiss realisiert: Statt ein einziges, vollständig integriertes Dienstma- nagementsystem zu fordern, das alle denkbaren Teildisziplinen – und somit auch das Service-Level-Management als eine von ihnen – umschließt, wird von mehreren verschiedenen und prinzipiell eigenständigen Managementsystemen ausgegangen, die jeweils für sich genommen einen integrierten Ansatz verwirk- lichen. Zwischen diesen Managementsystemen wird jedoch (nur) ein kooperati- ver Ansatz verfolgt, der sich von einem integrierten dadurch unterscheidet, dass nicht eine gemeinsame Managementplattform mit zugehöriger Informationsba- sis existieren muss. Das hat den Hauptnachteil, dass Informationsredundanzen und Inkonsistenzen nicht völlig ausgeschlossen werden können, bringt dafür aber im Gegenzug erhöhte Flexibilität und mehr Freiheitsgrade, da kein bis auf die Ebene der Datenmodellierung vereinheitlichtes Informationsmodell be- nötigt wird.
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Public sustainable transportation planning with service level efficiency: Hamburg case study

Public sustainable transportation planning with service level efficiency: Hamburg case study

Suggested Citation: Sodachi, Majid; Sahraei, Pardis; Valilai, Omid Fatahi (2020) : Public sustainable transportation planning with service level efficiency: Hamburg case study, In: Jahn, Carlos Kersten, Wolfgang Ringle, Christian M. (Ed.): Data Science in Maritime and City Logistics: Data-driven Solutions for Logistics and Sustainability. Proceedings of the Hamburg International Conference of Logistics (HICL), Vol. 30, ISBN 978-3-7531-2347-9, epubli GmbH, Berlin, pp. 97-127,

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Setup cost reduction in an integrated production inventory system for defective items with service level constraint and delay in payments

Setup cost reduction in an integrated production inventory system for defective items with service level constraint and delay in payments

Trade credit is an essential tool for financial growth for many businesses. In order to encourage sales, such a credit is given. During this credit period the retailer can accumulate and earn interest on the encouraged sales revenue. In spite of the extension period the supplier charges interest on the unpaid balance. Hence, the permissible delay period indirectly reduces the cost of holding cost. Also trade credit offered by the supplier encourages the retailer to buy more products. Hence, the trade credit plays a major role in inventory control for both the supplier as well as the retailer. The integration between the vendor and the buyer for improving the performance of inventory control with permissible delay in payment plays the major role to minimize the joint total cost for any business firm. Ouyang et al. (2008) established an optimal strategy for an integrated system with variable production rate when the freight rate and the trade credit are both linked to the order quantity. Ouyang et al. (2015) considered the model with capacity constraint and order size dependent trade credit. Uthayakumar and Priyan (2013) derived two echelon inventory models with controllable setup cost and lead time under service level constraint with permissible delay in payment. Moreover, in the model developed by Uthayakumar and Priyan (2013), have considered two echelon inventory systems with delay in payment and controllable setup cost under service level constraint. In the present work, we have developed a single vendor single buyer integrated inventory model with permissible delay in payment and controllable lead time in an imperfect production process through service level constraint. An inspection policy is taken to identify the defective
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Service level agreements for job submission and scheduling in high performance computing

Service level agreements for job submission and scheduling in high performance computing

A service level that is situated between soft prioritisation and timed access is one that guarantees a job a maximum waiting time before job start. It borrows from soft priori- tisation that no specific point in time is defined and from timed access the fact that jobs cannot be postponed beyond a certain deadline. This service level distinguishes itself further from timed access through the fact that with timed access the resource reser- vation itself is important; the resources need only be available during a certain time, they might not be used constantly. In the case of guaranteed waiting time, a job needs to run to its completion, which is, depending on the job, hard to impossible to predict, therefore the only guarantee, besides a job running to completion, is that of a guaranteed maximum waiting time. If the client would be forced to specify an end time, he would either specify a too short deadline, potentially losing all computational progress, or a too long deadline, resulting in overprovisioning that would need to be paid by the client. With soft prioritisation, a job could be postponed over and over again as higher-class jobs are queued. It is important that a service level exists which guarantees a client that a job will not wait longer than time span X before being executed. This is closely related to the scenario described in the scientific use case in section 2.4.1 as well as to the evolving field of urgent computing [78] [79].
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Service level agreement mediation, negotiation and evaluation for cloud services in intercloud environments

Service level agreement mediation, negotiation and evaluation for cloud services in intercloud environments

The terms are the main subjects of an agreement. They are a set of service descriptions, refer- ences to service descriptions, properties of services that may be used to describe the quality of a service, and guarantees coupled with Service Level Objectives (SLO), which are bounded to fees and compensations. All these terms may be composed and combined to valid selectable service entities. In case of a provider offer only certain combinations of services and terms are possible. For instance, a guarantee may be expressed via the GuaranteeTerm element that ref- erences to a ServiceDescriptionTerm and contains (among others) a ServiceLevelObjective and a BusinessValueList element. The ServiceLevelObjective elements advertise the QoS a provider is willing to commit for a service. These are formulated by any kind of expression, which may be evaluated true or false. These expressions utilize variables that are defined by the Service- Properties element. The BusinessValueList element contains any number of compensations in form of penalties or rewards which can contain a unit in which the compensation is measured like a currency and its corresponding amount. This normative format allows not only program- matic inspection and comparison of terms but also programmatic compliance verification. Other data structures like Templates, AgreementOffer or types used for negotiation inherit from this agreement type or include one. Only the semantics of the terms differ in distinct types: In a Template the terms represent an AR’s advertisement or a recommendation for an AI; in an AgreementOffer the terms represent the demand of an AI; and in an agreement the terms represent what AR and AI have agreed upon.
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Analysis of Service Level Agreements Using Process Mining Techniques

Analysis of Service Level Agreements Using Process Mining Techniques

1 INTRODUCTION In the last decade real-time communication via internet enabled a close collaboration between multiple organizations. Flexibility and an improved competitiveness are the major benefits of these collaborations. Yet, if two parties work together, duties and responsibilities need to be defined to enable a fruitful collaboration for all parties. In terms of IT supported processes, the ITIL framework (IT Infrastructure Library) offers a powerful set of concepts and approaches to root a service culture in an organization [Van Bon 2008]. One major objective in every effort regarding ITIL is a sustainable management of processes in a service aware environment. Thereby, the quality of service (QoS) is determined in so called Service Level Agreements. To maintain the quality of these services, an ongoing analysis and controlling of an organization's processes is inevitable. However, it is not addressed in ITIL how to analyze the quality of services in Service Level Agreements (SLA). Most efforts that can be found in the literature are dealing with simple SLA monitoring. These approaches focus on monitoring only and are not suitable for detecting issues in the process. Nevertheless, putting more effort on improving the quality of processes is extremely crucial. Studies like the one presented in [Mendling et al. 2007] prove that organizations tend to overestimate the knowledge of their own processes. Particularly large process models tend to be of poor quality in practice, containing formal flaws. Process Mining can be helpful with providing analysis techniques to improve process quality. 9
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How does the online service level influence consumers' purchase intentions before a transaction? A formative approach

How does the online service level influence consumers' purchase intentions before a transaction? A formative approach

Online service level before the transaction The results demonstrate that overall, consumer preferences for features of transaction-based e-services differ between offline and online consumers ( Zlqbal & Baran, 2003 ). The reason is that online consumers identify and value the advantages of online services. So, although there are certainly challenges shared by both traditional retailers and e-retailers, e-retailers face a set of specific demands in the online environment, including the fact that on the Internet a competitor is only a click away ( Yun & Good, 2007 ). This large and rapid competition justifies the relevance of developing online services to capture the attention of surfers. That is, e-business requires more than offering a website, “even though many com- panies naively hope that just being online would be enough to generate interest and improve business” ( Suh, 2005 , p. 309).
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Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

Table 1. Related results under independent decision and joint decision From the table 1 we can see that the service level has improved when logistics enterprises are in joint decision, and the total profits are increased too. So a union between logistics enterprises, making a horizontal cooperative, not only can make the enterprise win more profits, but also can avoid the monopolistic competition among the industry, which make enterprises intend to improve the logistics service level, and promote the healthy development of whole logistics market. We know that variable k 1 , k 2 change will affect the total
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Konzeption und Management von Service-Level-Agreements für IT-Dienstleistungen

Konzeption und Management von Service-Level-Agreements für IT-Dienstleistungen

Karten 54 definiert den Begriff SLA beispielsweise wie folgt: „A Service Level Agreement is a for- mal negotiated agreement which helps to identify expectations, clarify responsibilities, and facili- tate communication between a service provider and it’s customers.“ 55 Sie versucht, den Begriff SLA hauptsächlich über die Ziele, die mit SLAs verbunden sind, zu definieren. Sie nennt das Iden- tifizieren von Erwartungen, das Klären von Verantwortlichkeiten und die Erleichterung der Kom- munikation unter den Partnern. Da diese Ziele jedoch recht allgemein gehalten sind, ist basierend auf dieser Definition eine Abgrenzung von SLAs gegenüber anderen Instrumenten, die ähnliche Ziele verfolgen, nicht möglich. Neben den Zielen enthält die Definition von Karten außerdem den Hinweis darauf, dass ein SLA eine formell ausgehandelte Vereinbarung („a formal negotiated agreement“) darstellt, d.h. von informellen, ‘ad-hoc’ getroffenen Regelungen abzugrenzen ist. Niessen/Oldenburg bezeichnen ein SLA als „a written agreement between an IT service provider and the customer that documents agreed service levels for an IT service.“ 56 Sie grenzen den Einsatzbereich von SLAs auf IT-Dienstleistungen („IT service“) ein und weisen explizit auf die Notwendigkeit der Festlegung von Service-Levels innerhalb der Vereinbarung hin. Art und Zweck der Service-Levels bleiben jedoch unbestimmt. Als charakteristisches Merkmal nennen sie außer-
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Modellbasiertes Service Level Management verteilter Anwendungssysteme

Modellbasiertes Service Level Management verteilter Anwendungssysteme

In order to reduce costs, many enterprises have started to focus on their core business pro- cesses. As a consequence non-central business processes more and more are outsourced to external service providers. The relelationships between service providers and the service con- sumers are laid down in legal contracts called Service Level Agreements (SLAs). It is the task of the Service Level Management (SLM) to monitor all agreed upon service level parameters and make sure that they are not violated. For an automated management of SLAs, a formal re- presentation is required. The big number of different SLM tools spawned by the market cause problems due to proprietary SLA formats and missing specification methodologies. This leads to a dependency on SLM tools and a very limited reusability of previously specified SLAs. As a solution, this thesis proposes a platform independent approach for Service Level Mana- gement. Its goal is a unification of the modelling process in order to integrate different mana- gement tools. This enables a separation of the technology domain from the problem domain, resulting in stable and persistent models. Further goals of this thesis are to provide reusability of modeled SLAs and to establish a process-oriented modelling methodology. The automatic deployment of modelled SLAs is important for the practical applicability of the approach. This thesis applies the principles of the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) to the problem domain of Service Level Management. The central idea of this thesis is the definition of SLA patterns which represent configuration independent abstractions of real SLAs. These SLA pat- terns correspond to the Platform-Independent Model (PIM) of the MDA. By using an appro- priate model transformation, a concrete SLA instance is generated from an SLA pattern. Such an SLA instance includes all necessary configuration information and is already represented in the SLA format of the target management platform. Thus, an SLA instance corresponds to the Platform-Specific Model (PSM) of the MDA. Finally, the deployment of the SLA in- stance sets up the management platform for automatically managing the SLA conformance. The deployment of the SLA instance corresponds to the Platform-Specific Code (PSC) of the MDA.
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The basic service quality level of transport infrastructure in peripheral areas

The basic service quality level of transport infrastructure in peripheral areas

In 2002 the Ministry of Transport and Communication commissioned a study (LVM, 2002a) on the issue in which the various constituent elements for specifying an infrastructure (minimum) service level were discussed as preparatory work for a working group (LVM, 2003a). In addition the study indicated the problems and trade- offs of bringing these elements together in a compound evaluation of a (minimum) service level. The constituent elements are very diverse, comprising technical and regulatory aspects of road and rail transport, social aspects such as entitled and aspired range of action, and economic aspects such accessibility of product and labour markets. The article summarises the discussion on these elements. In addition it illustrates to what extent compensatory effects have occurred as regards housing and transport when comparing households in the countryside with urban households. The illustration is based on micro-data from the years 1985-1998. The article concludes with pointing at the character of decision making, and the desirable integration of regional public investment portfolios from various policy areas.
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Konzeption einer Service-MIB

Konzeption einer Service-MIB

Die in der Nutzungsphase durchgeführten Überwachungsmaßnahmen zielen auf eine (frühzeitige) Erkennung von Fehlern und Kapazitätseng- pässen ab und sollen damit Verletzungen von Service Level Agreements vermeiden. Dazu ist es erforderlich, die dienstrealisierenden Komponen- ten zu überwachen und die gemessenen Werte in Beziehung mit dem Dienst zu setzen. Voraussetzung dafür ist die bereits erwähnte Dienst- sicht, die eine akkurate Repräsentation des Dienstes sowie der Abhän- gigkeiten zwischen Dienst und Komponenten bzw. der Kritikalität der Komponenten bezüglich des Dienstes vermitteln soll. Der Umfang der in dieser Phase anfallenden Managementaufgaben ist zu komplex, um an dieser Stelle erschöpfend dargestellt zu werden. Für weitere Aus- führungen sei hier auf Kapitel 5.3 oder [ HAN99 ] verwiesen. Beispiele für weitere Aufgaben stellen die dienstorientorientierte Eventkorrelati- on [ Han07 ] und der Impact-Analyse [ HSS05b ] dar. Während bei der Eventkorrelation, ausgehend von Fehlermeldungen über den Dienst, die betreffenden fehlerhaften Komponenten lokalisiert werden, beschreitet die Impact-Analyse den umgekehrten Weg. Ausgehend von Fehlermel- dungen über Ressourcen werden hierbei die davon betroffenen Dienste und der dadurch (potentiell) entstehende Schaden identifiziert. Offen- sichtlich stellt die vorher erwähnte Dienstsicht eine notwendige Voraus- setzung für beide Ansätze dar.
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Shared Service Centers

Shared Service Centers

E in Shared Service Center (SSC) ist Anbieter von Leistungen für meh- rere interne oder auch externe Kunden. Dabei wird die Leistungser- bringung als SLA (Service Level Agree- ment) gegenüber den Leistungsbezie- hern formuliert. Ziele von SSC sind die Transparenz des Bedarfs und der Kosten, die Professionalisierung der Leistungs- erbringung, der optimale Einsatz spezia- lisierter Mitarbeiter, die Standardisie- rung der Infrastruktur, der Daten und der Anwendungen und die Optimierung der Prozesslandschaft. Zusätzlich sollen Organisationen vom Management der Unterstüt- zungsprozesse entlastet werden und es sollen Skaleneffekte und eine Qualitätssteigerung erreicht werden. Es existieren mehrere Ausprägungen von SSC: das SSC als interner Bereich oder als Tochtergesellschaft eines Unternehmens, das SSC als Zweckverband oder als Joint-Ven- ture verschiedener Unternehmen einer Branche.
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Managing service quality by managing the service customer

Managing service quality by managing the service customer

University of Stellenbosch Business School (USB), Bellville, South Africa Suggested Citation: Govender, Krishna K. (1998) : Managing service quality by managing the service customer, South African Journal of Business Management, ISSN 2078-5976, African Online Scientific Information Systems (AOSIS), Cape Town, Vol. 29, Iss. 3, pp. 89-99, http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajbm.v29i3.774

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Next Generation Service Delivery Platforms and Service Overlay Networks

Next Generation Service Delivery Platforms and Service Overlay Networks

Prof. Dr. Thomas Magedanz is professor in the electrical engi- neering and computer sciences faculty at the Technische Univer- ität Berlin and additionally leading the competence center Next Generation Network Infrastructures (NGNI) at the Fraunhofer In- stitute FOKUS. His research and development activities concen- trate on multimedia service delivery platform design, prototyping and optimization on top of converging fixed and mobile telecom- munication networks and the Internet, including Next Generation Networks and Next Generation Mobile Networks. He is member of the GI/ITG and IEEE.
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Can service firms overdo service recovery? An assessment of non-linearity in service recovery satisfaction

Can service firms overdo service recovery? An assessment of non-linearity in service recovery satisfaction

cboshoff@sun.ac.za Received March 2012 Owing to the human nature of service delivery service failures occasionally occur. Persistently poor service delivery will, however, have a harmful impact on the survival and growth prospects of service firms. Service failure thus calls for remedial action, better known as service recovery. A variety of remedies have been proposed over the years. These remedies or tactics include fixing the problem, apologising, compensation (financial compensation or other forms of redress), a timely response and offering an explanation. A general theme in the service recovery literature is that ‘more is better’. The validity of this contention has, however, not been adequately considered. In other words, in a service recovery context, is more always better? Can service recovery be over-done (known as ‘over-benefitting’)? If so, what are the consequences? Based on the results of two field-type experimental studies involving a sample of 12 800 respondents the conclusion is that over-benefitting can be counter-productive. Over-benefitting consistently produced satisfaction scores lower than service recovery that was more moderate in nature.
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Service Cutter - A Structured Way to Service Decomposition

Service Cutter - A Structured Way to Service Decomposition

In the ordered graph in Figure 6.7 Girvan-Newman would remove the edges in ascending order. The graph is split into 4 clusters after 2 iterations. Figure 6.7: Girvan-Newman forms clusters by removing edges iteratively Girvan-Newman receives the number of clusters as a parameter and stops as soon as the desired number has been reached. One iteration might remove multiple edges with the maximum edge betweenness. One iteration can therefore produce numerous new clusters so that the requested number of clusters cannot be provided. In this case the gephi implementation looks for a result having the least difference in number of clusters, The Service Cutter displays a warning that the requested number of services could not be provided.
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Service- and recovery-oriented service provision in healthcare organisations

Service- and recovery-oriented service provision in healthcare organisations

The objective of the working paper is to provide a systematic basis to show which scientific research regarding the contribution of non-medical services to patient satisfaction as well as recovery of patients in healthcare organisations has been carried out. It is not about playing the services off against each other, but about the way the medical-care-therapeutic and the non-medical service provision can be combined expediently and how non-medical professions can support or even disburden medical service providers across the patient journey. Recommendations for practice and further research and development shall be derived based on these findings.
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Demokratiebaustein: Service Learning - Was ist das?

Demokratiebaustein: Service Learning - Was ist das?

Interdependenz voraus. Eine Reihe von Studien hat inzwischen nachgewiesen, dass Service Learning zu einem Abbau von Vorurteilen und zu einer positiveren Wahrneh- mung zwischen sozialen oder ethnischen Gruppen führt, die ansonsten nicht zusam- men-arbeiten oder kommunizieren. Das gemeinsame Ziel und der gemeinsame Arbeitsprozess lässt aus Fremden Partner werden.

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Denials of Service

Denials of Service

Worms such as Mydoom (2004) and many others have become milestones in this alternative history of the Internet service economy (read through its underbelly). However, the various cultural techniques of actually denying a service, are even more abundant, including smurfing and fraggling as ways to enforce bandwidth consumption, ICMP (Internet Control Message

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