The successive measurements ofsingle-molecule trajectories and TEM images of the same region in the sample in the last chapter provided evidence that the single-molecule trajectories directly map the alignment of the channels and the domain structure. The singleparticle trajectories presented here underline this, since (i) TEM and XRD data show that the pores are horizontal in the focal plane; (ii) the widths of regions A-E ex- ceed both the tracking error (small grey boxes around trajectory points) and the pore spacing, implying that part of the time the molecule is in different but aligned pores; (iii) surface features seen in AFM (Figure 7.6) images do not resemble in any way the structures seen by particle tracking (this excludes the movement of the molecules on distinct surface structures). Therefore the trajectories do indeed map out domains in the heart of the material. Furthermore, only the fast and randomly moving molecules were removed by washing the surface with water, demonstrates that the structured tra- jectories show molecules diffusing inside the hexagonal pores of the materials. In ad- dition, the observation of the molecular motion shows the accessibility of the channels and connectivity of the domains in an unprecedented way. There is no other method that can provide this kind of structural and dynamical information in such detail. In contrast to the highly structured motion of the molecules in the tubular surfactant micelles of the hexagonal phase, Figure 7.8d depicts an example ofa molecule in the lamellar phase. It diffuses randomly in two dimensions, as would be expected for molecules trapped in the surfactant layer between the silica planes.
This has been reported in detail in the literature, with the demonstration of both post processing and in situ techniques for achieving, inter alia, high-purity metallic deposits [71-73] and will not be discussed further here. Another important issue is throughput, which although lower than that of optical or EUV lithography, because of the sequential exposure, can be over- come by using a multibeam SEM  for high-speed parallel patterning, as already mentioned in Section 2.2.1. However, we limit the discussion here to the question of the maximum resolu- tion attainable using EBID. Some analytical and numerical calculations have been carried out with the aim of providing quantitative results. Utke  studied the relation between elec- tron flux, precursor dissociation, depletion and diffusion, deriving scaling laws that allow for the determination of EBID resolution as a function of the balance between these parame- ters. Silvis-Cividjian  developed a Monte Carlo model for EBID, specifically for high-resolution deposits, taking into account the energy and spatial distribution of SEs. This eluci- dates the crucial role played by the SEs generated in the deposit itself in determining the final deposit size, contrary to the clas- sical model, developed for SEM imaging, which is based purely on scattering in the substrate . This was further studied by van Dorp et al. [75,76] who performed experiments on very thin membranes with different precursor fluxes to verify the role of SEs in EBID. This work demonstrates the need for better modelling of the SE emission profile, as also carried out by Fowlkes et al.  and Smith et al.  to enable the predic- tion of 3D deposit geometry and growth rate as a function of the patterning parameters. The high resolution of the technique has been utilised in the fabrication of isolated structures, for exam- ple by Koops et al. , and by Frabboni et al.  who attempted to overcome the resolution limit due to the presence ofa bulk or thin substrate by growing suspended nanowires by EBID on the tip ofa tilted pillar, achieving a lateral resolution of 5 nm. Sub-10 nm gaps have been fabricated in devices in [55,81-83] using EBID directly, as a mask or in combination with a metallic layer to enable specific functionality. EBID has been used for several novel applications such as the deposition of magnetic nanostructures by Pai  and Kent  using STM combined with CVD. As another example, 5 nm GaN quantum dots were deposited by Crozier  by EBID from a specially tailored precursor resulting in high-quality uniform deposits on a thin film of Si/SiO 2 . Shimojo  demonstrated the deposition of self-standing nanorods, 10 nm in diameter, by electrons in the presence ofa chloride-containing precursor. Remarkably, the nanorods do not contain the precursor material but are instead formed from the substrate material.
(a) Direct sucrose gradient fractionation of conditioned medium from CD63-GFP transfected HEK293T cells without prior ultracentrifugation. X-axis: measured sucrose concentrations in collected fractions. GFP fluorescent particles of ca 50 –120 nm diameter (measured by FCS) co-fractionate with the EV marker Alix, peaking at ca 32 –36% sucrose. (b) Following UF on a 100 kDa MWCO membrane, enriched medium was loaded onto a Superdex200 column for size exclusion chromatography, with continuous UV detection (blue line). The total GFP fluorescence count rate was measured in each of the 60 fractions by FCS (upper panel, green line). Western blots for different exosomal markers were performed after pooling of 4 fractions each into samples A-L as indicated, omitting one fraction in between pools. CD63-GFP fusion protein bands (multiple glycosylated isoforms) versus truncated GFP bands detected on an anti-GFP western blot are indicated by arrows and asterisks, respectively. (c) Cryo-EM analysis of UF-SEC isolated CD63-GFP versus native EVs (representative images). Scaling bar: 100 nm. (d) Left panel, LC-MS proteomics of native versus CD63-GFP HEK293T EVs. Spectral counts for a subset of proteins from the list in Table S1 are shown. Right panel, Venn diagram comparing the top 500 proteins, ranked by total spectral count (left), or all proteins detected at a < 1% false discovery rate (FDR) (right). (e) Individual fractions from size exclusion chromatography of HEK293T CD63-GFP EVs in Figure 1(b ) were analysed by FCS with (red data points) and without (blue data points) vesicle disruption by the detergent NP40s. The translational diffusion time ( τ diff , upper panel left y-axis and conversion into hydrodynamic diameter,
been described here. In this study, the consideration of unsteady behavior of oxidizer diffusion in addition to quasi steadiness for fuel vapor diffusion yields good estimations for various droplet combustion characteristics such as droplet diameter-squared, flame diameter, flame stand-off ratio, gasification rate and influence of ambient oxygen concentration on flame structure. The analytical formulae are derived for heat and mass fluxes in the vicinity of evaporating droplet. The comparisons of modeling results with experimental data available in literature demonstrate the validity of the model. Although the model predicts the little bit higher values of flame diameter for n-heptane, the classical trend of flame diameter to increase and decrease from its maximum value with burning time is observed. Furthermore, the behavior of d 2 -t curve is similar with experimental observations for both n-heptane and ethanol. Although the model calculates ~7% higher value of gasification rate for n-heptane, it is shown that the predicted burning rates for both fuels are consistent with the reported measurements for small droplet sizes with no radiation effect. Finally, the effect of ambient oxygen concentration on flame structure is well described by the model. The presented analytical quasi-steady transient model is sufficient enough to describe the fundamental characteristics ofsingle droplet combustion. However, the assumption of quasi-steady behavior for fuel vapor diffusion and transient behavior for oxygen diffusion serves as a basis for subsequent development of analytical models to accommodate the effects of radiation, non-unity Lewis number and possibility of different chemical reactions during the combustion process. In the following chapter, the successful implementation of droplet combustion model under micro-gravity to the process of devolatilization of coal is elaborated in detail.
The calibration experiments were performed with asingle type of test aerosol. In Eqs. (1)–(5) spher- ical particle shape is assumed. Except for the single-ﬁbre efﬁciency of impaction deposition where the particle mass density is needed for determining the Stokes number, no further particle-speciﬁc data enter the respective equations. Since even for the nonspherical carbonaceous spark-discharge aerosol a close agreement between experimental and theoretical penetration values was achieved, no severe deviations from the obtained results are expected for other aerosol materials. Nevertheless, DS characterisation studies with further particular matter will be part of future research work. Concerning the type ofparticle diameter measured by the presented method, the entire calibration work is based on monodisperse parti- cles selected by a DMA. Although, the deposition process occurring in the DS is related to the deposition diameter, the calibration itself builds on the mobility diameter. Since for data inversion purposes the val- idated penetration functions are used, the particle size measured by the proposed technique is interpreted as being quasi-equivalent to the mobility diameter.
either case diffusive spreading remains dominant with respect to the Hubble drift after a sufﬁciently long time and the pulse widths grow without bound. Consequently, at long times the mixing process proceeds via the widening of the respective pulses. Both pulses eventually merge into asingle one, which still continues to widen. This is precisely what is seen in ﬁgure 8 , which displays the evolution of the theoretical propagator for two Lévy pulses with characteristic exponent μ = 3/4 spreading on a domain whose growth is controlled by a power-law factor with γ = 5/4 and t 0 = 10 3 . The ﬁgure also shows simulations results
where Q is the particle charge, λ is the screening length, and r is the distance between two particles. The screening normally comes from the redistribution of electrical charges (electrons and ions) in a plasma surrounding the particle. Fixed neutralizing background corresponds to the absence of screening and the pure Coulomb interaction potential, the limit known as the one-component plasma (OCP) model. Yukawa potential is considered as a reasonable starting point to model interactions in three-dimensional isotropic complex (dusty) plasmas and colloidal dispersions [ 5 – 8 ], although it is also well recognized that considerable deviations can
The flat-plate sampler used in this work was taken from the original flat-plate geometry used in Ott and Peters (2008). Briefly, the geometry contains two round brass plates (top- plate diameter of 203 mm, bottom plate 127 mm, thickness 1 mm each) mounted in a distance of 16 mm. Unlike the orig- inal design, the geometry of the current work has a cylindri- cal dip in the lower plate, which recedes the sampling sub- strate – a SEM stub with a thickness of 3.2 mm – from the airflow, thereby reducing the flow disturbance. A preliminary study with the modified and original setup side by side in a rural environment had shown that this recession approxi- mately doubles the collection efficiency for large particles. In this design, larger droplets (> 1 mm) are prevented by this setup from reaching the SEM stub surface at the local wind speeds (Ott and Peters, 2008). As described in Wagner and Leith (2001a, b), the main triggers for particle deposition on the substrates for this sampler are diffusion, gravity settling and turbulent inertial forces, of which only the latter two are relevant in our study.
First, the cells were infected at the indicated MOIs in 250 µL of infection medium. During the first hour of incubation, the dish was rocked to keep the monolayer moist and to distribute viruses evenly. The volume of the infection medium was then increased to 2 mL and cells were incubated for another 1.5 h. After washing with 1 mL of PBS, cells were trypsinized with 500 µL of “1x” trypsin (section 3.1.1.) for 10-15 min. During these 10-15 min, we carefully knocked the dish to accelerate the detachment of cells from the surface of the dish and put back the dish into the incubator as quickly as possible. This was repeated two to three times during the 10-15 min of trypsinization to ensure that all cells have detached. The following steps were also quickly conducted to avoid that the cells cool down to room temperature: (i) trypsinization was stopped using 500 µL of cell cultivation media (containing 10% FCS), (ii) the cell suspension was then carefully homogenized by pipetting, (iii) the cell suspension was serially diluted in pre-warmed (37°C) infection media, (iv) subsequently, 50 µL of the diluted cell suspension (concentration: one cell per 50 µL) were quickly added to each well ofa pre- warmed 384-well plate (Greiner, #781901). For the latter step (iv), we used a small plastic tub to facilitate quick pipetting (<1 min) of the cell suspension (using an electronic multichannel/multistep pipet) into the pre-warmed 384-well plate. The plate was then quickly transferred into the incubator. The 384-well plates were incubated until the indicated hours post infection (hpi). Afterwards, we identified single cells in individual wells by phase-contrast microscopy using the 5x magnification. In doing so, the whole plate could be screened in approx. one hour.
1. Purity of He: The oxygen and moisture contents of the He used were checked, since they may influence the diffusion in oxide systems 5. The 0 2 content, analyz ed by using the MINOXO indicator (Engelhard Ind., Newark, U.S.A.), was less than 5 ppm. Also, the coiled tungsten heater would have burned when the He had contained more than 0.003% of oxygen. The moisture content was checked by the ordinary dew point method and was less than 3 ppm, the dew point being below
Diese Arbeit berichtet über Experimente mit Verschränkung zwischen einem einzelnen Rubidium Atom und einem einzelnen Photon. Das Atom wird in einer optischen Falle gehalten, wo es exakt lokalisiert ist und sein interner Zustand mit Laserpulsen manipuliert werden kann. Zur Erzeugung der Verschränkung wird das Atom optisch in ein kurzlebiges höheres Niveau angeregt, von wo aus es unter Ausstrahlung eines einzelnen Photons zurück in den Grundzustand fällt. Die Polarisation des emittierten Photons ist verschränkt mit dem Spin des Atoms. In dieser Arbeit wurden Methoden ent- wickelt, die Präparation und Analyse des Atom-Photon Zustandes mit hoher Genauigkeit erlauben. Um den Zustand für weitere Anwendungen verfügbar zu machen, mussten mehrere Probleme gelöst werden. Erstens ist der interne Zustand des Atoms empfindlich gegenüber äußeren Störungen, ins- besondere durch magnetische und elektromagnetische Felder. Um den Zustand des Atoms während des Experiments (welcher auf der Skala von Mikrosekunden abläuft) zu erhalten, wurde u. a. ein Sy- stem zur aktiven Stabilisierung der Magnetfelder entwickelt. Zweitens muss das vom Atom emittierte Photon zu einem anderen Ort übertragen werden, dabei soll sein Zustand erhalten bleiben. Für diesen Zweck wurde eine faseroptische Strecke von 300 Metern Länge aufgebaut. Wegen der mechanisch bedingten Doppelbrechung in der Faser, ändert sich der Polarisationszustand des Photons während der Übertragung. Deshalb wurde ein System zur aktiven Kompensation der Doppelbrechung entwor- fen und installiert. Um die Zuverlässigkeit der optischen Verbindung zu bestätigen, wurde das vom Atom emittierte Photon übertragen und Verschränkung nachgewiesen.
The same technique can also be used for a spatially resolved control of the Hamil- tonian parameters. One immediate application is the flexible creation of potential landscapes [169, 170]. This has a range of different applications, such as the study of transport through mesoscopic channels  or the study of persistent flow in toroidal traps . Investigations of Hubbard-type models could also benefit from such an approach. For example, engineering the local chemical potential could be used to create a box-shaped potential. In the long run, one could even imagine achieving local control over the nearest neighbor coupling or the on-site interaction to realize a situation where J/U varies spatially. With this, one could observe a cut in the Bose-Hubbard model along the J/U direction, in contrast to the usual situation ofa cut in the µ direction. It would be interesting to study proximity effects at the tip of the lobe transition similar to the ones described in Ref.  for the generic transition. In a second step, one could additionally implement time and space-dependent variations of J/U. With this, momentum- resolved lattice modulation spectroscopy might be feasible. To achieve this, one could vary J/U in a wave-like fashion to probe excitations with a certain wavelength. Given these possibilities, it is a natural step to implement single-site- and single- atom-resolved imaging and manipulation techniques for stongly interacting fermions in optical lattices [4–6]. In particular, a possible antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperatures should be directly detectable in asingle-site-resolved correlation function. Currently, major experimental efforts are being undertaken to achieve this goal, for example, using 40 K or 6 Li. One of the experimental challenges is achieving sufficient cooling during the imaging phase, because standard sub-Doppler cooling for these elements is not as efficient as for 87 Rb. However, recent advances in this respect might help to overcome this problem (see Ref.  and references therein). Finally, the regular, almost defect-free arrangement of atoms in the deep Mott- insulating limit combined with single-site addressing might be a promising setup for quantum computing. As a next step, one would like to implement single-site- resolved, arbitrary qubit-rotations, in addition to π-pulses . Two-qubit gates could be based on Rydberg interactions, as already demonstrated in optical tweezers [175, 176], or on local collisional interactions . Another route might be one-way quantum computing [178, 179] based on a resource state that can be created with a global entanglement operation [180, 181]. For this, the single-site-resolved readout of the atomic spin state without detecting the remainder of the system is a prerequisite, which is a technique that is still to be demonstrated.
During the DC3 campaign, the Falcon encountered biomass burning (BB) layers from several wildfires (see Table 3 and Table 5). Most flight patterns were planned for measuring thunderstorms, but due to the abundance of forest fires, layers containing BB aerosol were often encountered during ascent or descent at the beginning and end of the flights. To demonstrate the characteristics of BB layers at different altitudes, two case studies are shown here. The first case study, June 11, 2012 in chapter 4.1, gives an impression of typical BB layers in the free troposphere. On that day, the highest rBC mass concentrations in the middle troposphere were measured, exceeding 1 µg/m³ at 7 km altitude. This case was also chosen because a coordinated flight between Falcon and DC-8 was conducted on that day, which provides additional data to the Falcon data set. The second case study, June 17, 2012, was selected to represent an example for an upper tropospheric BB layer, measured at 11 km altitude. The situation on this day gave a great opportunity to study the transport mechanisms of an upper tropospheric BB layer in detail as the BB layer was only about one day old when encountered. The chapter continues with an overview of all BB layers measured by the Falcon during DC3 in May and June 2012, focusing on a detailed analysis of the rBC particle properties like mass size distribution and mixing sate. Wildfires emit not only black carbon, but also a wider range of other particle types and trace gases. Here, coarse mode aerosol as a proxy for dust is shown (section 4.4.1). Dust particles can affect the optical properties of aerosol layers due to their large size, which can influence the retrieval of black carbon mass from sun photometer measurements (e.g. Koike et al., 2014), and are considered as efficient ice nuclei (e.g. Gonzi et al., 2011). CO as a tracer for inefficient combustion provides valuable insights into processes that involve cloud processing and wet removal as it is insoluble and survives these processes more or less unchanged. Particles however often undergo strong changes in the same processes. The rBC/CO ratio is therefore a good indicator for such processes and is discussed in section 4.4.2. The last part of this chapter, section 4.5, treats specifically the upper tropospheric BB layers, their extent, transport pathways into the upper troposphere, and their mixing into the UTLS region.
for an experimentally determined isotope depth proﬁle and the corresponding ﬁt is given in Fig. 3.
For the determination of diﬀusivities samples were used where the tracer signiﬁcantly (at least 50 nm) penetrated into the single crystal (see Table 1). This was done in order to minimize possible ﬁtting errors, which may result from low diﬀusion lengths. An overview on the results of the ﬁtting procedures for all measurements is given in Table 1. It illustrates that no time dependence of diﬀusivities can be observed within error limits. An additional experiment was carried out, where asingle crystal was pre-annealed at 1223 K (950 1C) for 12 h before tracer deposition and afterwards diﬀusion annealed for 61.4 h at 523 K (250 1C). The deter- mined diﬀusivity of 2.2 10 20 m 2
Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), commonly denoted bioaerosols, are a diverse subset of aerosols of biological origin, including both viable and non-viable agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungal spores, algae, pollen, and decaying biomass, spanning a broad range of sizes from a few nanometers (e.g., proteins) to hundreds of micrometers (e.g., pollen) (e.g., Andreae and Crutzen, 1997; Després et al., 2012b; Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., n.d.; Gregory, 1978; Madelin, 1994; Simoneit and Mazurek, 1982). A detailed description of PBAP classes found in the atmosphere is given elsewhere (Després et al., 2012 and references therein). Coarse mode (> 1 µm) PBAP fractions vary substantially within different geospatial environments (e.g., ~30 % in rural/urban air, up to ~80 % in a tropical rain forest environment), nevertheless, represent only a minor fraction of the total aerosol load in the atmosphere on a global scale (e.g., Després et al., 2012 and references therein; Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2016 and references therein; Hock et al., 2008; Huffman et al., 2013; Jaenicke, 2005; Monks et al., 2009; Pöschl et al., 2010). However, on local and regional scales, their potential influence on (i) aerosol-cloud interactions, (ii) health aspects, and (iii) spread of organisms has led to a growing interest in the scientific community (e.g., Després et al., 2012; Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al., 2016; Pöschl, 2005; Šantl-Temkiv et al., 2019; Yao, 2018). In this regard, PBAPs are able to influence the formation and development of clouds and precipitation, be pathogens and/or strong allergens, and impact the biodiversity of ecological systems due to long-range transport (e.g., Brown and Hovmøller, 2002; Despres et al., 2007; Kellogg and Griffin, 2006; Lacey and Dutkiewicz, 1994; Lighthart and Stetzenbach, 1994; Möhler et al., 2007; Morris et al., 2004; Pöschl and Shiraiwa, 2015; Reinmuth-Selzle et al., 2017; Schnell and Vali, 1976, 1972; Sofiev et al., 2006).
Further cost reductions compared to current solar tower technologies like molten salt can be achieved by using ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium. The principle of direct absorption receivers using ceramic particles as heat transfer medium has been investigated since the 1980`s in the USA by Sandia and has been identified as one option to meet the SunShot goal of 6 $c/kWh . Cost reductions are possible thanks to the application of more efficient turbines, higher storage densities and lower component costs. The technology allows also the supply of high temperature heat for industrial applications or fuel production [2, 3] and combined heat and power.
This is a novel up to date book in a new and thrilling clinical and research ﬁeld, edited and written by neurora- diologic experts.
After a comprehensive review of the underlying physics and the anatomy of supratentorial white matter tracts and their organization, the editors present chapters about ima- ging of the brain during the ﬁrst 2 years of life (development and aging changes), before addressing the aforementioned main ﬁelds of brain pathology—not without dedicating a separate chapter to the spine and spinal cord diseases.
We present calculations of two-pion and two-kaon correlation functions in relativistic heavy ion collisions from a relativistic transport model that includes explicitly a first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas. We compare the obtained correlation radii with recent data from RHIC. The predicted R side radii agree