Paper as a key information medium. The analysis shows that paper is still a key in- formation medium in knowledgework. This has several reasons. First, paper docu- ments can be very easily navigated with both hands. Second, they can be easily and very flexibly annotated with a pen. Our questionnaire-based study with more than 400 students showed that more than three quarters of them use only pen and pa- per for annotating lecture handouts, even though the large majority owns a laptop. An analysis of more than thousand annotations made by students in a university seminar found that the use of a keyboard seems to constrain the annotation pro- cess. In average, participants using pen and paper made more than twice as much annotations than participants using an annotation tool for textual annotations on a laptop. A third quality of paper is the fact that paper embodies information. This provides for organizing and structuring information by arranging documents the physical space. Moreover, paper affords to seamlessly interweave multiple activi- ties at a time, for example reading with writing. This heavily draws on the intuitive and two-handed interaction as well as on the concurrent use of many display sur- faces. Finally, paper is highly mobile and supports various forms of implicit and explicit collaboration as well as mutual awareness in co-located settings. Due to these affordances, paper efficiently supports reading documents, processes of plan- ning and thinking as well as collaboration and organizational communication – all highly relevant processes forknowledgework.
The KDC developed in this thesis is described in Chapter 3 on page 41. Therefore, requirements for monitoring MCPSs (cf. Section 3.1), characteristics of the KDC (cf. Section 3.2), and a relation between key challenges for monitoring MCPSs (cf. Section 1.3) and the KDC characteristics have been identified. In addition, a widely adopted assumption that data streams should not be stored entirely has been dis- cussed (cf. Section 3.4.1). Based on this discussion, a storage-aware stream model (cf. Section 3.4.2) which extends the commonly used stream model (cf. Section 2.6.1) has been presented. Also, training methods have been divided into online, offline, and hybrid training methods (cf. Section 3.4.3). The KDC comprises an online and an offline subcycle. The online subcycle refers to KDDS where online monitoring (cf. Section 2.10.2) is applied in an automatic and real-time manner. The offline subcycle refers to KDD where offline monitoring (cf. Section 2.10.2) is applied for semi-automatic and long-term analysis. Moreover, twelve processing steps have been identified for the KDC (cf. Section 3.5). These include six processing steps for the online subcycle (cf. Section 3.5.1) and six processing steps for the offline subcycle (cf. Section 3.5.2). These processing steps have been assigned to existing concepts which are known from literature. Finally, the aforementioned related work, which includes the MOA data stream classification cycle (cf. Section 2.7), expert systems (cf. Sec- tion 2.8), and the MAPE-K reference model (cf. Section 2.9), have been compared with the KDC. As a result, the existing approaches entail deficits for monitoring MCPSs, while the KDC attempts to eliminate these deficits (cf. Section 3.2) and to provide an appropriate monitoring approach for monitoring MCPSs.
Based on the above the following proposition is developed:
P2. Knowledgework is multidimensional in nature. Within each dimension, there is wide variation in the essence of knowledge, level of working routines and standards, and persons own role in work.
Margaryan et al. (2011) state that one reason why knowledgeworkconcepts and typologies are difficult to apply tend to be conceptual rather than empirical, as they are difficult to fit into real-world contexts. Additionally, the fact that knowledgework is a spectrum more so than a rigid concept is clear when examining different research about knowledgework. Some researchers (e.g. Ramirez & Steudel, 2008; Dahoiee et al., 2011) have presented knowledgework as a continuum, where the basic assumption is that all jobs can be represented by this continuum. The challenge of these continuums is that they must include dimensions that are relevant to all types of work. For example, in Ramirez and Steudel (2008), one aspect of the continuum is physical effort required, but we challenge the relevancy of this factor in real knowledgework. Because of this, we have synthesized various aspects of the continuum based on earlier studies defining knowledgework (Drucker, 1969; Iivari & Linger, 1999; Davenport, 2005; May, 2005; Pyöriä, 2005; Aarons et al., 2006; Ramirez & Steudel, 2008; Paton, 2009; Dahoiee et al., 2011; Margaryan et al., 2011; Staats et al., 2011). By understanding knowledgework as a continuum comprised of different dimensions (Table 2), we can comprehend what type of aspects knowledgework may include.
Although both resilience and CSE are concepts dealing with people that are equipped with the abilities to function well at work, even if situations are getting difficult, the two concepts differ in a number of points. First of all, both concepts deal with emotions and affect in different ways. While CSE includes emotional stability, resilience is related to emotional control. One could say, that people high on CSE focus on the outcome of being emotional stable, people high on resilience focus on the process of regulating their emotions – either positive or negative. Therefore, being able to reduce negative effects of problematic situations for people high on CSE is easier because their emotions show fewer alternations. Moreover, emotional stability is characterized by the ability to quickly overcome negative emotions and experience more positive than negative emotions (Hay & Ashman, 2003). If a person has high levels of positive emotions, it is less likely that these emotions will drop substantially to a negative level. On the other hand, people high on resilience are better able to regulate their emotions. Other than people high on CSE, who show less reactivity to everyday occurrences (Johnson, Rosen & Levy, 2008), resilient people experience the full range of emotions (Cohn, Fredrickson, Brown, Mikels, & Conway, 2009). Although resilient individuals may experience short-term dysregulation in their emotional and physical well-being (Carver, 1998; Ong, Bisconti, Bergman, & Wallace, 2006), their reactions to a potential traumatic event tend to be relatively brief and usually do not affect their functioning to a signiﬁcant degree (Westphal & Bonanno, 2007). In situations when negative emotions are experienced, these individuals are able to apply the appropriate strategies to down- regulate unpleasant feelings and therefore maintain a normal level of functioning (Tugade & Fredrickson, 2004). Moreover, the ability to experience positive as well as negative emotions seems to be independent of a current situation. That is, even in highly stressful events, resilient individuals have the capacity to experience positive emotions (Coifman, Bonanno & Rafaeli, 2007).
Results from two iterative evaluations gave first insights into how users treat and use mul- tiple displays simultaneously and how this affects the interaction with videos. (1) Results from single-user evaluation show that users can flexibly organize and structure videos in physical space while generating a good overview of multiple videos. They thereby flex- ibly attribute three different functional roles to paper-like displays: information source, working display, and information container. We have also characterized different mental models and strategies of users ("materializers" vs. "virtualizers") to cope with a restricted number of displays. (2) Multi-user evaluation results indicate that CoPaperVideo is suit- able for collaborative use. CoPaperVideo allows users to work individually as well as in a group while allowing to transition between coupling styles in a similar way as with paper documents. Furthermore, participants could flexibly exchange information and synchronize their working state in a similar way as they do with paper documents. We have developed a simulation environment to support spatial interaction with multiple spatially aware displays. Even though our simulation environment allows multiple users to interact with multiple paper-like displays, our evaluation results for the collaborative scenario is limited to three groups of three users. Further quantitative evaluations are needed to draw general conclusions about a user’s mental model and interaction patterns. In this chapter, we have presented the following:
A common starting point is the compositing process for the digital interface: Usually, the different windows are rendered opaque and hence wholly hide any other window that is underneath. This is no problem if the user is focused on the content displayed in the topmost window(s) – however, with the advent of complex applications that use stay-on-top tool palettes, screen space becomes limited and the actual content is occluded by the palette windows. As a result, the use of transparency for such overlay windows has been explored [Harrison and Vicente, 1996; Harrison et al., 1995], and it was shown that transparency is to a certain degree beneficial for awareness of the underlying content without affecting user performance when interacting with a menu. However, for transparency values greater than about 50%, the user performance starts to degrade due to visual interference between the menu and the underlying content. This is also dependent on the structure and texture of the menu (text or icons) as well as the background (text, solid color, structured color, etc.). To address these issues, Baudisch and Gutwin  developed a multiblending technique that combines different compositing methods such as embossing, alpha blending, or cropping depending on the visual feature. The resulting glass-style palette windows could significantly reduce the error rates compared to alpha blending-based approaches while at the same time providing a better visual reproduction of the occluded content.
Abstract: This study involves an unnamed offshore export terminal in Australia. The berth is more than 40 years old, and consists of a series of concrete gravity caisson structures which support a steel superstructure and shiploader. The offshore facilities were originally designed to Working Stress principles, for a lower average recurrence interval event and a smaller maximum wave than is now recommended under modern Ultimate Limit State standards. A large-scale physical modelling study was undertaken to assess the design wave climate, the immunity of the berth, and potential structural mitigation measures. The 1:35 scale model structures were tested in several configurations for extreme wave conditions associated with return periods up to 1,000 years and for various incident wave headings. A large amount of high quality information on waves, water levels, forces, moments, pressures, and wave-structure interaction was obtained to inform the assessment of wave immunity and guide the design of reinforcement to mitigate higher wave loads.
I have already had dinner (+> ‘today’; cf. Carston 2002 “explicatures”; Bach 1994 “implicitures”). Another
variety of implications and inferences that are fairly independent of context are generalized implicatures of default meanings (Levinson 2000), e.g., some people came (+> ‘not all’), or uses of indefinite articles to be understood as non-recognitional forms like in Peter met a woman in NY (+> ‘not his wife’). These phenomena and others (like scalar implicatures, e.g., Horn 1989) show that inferences arise not only from flouting Gricean maxims (cf. Grice 1975), but also from communicating in keeping with the maxims. In the classic treatment of inferences, a two-step approach was used to analyze non-literal meaning, supposing that literal meaning is recovered first before non-literal meaning that relies on inferences is computed. Psycholinguistic studies, however, have shown that the more immediate default interpretation often is not the literal meaning (cf. Gibbs 1994 on understanding figurative language and indirect speech acts; but see Noveck and Sperber 2007 on contrary findings for generalized implicatures). While these latter approaches of experimental pragmatics and relevance theory explicitly treat inferences as cognitive processes, Grice (1975) and Neo-Griceans (Levinson 2000) derive them from principles of rational cooperation. A different understanding of the ontology of inferences, which is more akin to the methodology of conversation analysis, is to consider them within the framework of the socio-normative accountability of meanings, which speakers can be held accountable for in discourse (Haugh 2013, 2015). Inferences in interaction matter well beyond implicatures, explicatures, etc., because the “inferential substrate” (Haugh 2017) in social interaction concerns all sorts of attributions of participants’ motives, knowledge, common ground, identity claims, self- and other-positioning, etc., which can be associated with their discursive actions. Inferences therefore permanently matter to interactive practice, although they only rarely become exposed by actions which address them as such and treat them as consequential for the interactional exchange (Haugh 2017).
the turntable. D’Groove [Beamish et al., 2004] is a force feedback-enabled turntable to explore new ways of manipulating music. The turntable has distinct marks for the four beats of a bar, and its rotation speed is coupled to the song tempo such that the beat marks form a spatial landmark while beatmatch- ing two songs. A motorized slider indicates the progres- sion of the track over time and allows to control the play- back position. Among the force feedback modulations im- plemented are a bump-for-beats mode providing a physical sensation of each beat, and a resistance mode that makes it harder to move the record “when it is playing an area of high-energy music”. The system conveys additional track information over the haptic channel, which supports local in-track navigation. However, D’Groove introduces new turntable hardware with new interaction techniques, and it does not provide an at-a-glance overview of the track struc- ture.
conjunction with circular spatial auditory menus. In chapter 3 we analyze a highly specialized haptic inter- face, the DJ turntable, and augment it with a visual overlay that shows additional information on the track currently playing directly on the vinyl record. In the era of vinyl records, DJs created a new form of art around the manip- ulation of the record and the turntable. Instead of sim- ply playing the record from start to end, they spin it back and forth, adjust playback speed, and combine two paral- lel tracks to form a new one. Mastering the art of scratch- ing takes years of practice, and when switching to digital media, the DJs do not want to start over. Digital vinyl systems use a special vinyl record to control audio play- back on a computer, thereby allowing the DJ to build on his skills and take advantage of digital media playback and storage. However, the special control record does not pro- vide the same amount of visual information as the tradi- tional ones, thus spatially separating visualization and con- trol. By building an augmented DJ turntable, we bring back these visual cues, creating an embodied unit for rich haptic audio playback control.
"For the past 10 years, demands for recognition of European Muslims’ legal needs have been interpreted as the failure of integration policies or as threats to democratic values, and more specifically to gender equality. This paper seeks to characterize the nature of these demands by studying the gender dynamics, personal motivations and values that guide them. Based on ethnographic research conducted in several British shariah councils in 2009 and 2012, this paper interrogates issues of authority and knowledge claims in Islamic legal practice in contemporary England. Moving away from the methodological individualism that dominates in debates on multiculturalism, this paper offers a contextualised, empirically grounded approach to the
cardiorespiratory. Method: this is a descriptive study, exploratory and quantitative sample 144 nursing students of João Pessoa, Paraíba. Applied a questionnaire aimed at setembro - outubro 2011, analyzed by descriptive statistics: frequency and percentage. Results: we identified the following gaps: location of cardiac auscultation 74 (51.4); parameters relating to the normorcadia and bradipnéia 112 (77.8); normal values for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure 133 (92.4); care in checking the 83 blood pressure (57.6); sounds and features of chest percussion 108 (75); difference in blood pressure in both upper limbs 88 (61.1). Conclusion: the physical examination cardiorespiratory if not configures, as reality of nursing students, there is disruption in the knowledge that influence the determinants of health of patients. Descriptors: Physical examination, Knowledge, Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system.
Abstract: Successful managers focus their attention on factors that are critical in establishing and maintaining an organisation’s competitive edge. The knowledge and skill of employees is one of those factors and it requires proactive management attention. Conceptually, this is achieved through Knowledge Management, a term that has existed in the mainstream of business lexicon for quite some time. Despite this, there is the conspicuous absence of a common understanding of the term that frustrates many managers. Studies have clearly established that there are three interdependent and complementary pillars that support the concept of Knowledge Management. These are Organisational Learning Management (OLM), Organisational Knowledge Management (OKM) and Intellectual Capital Management (ICM). OLM, which has so far dominated both academic and practitioner debate, concerns itself with the problem of capturing, organising and retrieving explicit knowledge, or information, and has led to the simplistic misconception that Knowledge Management only involves the capture, or downloading, of the content of employees’ minds. ICM is dominated by those particularly interested in defining key performance indicators that will measure the impact and the benefits of applying knowledge management practices. If management requires measurement this is an essential task but it can only be undertaken once an organisation has clearly established the strategy-structure-process parameters to ensure it accesses, creates and embeds the knowledge that it needs...the OKM pillar of knowledge management. This paper looks more deeply at this pillar and in particular the lack of a general integrative approach to enhancing organisational performance in this key strategic area. It considers to what extent such an approach may help an organisation more effectively manage its most relevant source of competitive advantage. With a greater awareness of the various factors allied to the managing and leveraging of human oriented and system oriented knowledge assets, some proposals are put forward to assist in developing or redefining an organisation’s intellectual capital reporting models in search of a planning, control and performance measurement system that accounts for the management of an organisation's intellectual assets.
Acceptance is also named as key requirement for successful employer branding (Thunig, 2015). Especially in organizations with various branches and several different stakehold- ers, so called education marketing activities, including structured management pro- cesses, guidelines, strategies, trainings, evaluation and control are suggested to handle possible difficulties, problems with alignment or resistance (Christiaans, 2012). Niels Becker from the Techniker Krankenkasse for example explained that a detailed analysis including all stakeholders had been carried out in order to create a company-wide ac- cepted strategy. He names acceptance and a positive attitude towards the employer brand as important effect of their employer branding measures (Kriegler, 2015). Russell and Brannan (2016) offer similar insights in the analysis of their empirical case. The status as trusted, respected employer and even being a member of “Best Companies to WorkFor”-rankings is especially emphasized in the external employer brand commu- nication of the CollinaTrade company. Job advertisements also mainly focus on the core brand values and the mission statement, often without even naming actual specific re- quirements for the position (Russell & Brannan, 2016).
The scenario is based on a real architecture firm conducting projects for apart- ment construction, industrial construction, and commercial construction. We describe both typical activities for organizational knowledgework in terms of traditional business processes and activities of individual knowledgework. The work in the architecture firm is highly knowledge oriented as the acquisition and application of knowledge plays a crucial role in planing and conducting con- struction projects. New planning techniques, changed regulations and framework directives, new tools, continuously changing project partners, high complexity of the tasks, and the large amount of information to be processed requires (re- )evaluation of the course of action for each new construction project. Never- theless, one finds some organizational business processes that are central to the business operations of the architecture firm and that are repeated with each project. Figure 1 depicts in Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN)  an excerpt of typical steps in the process of planing an apartment construction. Subsequently to the activity Initiate construction project (a) are the activities Pre- pare building application (b) and File building application (c). The activities are strictly separated from each other and are executed in a determined, sequential order. The resource (d) defines the input and output documents of an activity. In the case of the activity Prepare building application these documents are, e.g., the building application form and all required attachments. The activity Pre- pare building application is associated with the role Construction draftsman (e), whereas the other activities are conducted by roles like Construction manager, Structural engineer, or Planner. Branches are used to represent parallel activi- ties (f) and conditions (g). Besides the processes within the company also the communication with external project partners is explicitly captured (h).
There is a variety of knowledge taxonomies in literature and praxis, and several representative ones are introduced here: (i) one of the most cited taxonomies is the distinction of tacit and explicit knowledge (Polanyi, 1964). Tacit knowledge refers to the awareness of things characterized by subjective, cognitive, experiential, and taking long to learn, involving expertise and high level skills. While explicit knowledge is the knowledge that has been documented and codified which can be readily transmitted to others and do not need interpretation. It is objective, technical, rational, formalized, and capable of being clearly stated. Traditionally organizations merely recognized and managed explicit knowledge; (ii) general knowledge, specific knowledge, and expert knowledge are concluded as a kind of knowledge taxonomy (Schank & Abelson, 1977). General knowledge is applicable to a wide variety of tasks, including information about or interpretation of human intention, disposition, and relationships; specific knowledge describes the knowledge which is applicable to all tasks in a particular situation; expert knowledge is factual knowledge as an extensive database about life matters; (iii) Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995) distinguish technical knowledge from cognitive knowledge to extend Polanyi’s opinions to a more “practical” stage. Technical knowledge represents “knowledge-how” and cognitive knowledge refers mental models. In addition, three distinct types of organizational knowledge including systemic, socio-political, and strategic knowledge are identified (Evans & Easterby-Smith, 2001). Consequently, it should be noted that knowledge taxonomy is not unified and it can be determined according to the real context.
2. The pyramidal position expresses the definition of every concept: the left-side letter is the “generic” intension of the (highest) genius or category (aristotelian “genus proximum”) in every included lower concept. The right- side letter is the aristotelian “differentia specifica”. Nota bene: axiomatic categories become definable by the induced common intensions of their immediate subspecies. Undefined categories can’t be genuine concepts!
In the study, participants stated that the shame of nescience is one of the major reasons for information retrieval using personal devices in all of the discussed situations. This includes not only formal situa- tions but also informal talk with friends. P4 said: “If I think that it’s too easy or I don’t listen to something, I won’t ask anybody because it’s embarrassing”, P7 added: “I don’t ask other people because of shyness”. As another reason, participants remembered multiple situ- ations in which fast and immediate retrieval of relevant information was necessary for the continuation of the conversation. Participants stated that breaks during the conversation, caused by the necessity for information retrieval, were “really upsetting” (P4). Additionally, the interviews showed that information should stay available for immedi- ate re-retrieval as the same information might be needed again within short time frames.