Nach oben pdf The economic burden of air pollution impact on health of Warsaw population

The economic burden of air pollution impact on health of Warsaw population

The economic burden of air pollution impact on health of Warsaw population

In order to assess the unit cost of premature mortality three approaches were taken into consideration – human capital approach, VSL and VOLY. Finally, VSL approach, derived from the WTP for mortality risk reduction, was chosen. The thorough search was performed to find the best assessment of VSL for Warsaw population and as a result four studies were selected (cf. Table 2). The study of Miller (2000) was a regression-based estimate derived from credible studies across 13 countries and adjusted to other countries basing on their GDP. OECD recommendation (2012) concerned one value for all EU-27 countries, adjusted with income (in terms of PPP-adjusted GDP per capita). There were also two studies conducted among the Polish population (Dziegielewska and Mendelsohn, 2005) and the Warsaw population (Giergiczny, 2006). Despite some problems with an external scope test, the value of WTP elicited by CVM presented by Giergiczny (2006) was applied. The VSL derived from the assessed WTP amounted to 1,9 Mio PLN, which is fivefold less than OECD recommendation. The VSL based on the WTP presented by Dziegielewska and Mendelsohn (2005) was however much lower. There may be several reasons for this fact, inter alia, the study of Giergiczny (2006) was conducted among Warsaw citizens (and not nation-wide), who are on average wealthier than the rest of the Polish society. Another reason is that the study of Dziegielewska and Mendelsohn (2005) estimated WTP to reduce death risk due to air pollution and the understanding of air-pollution related threats may not be sufficient in Poland. Last but not least, in cities people are generally better educated and education plays an important role in the determination of the height of WTP.
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When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

– Robert S. Huff, California State Senate Republican Leader (January 13, 2014) 1. Introduction In 1951, the International Labour Organization (ILO) set up the Committee on Freedom of As- sociation (CFA). Shortly after its inception, the CFA declared strike action to be a fundamental right of organized labor (Gernigon et al., 1998; Gross, 1999). Yet, where workers providing essential public services are concerned, the right to strike is often limited or even denied by national laws or regulations. The most common restriction is a ban on strikes by armed forces, policemen and firefighters, for the legitimate reason that those walkouts would endanger the life, personal safety or health of the whole or parts of the population. 1 But is that true of strikes by public transit workers? Two extreme positions shape answers to this question. According to the ILO, public transportation does not constitute an essential public service (ILO, 2006, para. 587). Thus, some commentators argue that strikes by transit workers mainly pose an eco- nomic threat, which—being the very essence of industrial action—does not justify a strike ban (Swearengen, 2010). Policy-makers, by contrast, commonly regard mass transit as an essential public service, which segues into the wider concern that major cities and their inhabitants are highly vulnerable to transit strikes. 2 This is exemplified by attempts in numerous countries to also exclude transit workers from the right to strike.
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Impact of air pollution exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation and its association with socio-economic status

Impact of air pollution exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation and its association with socio-economic status

In recent years, air pollution exposure has been also linked to cancer development, includ- ing lung cancer [Soberanes et al., 2012, Zhao et al., 2013, Raaschou-Nielsen et al., 2013]. Pathophysiological mechanisms like inflammation and oxidative stress have been found to constitute plausible mediators but despite recent conclusion regarding the strength and the consistency of this scientific evidence, the extent to which these systematic effects are elicited by ambient pollution and which biological pathways are stimulated is still undetermined and under debate [Peters, 2012]. Therefore, studies that are helping to enlighten and detail the systemic impact of ambient particles need to take into account and substantiate the multi-organ involvement in response to inhalation of particulate matter. Moreover, deepening the knowledge regarding the genome, it has become more evident that genetics alone is not sufficient to explain the risk of common diseases. There are, in fact, non-genetic and extra-genetic factors that play an important role. Focusing on cardiovascular disease, Baccarelli et al. [Baccarelli et al., 2010] produced a clear conceptual model of how the different worlds influence each other. Epigenetics lies in the middle being influenced by genomics but also by the environment and these three elements combine for subclinical diseases that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Therefore it is no surprise to observe how epigenetics has arisen in the recent year as a key research area in both biomedicine and public health. A first and sharp definition of epigenetics was given by Sir Conrad Waddington in 1942, who defined it as "the branch of biology which studies the causal interactions between genes and their products, which bring the phenotype into being" [Waddington, 2012]. Now we can define it as the heritable changes in phenotype and gene expression that are occurring without a change in the genomic sequence. In fact, the prefix "Epi" comes from ancient Greek and means "upon", "above", "on", "on top of", "over" and defines something that is happening on genetics, over genetics, referring to non- and extra-genetics mechanisms. The most understood epigenetic markers are DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA. In this work we will consider DNA methylation.
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The Impact of Air Pollution on Attributable Risks and Economic Costs of Hospitalization for Mental Disorders

The Impact of Air Pollution on Attributable Risks and Economic Costs of Hospitalization for Mental Disorders

analyzed in our models were air pollutants and meteorological factors. Other factors, such as socioeconomic conditions, and behavioral characteristics like smoking status(Lin et al., 2017) could also be considered in follow-up studies. Third, the economic burden calculated in this study tends to be a lower bound estimate of the real economic cost of HAs due to MDs, since this cost only accounts for those who came to hospital to seek care, while those who were not able to afford hospital bills or who didn’t have time were left out. Fourth, the economic cost in our results only included the direct medical expenses, further studies should try to figure out the direct non-medical costs and indirect costs(Xu et al., 2016a).
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The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

ozone) as 150 equivalent gasoline cars. 3 Hereafter, we refer to cars with “clean diesel” technology as cheating diesel cars. We exploit the dispersion of these cheating diesel cars across the United States as a natural ex- periment to measure the effect of car pollution on infant and child health. This natural experiment provides several unique features. First, it is typically difficult to infer causal effects from observed correlations of health and car pollution, as wealthier individuals tend to sort into less-polluted ar- eas and drive newer, less-polluting cars. The fast roll-out of cheating diesel cars provides us with plausibly exogenous variation in car pollution exposure across the entire socio-economic spectrum of the United States. Second, it is well established that people avoid known pollution, which can mute estimated impacts of air pollution on health (Neidell, 2009). Moderate pollution increases stemming from cheating diesel cars, a source unknown to the population, are less likely to induce avoidance behaviors, allowing us to cleanly estimate the full impact of pollution. Third, air pol- lution comes from a multitude of sources, making it difficult to identify contributions from cars, and it is measured coarsely with pollution monitors stationed only in a minority of U.S. counties. This implies low statistical power and potential attenuation bias for correlational studies of pollu- tion (Lleras-Muney, 2010). We use the universe of car registrations to track how cheating diesel
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Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance

Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance

dominate. Third, most cognitive tests in previous studies were administered to young cohorts, such as students (Ham, Zweig, and Avol 2014; Stafford 2015; Ebenstein, Lavy, and Roth 2016). It is not clear whether the findings inferred from these specific groups hold true for the population as a whole. The cognitive tests in our nationally representative sample cover nearly all ages above 10, which enable us to test if there is age heterogeneity in cognition. Fourth, most economic studies have been silent about gender gap in cognitive performance. We provide the first attempt to explicitly testing how air pollution may affect males differently from females and explain the potential mechanisms at work. Understanding the gender gap in cognitive performance as a result of environmental stressors may bear implications for gender equity in schooling and allocative efficiency in the labor market.
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When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

– Robert S. Huff, California State Senate Republican Leader (January 13, 2014) 1. Introduction In 1951, the International Labour Organization (ILO) set up the Committee on Freedom of As- sociation (CFA). Shortly after its inception, the CFA declared strike action to be a fundamental right of organized labor (Gernigon et al., 1998; Gross, 1999). Yet, where workers providing essential public services are concerned, the right to strike is often limited or even denied by national laws or regulations. The most common restriction is a ban on strikes by armed forces, policemen and firefighters, for the legitimate reason that those walkouts would endanger the life, personal safety or health of the whole or parts of the population. 1 But is that true of strikes by public transit workers? Two extreme positions shape answers to this question. According to the ILO, public transportation does not constitute an essential public service (ILO, 2006, para. 587). Thus, some commentators argue that strikes by transit workers mainly pose an eco- nomic threat, which—being the very essence of industrial action—does not justify a strike ban (Swearengen, 2010). Policy-makers, by contrast, commonly regard mass transit as an essential public service, which segues into the wider concern that major cities and their inhabitants are highly vulnerable to transit strikes. 2 This is exemplified by attempts in numerous countries to also exclude transit workers from the right to strike.
Mehr anzeigen

50 Mehr lesen

The Impact of Air Pollution on Attributable Risks and Economic Costs of Hospitalization for Mental Disorders

The Impact of Air Pollution on Attributable Risks and Economic Costs of Hospitalization for Mental Disorders

analyzed in our models were air pollutants and meteorological factors. Other factors, such as socioeconomic conditions, and behavioral characteristics like smoking status(Lin et al., 2017) could also be considered in follow-up studies. Third, the economic burden calculated in this study tends to be a lower bound estimate of the real economic cost of HAs due to MDs, since this cost only accounts for those who came to hospital to seek care, while those who were not able to afford hospital bills or who didn’t have time were left out. Fourth, the economic cost in our results only included the direct medical expenses, further studies should try to figure out the direct non-medical costs and indirect costs(Xu et al., 2016a).
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The impact of car pollution on infant and child health: Evidence from emissions cheating

The impact of car pollution on infant and child health: Evidence from emissions cheating

1 Introduction The impacts of car pollution and their optimal regulation are the subject of an ongoing and con- tentious academic and policy debate, both in the United States and around the world. Yet, little empirical evidence exists on the impacts of car exhaust on health outcomes. Although it is well established that air pollution has negative impacts on population health (Chay and Greenstone, 2003a,b; Currie and Neidell, 2005; Deryugina et al., 2019; Deschenes et al., 2017), the existing quasi-experimental evidence is largely based on measures of overall air pollution without identi- fying the contribution of car pollution. Two pioneering papers have studied the health impacts of car pollution on mothers residing next to highway toll stations and on infants sick enough to die in response to weekly traffic variation (Currie and Walker, 2011; Knittel et al., 2016), but these estimates might not be generalizable. Whether moderate levels of car pollution impact the health of the general population remains an open question. 1
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The Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions

The Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions

The Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on Hospital Admissions Massimo Filippini, Giuliano Masiero, and Sandro Steinbach Abstract Ambient air pollution is the environmental factor with the greatest impact on human health. Several epidemiological studies provide evidence for an association between ambient air pollution and human health. However, the recent economic literature has challenged the identification strategy used in these studies. This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion by investigating the association between ambient air pollution and morbidity using hospital admission data from Switzerland. Our identification strategy rests on the construction of geographically explicit pollution measures derived from a dispersion model that replicates atmospheric conditions and accounts for several emission sources. The reduced form estimates account for location and time fixed effects and show that ambient air pollution is strongly correlated with hospital admissions. In particular, we find that SO2 and NO2 are positively associated with admission rates for coronary artery and cerebrovascular diseases. As a robustness check, we adopt instrumental variable methods to account for the possible endogeneity of pollution measures. These results may contribute to a more accurate evaluation of future environmental policies aiming at a reduction of ambient air pollution exposure.
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Impact of the Clean Air Act on Air Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from South Korea

Impact of the Clean Air Act on Air Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from South Korea

Any opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and not those of IZA. Research published in this series may include views on policy, but IZA takes no institutional policy positions. The IZA research network is committed to the IZA Guiding Principles of Research Integrity. The IZA Institute of Labor Economics is an independent economic research institute that conducts research in labor economics and offers evidence-based policy advice on labor market issues. Supported by the Deutsche Post Foundation, IZA runs the world’s largest network of economists, whose research aims to provide answers to the global labor market challenges of our time. Our key objective is to build bridges between academic research, policymakers and society.
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Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance

Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance

dominate. Third, most cognitive tests in previous studies were administered to young cohorts, such as students (Ham, Zweig, and Avol 2014; Stafford 2015; Ebenstein, Lavy, and Roth 2016). It is not clear whether the findings inferred from these specific groups hold true for the population as a whole. The cognitive tests in our nationally representative sample cover nearly all ages above 10, which enable us to test if there is age heterogeneity in cognition. Fourth, most economic studies have been silent about gender gap in cognitive performance. We provide the first attempt to explicitly testing how air pollution may affect males differently from females and explain the potential mechanisms at work. Understanding the gender gap in cognitive performance as a result of environmental stressors may bear implications for gender equity in schooling and allocative efficiency in the labor market.
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The impact of burden sharing rules on the voluntary provision of public goods

The impact of burden sharing rules on the voluntary provision of public goods

14 5. Conclusions Forming institutions to secure the provision of global public goods is a complicated endeavor. In general, the success of a decentralized institution to provide a public good depends on two interlinked challenges: on the one hand, the institutional arrangements need to overcome free rider incentives. On the other hand, as soon as subjects are heterogeneous, any given institution has to cope with equity issues or equivalently the burden sharing of the total costs. In this paper, we tested different institutions with respect to their ability to succeed along these two dimensions. In particular, we investigate how burden sharing rules may impact the provision level of a public good that all agents voluntarily accept. We focus on different rule- based contribution mechanisms that are based on the principle of the smallest common denominator: all agents can suggest a minimum provision level of the public good that is allocated across agents according to some predetermined rule. The minimum of all proposals, i.e. the lowest common denominator, then creates a threshold for the own contribution. We introduced heterogeneity as our players differ with respect to their marginal benefit from the public good.
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The Effects of Exposure to Air Pollution on Subjective Well-being in China

The Effects of Exposure to Air Pollution on Subjective Well-being in China

5. Conclusion This paper estimates the impact of six air pollutants on long-term life satisfaction, short-term hedonic happiness, and depressive symptoms by matching various self- reported SWB measures in CFPS, a nationally representative survey, with daily air quality data according to the exact date and county of each interview. PM2.5 and PM10 are found to be negatively associated with hedonic happiness. For depressive symptoms, only PM2.5 matters. Other pollutants are not correlated with any of the three SWB measures. We also find some heterogenous effects. People who receive more education, reside in more polluted areas, or have young children are more sensitive to air pollution in terms of hedonic happiness.
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Impact of a company's dividend policy on the liquidity of shares listed on the Warsaw stock exchange

Impact of a company's dividend policy on the liquidity of shares listed on the Warsaw stock exchange

is denominated liquidity. These studies do not show all the interrelationships between the decisions on dividend payments and what happens to the shares of a company on the stock exchange. Dividend policy behavior of corporations operating in emerging markets is significantly different from the widely accepted dividend policy behavior of corporations operating in developed markets. As is evident the calculations failed to prove the thesis at the beginning of the study that there is a relationship between liquidity, expressed either by turnover or by the illiquidity measure (ILLIQ), and the decision to make a dividend payment. However, these calculations do show that there is no clear relationship between the liquidity and the amount paid as dividends. Unlike the empirical
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The Treaty of Warsaw: The Warsaw Pact Context

The Treaty of Warsaw: The Warsaw Pact Context

up to the point of German reunification.) 30 Although Gomulka was not informed about Bahr’s attempted contact until over a year later, other considerations, I believe, prevented Poland from considering negotia- tions with Bonn in early 1968. After all, Brandt publicly offered at the Nuremberg convention of the SPD in January 1968 “to respect or other- wise recognize” the Polish border until a German peace treaty; Gomulka certainly knew about Brandt’s speech. One likely reason why Poland did not enter into talks with Bonn was because Gomulka feared that if Poland wavered in its hard line, the Soviets, the GDR, and the other socialist states would have used it as an excuse to enter into their own negotiations with West Germany. Furthermore, maintaining Germany’s division was a higher priority for Gomulka in early 1968 than Bonn’s recognition of the Oder-Neisse Line. 31 The key to improving Polish-West German relations, Gomulka repeatedly told the Soviets, was not Bonn’s recognition of the Oder-Neisse Line, but its recognition of the GDR.
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The economic burden of vertigo and dizziness

The economic burden of vertigo and dizziness

Generally three main forms of vertigo, namely, peripheral vestibular, central vestibular, and non-vestibular forms can be differentiated (Mathieson, Darlington et al. 1999). The most common peripheral diagnosis is benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV), found to be prevalent in 9% of the general population (Kerrigan, Costigan et al. 2013) and 17.1% of the patients of a specialized tertiary vertigo clinic (Strupp, Dieterich et al. 2013). Central vestibular vertigo is caused by the dysfunction or injury of the central nervous system (CNS), such as multiple sclerosis, migraines, and acoustic neuromas (Foris and Dulebohn 2018). Other possible causes such as mental disorders and side effects from medications can lead to non-vestibular vertigo. Figure 1 (data from the German Centre for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (Strupp, Dieterich et al. 2013)) shows the frequency of diagnostic classifications amongst 17,718 vertigo patients of a dedicated tertiary care facility .
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The Lancet Commission on pollution and health

The Lancet Commission on pollution and health

families lack access to food, clothing, and shelter, they do not have the resources to support even a minimum level of health. This Section of the Commission report presents data documenting that pollution and pollution-related disease are concentrated among the poor and contribute to the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty. Pollution- related disease can result in lost income and increased health-care costs, thus imposing disproportionately great economic burdens on poor families and communities. 286 In children, early-life exposure to neurotoxic pollutants can impair cognitive function and diminish the ability to concentrate, further contributing to school failure and reducing lifetime earnings. In example, a long-term follow-up study 144 of children exposed to lead reported that an elevated blood lead concentration at age 11 years was associated with lower cognitive function and reduced socioeconomic status at age 38 years, with diminished IQ, and downward social mobility. Moreover, poverty can worsen health, for example, by forcing people to live in environments that make them ill, without decent shelter, clean water, or adequate sanitation. 287 When people live near polluting factories or downstream from hazardous waste sites, or when poor women have no alternative but to cook with traditional stoves in close quarters, or when children are forced to pick by hand through electronic waste to recover precious metals to sustain themselves and their families, 288 poverty can exacerbate poor health.
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Cardio-respiratory health of women exposed to household air pollution in rural Nepal

Cardio-respiratory health of women exposed to household air pollution in rural Nepal

The country saw the first ICS models distributed in the 1950s, but dissemination remained stagnant for many decades. Subsequent initiative from the Community Forest Development Program promoted prefabricated ceramic stoves and this was primarily driven to reduce firewood consumption and prevent deforestation. However, these stoves proved inappropriate as they often broke down during transport and as their free distribution did not impart any ownership to their users. Later, the 7 th national government plan (1985-90) formally incorporated the need for wide dissemination of ICS in the country. Over the years, several cookstove designs have evolved under different programs of AEPC. The most commonly used are mud-brick types, which are simple, cheap and assembled using local resources. More heat-efficient metal stoves are also available but are more expensive limiting their installation to only around 10 000 households in the high hills. (AEPC, 2013b) Around 715 000 households have installed mud type ICS, with or without chimney, throughout the country and their installation has seen a rising trend over the last decade as shown in Figure 1.3. However, the current trend cannot meet the national target to provide clean cooking solutions for all by 2017, so installation of ICS would have to skyrocket in the coming years or other clean cooking solutions would also need to be promoted aggressively. Moreover, many households adopting these ICS continue burning biomass fuels simultaneously in traditional stoves to meet different cooking needs like preparing animal feed or boiling water and brewing alcohol.
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The economic impact of the education and health sector on a rural community's economy

The economic impact of the education and health sector on a rural community's economy

enable them to be in a good position to attract and retain retirees. The amount of spending embodied in this population, including the purchasing power associated with Social Security, Medicare, and other transfer payments, is substantial. Additionally, middle and upper income retirees often have substantial net worth. Although the data are limited, several studies suggest

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