Nach oben pdf Credibility of the REACH Regulation: Lessons Drawn from an ABM

Credibility of the REACH Regulation: Lessons Drawn from an ABM

Credibility of the REACH Regulation: Lessons Drawn from an ABM

3 complex system i.e. one characterized by a tight interrelation between parts and the collective behavior of the system. In order to disentangle such complexity an agent-based methodology proves to be particularly relevant since it explicitly allows investigating specific features of the overall system emerging from the interaction of agents and their behaviors. In this respect, the model allows for a comparison of two opposite scenarios depending upon the degree of severity in terms of required technology performance and upon the timing of regulation: the high stringency scenario and the low-stringency scenario. The low-stringency scenario combines soft targets and late timing while the high stringency scenario combines tight targets and early timing. Results show that substitution that brings radical technological change and significant pollution reduction is possible only if regulation is stringent enough but after many sacrifices, especially in terms of market concentration and number of failures. The model’s findings are consistent with the empirical evidence – though rare – on the impact of REACH on innovation such as displayed in the CSES report (2012). In the present work we aim to pursue the formal analysis of policy mechanisms by focusing on the role of credibility. Indeed credibility of policy commitments to future standards is part of the relevant aspects of design and implementation to consider regarding the development of eco-innovation (Kemp and Pontoglio, 2011). Being a complex, ambitious and sequential regulation, credibility of REACH may be a vital element of intertemporal decisions where actors adapt and learn over time. As discussed in the first section, the level of perceived credibility by a firm is important to take into account when assessing the efforts carried out by firms to cope with environmental regulation. In this work we aim to address this very point gaining ground on the ABM developed in Arfaoui et al (2014), investigating how credibility influences technology transition. Section 2 summarizes the model developed in Arfaoui et al. (2014) since we restart from it to analyze the impact of credibility. The simulation allows for an analysis of two credibility parameters: one attached to suppliers and another to clients. Results are displayed in section 3.
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The New Economics and Regulation of Digital Platforms: Lessons from the Old World of Regulation?

The New Economics and Regulation of Digital Platforms: Lessons from the Old World of Regulation?

The sheer size, reach and pervasiveness of a small number of digital platforms has sparked an intense global debate about the “power” of these platforms. This “power” extends far beyond traditional notions of market power that are debated and discussed by economists, and extends into areas such as “fake news” and political representativeness, censorship, national security and child protection. Of course, besides these concerns there is also a traditional market power concern—that platforms are prone to “tipping”, that indirect network effects and economies of scale can entrench dominance, and that the creation of vast ecosystems of complementary products provides an opportunity for platforms to entrench their dominance. These concerns, as well as concerns about privacy, data use, censorship, and the like are translating into regulatory enforcement and rulemaking. For example, the UK competition authority is looking at digital platforms and the advertising market, while the EC has launched a string of high-profile antitrust actions against Google and is currently consulting on a new competition tool focused squarely on digital platforms. Regulatory thinking is moving towards a set of special measures that include specific regulatory institutions, changes to merger control procedures, data portability and interoperability requirements, among other things. It is thus an opportune
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Judicial Independence at International Courts and Tribunals : Lessons Drawn From the Experiences of the International Court of Justice and the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organisation

Judicial Independence at International Courts and Tribunals : Lessons Drawn From the Experiences of the International Court of Justice and the Appellate Body of the World Trade Organisation

At the time of its creation, the Appellate Body was considered as a kind of ‘afterthought', 84 ‘a kind of safety valve against a rare panel ruling that was seriously anomalous in terms of the general institutional understanding of the legal norms at issue’. 85 Initially, the WTO membership expected that recourse to the AB would be required infrequently so as to correct the findings of a recalcitrant panel. 86 With the AB deciding 155 cases since its inception thus far, 87 making it one of the most used international dispute resolution mechanisms, recent history has demonstrated otherwise. As Howse explains, the AB has established its independence from other organs of the WTO by various rulings. The AB has: adopted a textualist and formalist approach to its decisions guided by the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969; developed a doctrine of implicit judicial powers (for example, it has allowed amicus curiae briefs); emphasised the precedential weight of AB reports; allowed representation by private counsel; adopted a practice of consensus rulings; etc. 88 Therefore, the AB has clearly established itself as a judicial body. Despite the presence of certain atypical features for a judiciary, such as the requirement that AB reports must be adopted by the DSB (a political body) in order to be binding (an issue I will shortly return to), that the AB (and perhaps even WTO panels) (together referred to as ‘WTO tribunals’) constitute a judicial mechanism. As has been said, in ‘determining claims, WTO Tribunals act independently, much like international courts. They fix the boundaries of the dispute before them, marshal the evidence, determine the appropriate law, apply that law to the facts, and reach a decision.’ 89
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Airport economic regulation and capital investment: lessons from the United Kingdom experience

Airport economic regulation and capital investment: lessons from the United Kingdom experience

13 airports appears to have artificially stimulated demand fuelling the rationale for capacity expansion. A well organised and vocal airline industry lobby ensured, in the first place, that RPI-X was the preferred model of economic regulation. This has provided them with the opportunity to extract considerable economic scarcity rent from their Heathrow route networks for at least twenty years. Their very persuasive hold on the direction of UK government policy towards air transport means that proposals to reform economic regulation in the UK are invariably shelved. Their considerable influence prompted the competition authority investigations into BAA’s alleged dominance of the airport market with the aim being to liberalise ownership of London’s principal airports. It is unlikely that a liberalised London airport market will be able to deliver capacity expansion. Highly leveraged independent operators will be constrained by a complex, lengthy and onerous planning system and resistance from highly organised, well connected and vocal pressure groups. BAA’s ownership of the three London airports should be maintained as this represents the only credible option of delivering additional capacity. The UK could also benefit from light handed economic regulation with BAA and its airline customers encouraged to reach an agreement on what level of capacity is needed for the future and how this should be remunerated.
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Making Power-sharing Work: Lessons from Successes and Failures in Ethnic Conflict Regulation

Making Power-sharing Work: Lessons from Successes and Failures in Ethnic Conflict Regulation

internationally recognised as an independent state (as Slovenia and Croatia in 1991), but at this stage the internal conflict between the three ethno-national groups (44% Muslims, 31% Serbs and 17% Croats) had already turned violent. Neither Serbs nor Croats accepted Bosnian statehood, both groups and, in particular, their para-military forces were strongly supported by Croatia and Serbia. The war was characterised by extreme human rights violations, torture, rapes, massacres and "ethnic cleansing" which was deliberately used as an instrument to conquer territory and to destroy all mixed ethnic structures. The international community made several attempts to stop the war, for example by deploying UN peacekeeping forces (UNPROFOR). But all negotiations and cease-fires eventually failed, and the war continued on a lower scale (see Calic 1996, Gow 1997). In March 1994, external pressure, particularly from the US, led to the establishment of a Muslim-Croat federation in order to counter-balance the self-proclaimed Serb Republika Srpska (regime of Pale). But only after the Serb side had suffered severe defeats by the combined Croat-Muslim forces and NATO air strikes around the besieged city of Sarajevo in August/September 1995, were the Serb president Milosevic and the Pale regime willing to negotiate a peace accord. The Dayton Agreement of 14 Dec. 1995 provided a new constitutional and territorial structure for Bosnia-Hercegovina. The state was subdivided into two "entities", the Serb republic and the Muslim-Croat federation, both based largely on the borders drawn by warfare. Each part was granted its own president, government and parliament as well as substantial competencies in all policy areas (except foreign policy, foreign trade, monetary policy, refugee matters and all- Bosnian infrastructure). Moreover, each "entity" was allowed to introduce its own citizenship and to maintain "special parallel relationships"
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Policy Lessons Drawn from the Recent Food and Fuel Price Inflation

Policy Lessons Drawn from the Recent Food and Fuel Price Inflation

As the food crisis unfolded in 2008, many countries responded with changes to their trade policies with respect to agricultural products. In some cases, import restrictions or tariffs were lowered or removed so as to allow for additional food to reach the country. Steps in this direction should help glob- al markets respond to the pressures on price. But some countries responded by placing limits on exports, in an effort to retain more food for their population. These actions introduce new distortions, create gaps between domestic and world prices, and lessen the incentives for farmers in the country imposing the restriction to increase their production. Trade in agricultural products has been manipulated by the industrial and the developing countries for decades, driven by artificially elevated prices in advanced countries and the desire of world produc- ers to have access to markets. With the fundamentals of food demand and supply now changing, and prices responding more sharply to demand shifts, it should be possible to do away with the old distortions and find ways to let food be produced efficiently and traded globally. Unfortunately, the Doha Round of trade negotiations, which had agricultural trade as a major element of its agenda, ran aground. At pre- sent, there is little likelihood that trade liberalization in the agricultural sector will happen anytime soon. Policy officials need to find a way to address again mutually beneficial moves that could contribute to the efficiency of world food production, benefit some of the world’s poorest people, and lessen the risks of another episode of a spike in food price inflation.
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The credibility of the ECB's inflation target in times of Corona: New evidence from an online survey

The credibility of the ECB's inflation target in times of Corona: New evidence from an online survey

In view of these problems, this paper introduces a representative online survey of Ger- man citizens that is designed to measure the credibility of the ECB’s inflation target. Using the exact wording of the ECB’s definition of price stability, we measure the credibility of the inflation target directly and on a daily basis from January 2019 until May 2020. Our empiri- cal results suggest that the credibility of the ECB’s inflation target has decreased significantly during this period. The largest drop in credibility, observed in March 2020, could be related to the economic disturbances stirred by the coronavirus pandemic. However, it is worth emphasizing that even though inflation rates in Germany have been clearly below 2% for several years, we find that the credibility of the inflation target has declined mainly because Germans increasingly expect that inflation will be clearly above 2% over the medium term.
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Lessons from the European spaghetti bowl

Lessons from the European spaghetti bowl

In this way, when protectionist ROOs are combined with bilateral cumulation, the result is higher profit for EU-based intermediate good producers (cloth makers in this case). The bilateral cumulation plus ROO acts like a Hungarian tariff on Polish cloth—a tariff that provides EU producers with an advantage in the Hungarian market. By contrast, diagonal cumulation—which would allow the Hungarian shirt-makers to use Polish cloth in meeting the ROOs—would not shift sales to EU cloth makers. The main point is that the same ROO can boost EU cloth-producers’ profits much more when it is combined with bilateral cumulation. Of course, the bilateral cumulation harms the Polish cloth-makers, but they have little political economy leverage in the EU-Hungary FTA negotiations. In a nutshell, supply switching is the driving force behind bilateral-cumulation aspects of the spaghetti bowl.
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Lessons from the European financial crisis

Lessons from the European financial crisis

18 panel data set of 548 banks from 45 countries over the period 2005-11: banks with a higher cost of capital and better growth opportunities were more aggressive in reducing risk weights. (iii) Banks used securitization to reduce regulatory capital, exploiting the lower risk weights that regulators attached to asset-backed securities than to the underlying loan pools: before the financial crisis of 2007-09, they increasingly relied on securitization methods that allowed them to retain risks on their balance sheets and yet achieve a reduction in regulatory capital, as documented by Acharya, Schnabl and Suarez (2013) for asset-backed commercial paper conduits. Notably, these regulatory arbitrage activities were performed mostly by large banks, which were better equipped to engage in them than smaller ones: for instance, they had the technical expertise to develop and tweak internal risk models. Moreover, large banks had the greatest incentive to do so: given their scale, achieving even a small reduction in the leverage ratio without affecting their regulatory capital ratio would translate in a massive increase in assets, more than sufficient to cover the costs of the quants and lawyers required to plan and carry out the regulatory arbitrage. As a result, especially for large banks, the regulatory capital ratio has become less and less useful as an indicator of future distress probability (Danielsson, 2002). Figure 7 crystallises this notion: Tier 1 capital ratios in 2006 were uninformative about the respective banks’ true default probabilities. Several large banks with high regulatory capital ratios in 2006 subsequently failed; conversely, several banks with low regulatory ratios in 2006 did not.
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Environmental regulation: Lessons for developing economies in Asia

Environmental regulation: Lessons for developing economies in Asia

One benefit of information dissemination that has been less studied is that public information about firms’ emissions allows the victims to take more appropriate defensive measures (Evans, Gilpatric, and Liu 2009). For this purpose, the most important piece of information is the ambient pollution levels, rather than emissions from individual firms. Firms have a number of incentives to undertake voluntary measures to reduce their emissions. Lyon and Maxwell (2008) list demand-side forces due to the public’s increasing awareness and valuation of green products and practices, supply-side forces due to product differentiation and potential cost savings, and public policy forces due to current and potential regulation. Ambec and Lanoie (2008) show that firms can gain from improving their environmental performance through several channels, including better access to more environmentally demanding markets, being able to differentiate their products from others, gaining competitive advantages in pollution control technologies, and savings on materials and energies. Albertini (2013) reviews 52 studies over a 35-year period and finds that there is a positive relationship between firms’ environmental performance and their financial performance, and this relationship is influenced by the specific performance measures used. Earnhart (2018) reviews the empirical literature on the effects of environmental performance on firms’ financial performance, and finds that in general there is a positive relationship but it is sensitive to how the financial performance is measured. However, voluntary programs do not always create win-win situations for the environment and for the firms’ bottom line. Fisher- Vanden and Thorburn (2011) find that firms suffered reduced stock returns after they joined the US EPA’s Climate Leaders, a program of voluntary greenhouse emission reductions.
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Exchange Rate Policy for MERCOSUR:- Lessons from the European Union: Lessons from the European Union

Exchange Rate Policy for MERCOSUR:- Lessons from the European Union: Lessons from the European Union

Terms of use: Documents in EconStor may be saved and copied for your personal and scholarly purposes. You are not to copy documents for public or commercial purposes, to exhibit the documents publicly, to make them publicly available on the internet, or to distribute or otherwise use the documents in public.

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Lessons from Iraq

Lessons from Iraq

(Echevarria (2004): S.i) und argumentiert dabei, dass der erfolgreiche Sturz eines autoritären Herrschers nicht über den Erfolg einer Demokratieförderungsmission, wie sie etwa im Irak unternommen wurde, entscheiden könne. Dabei zeige sich am Beispiel des Iraks, dass das amerikanische Militär durchaus einen gelungenen Regimesturz herbeiführte, nun sei es jedoch an der amerikanischen Regierung eine demokratische Ordnung zu etablieren (vgl. Echevarria (2004): S.10). Vor diesem Hintergrund stellt der Einsatz militärischer Gewalt im Zuge von Demokratieförderungspolitik also eine erste Möglichkeit für liberale Staaten dar, etwa im Rahmen multilateraler Bündnisse ihre liberale Pflicht erfüllen zu können, das heißt beispielsweise nach einer militärischen Intervention den Wiederaufbau einer gesellschaftlichen Ordnung voranzutreiben (vgl. Cushman (2007): S.54). Aufgrund dieser Tatsache, dass durch das Militär im Irak erfolgreich die Option geschaffen werden konnte, den Staat zu demokratisieren und ungeachtet der vermeintlichen Fehler, welche danach seitens der amerikanischen Politik begangen wurden, gelte also: „[…] the use of force should not be ruled out a priori because the Iraq War has been so problematic“ (Cushman (2007): S.54). Der Einsatz militärischer Gewalt zum Zwecke der Demokratieförderung sei also nicht per se abzulehnen, denn dieser eröffne die Möglichkeit zu einer positiven Veränderung in einem anderen Staat beitragen zu können, während allein das Bestreben Stabilität aufrecht erhalten zu wollen nur dazu führe, tyrannische Regierungen und Menschenrechtsverletzungen zu dulden (vgl. Cushman (2007): S.54). In diesem Zusammenhang ergibt sich folglich der Schluss, dass also bislang noch keine Aussage über den ganzheitlichen Erfolg oder Misserfolg des US-Einsatzes im Irak getroffen werden kann, vielmehr sei es notwendig die Überzeugung, die Intervention im Irak sei gescheitert, fallen zu lassen und weiter zu investieren, um den Krieg nicht doch noch zu verlieren.
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Lessons from the Dispute over Korea's Digital Certification Regulation and Policy Suggestions for Electronic Commerce

Lessons from the Dispute over Korea's Digital Certification Regulation and Policy Suggestions for Electronic Commerce

Accordingly, the government should focus on developing and executing well-balanced, comprehensive policies, taking into account the differences in the role of the private sector and government, and the trade-off between standardization and innovation and between information security and convenience. E-commerce encompasses a wide range of areas, involving several government ministries. There are doubts, however, over how well the respective authorities will be able to formulate and execute their policies in a comprehensive, organic and rigid manner. For instance, in September 2005, the then Ministry of Information and Communication (abolished in 2008) announced comprehensive measures to strengthen the security of electronic financial transactions, which allowed credit card companies to decide on whether to demand digital certification for online credit card purchases, based on the possibility that merchants may suffer from decreased sales. However, in the second revision of the Detailed Regulations on the Supervision of Electronic Finance on December 28th 2006, Article 31 paragraph 4, only online credit card purchases of less than 300,000 won were granted exemption from digital certification. In a further revision on May 20th 2014, Article 4 was amended to add debit card purchases to the exemption. Also, in 2008, the Korea Communications Commission (KCC) mandated that telecommunications service providers authenticate servers for the purpose of protecting consumers from online scams such as phishing. This, however, was not extended to financial institutions, who are most in need of such a mandate.
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Governmental policies to reduce unemployment during recessions: Insights from an ABM

Governmental policies to reduce unemployment during recessions: Insights from an ABM

Apart from demand stabilization, short-time work has a distributive effect, which is illus- trated in Fig. 10e and Fig. 11. Fig. 10e presents the absolute difference in average profits on the firm-level between baseline and policy scenario. They are measured in nominal terms. As mentioned above, the short-time work program starts at period 8. The graphs of Fig. 11 show the distribution of sales (Fig. 11a) and profits (Fig. 11b) among firms, expressed in terms of the Gini index, the median sales and median profits (Fig. 11c and 11d) of firms, and the mean sales on the firm-level (Fig. 11e). Sales are measured as the amount of sold goods. The variables mentioned are shown before (period 0) and during the application of short-time work (periods 1 to 4). As noted above (Fig. 10), output further drops after the application of short-time work. However, since output decreases mainly because of a reduction in hours worked, instead of a lack of demand, the situation on the goods market improves. As it can be seen in Fig. 11c and Fig. 11a, reducing output does not imply that the amount of sold goods drops per se but the sales become more equally distributed among firms. The Gini index for sales drops significantly while the median level of sales increases. In other words, the coordinated reduction of goods, supported by a (relatively) stable demand, implies that opportunities to sell goods improves for individual firms. This is an external effect, a distributive effect, in which the firm sector benefits as a whole from the application of short-time work of some firms. Since firms can increase their sales, less firms realize losses and the majority even increase their profits (Fig. 11d) such that the profits also become more equally distributed among firms (Fig. 11b). The widespread growth of profits and sales improve the expectations of a large number of firms and, thus, increase labor demand. The distributive effect is particularly strong in the first period, the introduction of short-time work. The mentioned variables hold a certain median level and level of distribution in the consecutive periods, as the median and Gini index do not reverse after the introduction. In addition, the distributive effect is further analyzed econometrically in the Appendix (Tab. 5 and Fig. 19). The results of a fixed effect model are presented in Tab. 5. Keeping the
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Export restrictions and policy space for sustainable development: Lessons from trends in the regulation of export restrictions (2012-2016)

Export restrictions and policy space for sustainable development: Lessons from trends in the regulation of export restrictions (2012-2016)

export duties as an environmental policy instrument requires a non-discrimination between exported goods and domestically-consumed goods. In contrast, the non-discrimination requirement prevents countries from using export duties to ensure food security or subsidize domestic industries because the effectiveness of export duties to achieve these goals requires a discrimination between exported goods and domestically-consumed goods. In this way, a country can reduce upward price pressures in domestic markets or provide domestic industries with raw materials that are cheaper than those in the international market. The objective to subsidize domestic industries may be achieved under a specific exception provided by EU–Côte d'Ivoire (2016) which permits Côte d'Ivoire to impose export duties on a temporary basis for ‘protection for infant industry’. That RTA together with EU–Cameroon (2014) also permit Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon to impose export duties for environmental protection, which does not require a non-discrimination between exported goods and domestically- consumed goods. Under these exceptions, it might be necessary to adopt complementary domestic policies in order to avoid the increased domestic consumption that undermines the effectiveness of export duties to achieve environmental goals.
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Debord's Lessons (the lessons of Guy Debord)

Debord's Lessons (the lessons of Guy Debord)

This is by the way one of the only insights Debord gives us in his childhood, which explains why my psychoanalytical chapter will be very short. Born "virtually ruined", Debord is obviously not ready to leave any (unconscious) inheritance for would-be psychoanalysts of the formerly leading figure of situationism. The childhood chapter is definitely missing here, in accordance with its proclaimed ruin. However one has to ask oneself what an absent heritage might mean in this case, because it is not so much a matter of money - up to his twenties, Debord has never been really poor - than a symbolic matter, a family matter. The "ruin" Debord emphasizes - but also covers with a mere financial problem - has more to do with the death of a father when he was five years old, with a mother who has never really taken care of him after the death of her husband and who has had two other children with an already married Italian man before marrying a rich notary in Cannes, kind enough - or old enough - to adopt the two last children of Madame Debord, but not her first son.
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The Development of Independent Fiscal Institutions: Lessons from CBO

The Development of Independent Fiscal Institutions: Lessons from CBO

Transparency, Communication, and Evaluation – There were some members of Congress who were very concerned about CBO becoming a policy spokesman for the Congress. Some of Rivlin’s many ini- tial public appearances highlighted this concern. But because Rivlin and sub- sequent CBO directors made their public appearances more technical than political, and because CBO did not make recommendations, this concern was mostly alleviated. Although some recent CBO directors have assumed very political positions after leaving CBO, generally all CBO directors have recog- nized the importance of emphasizing CBO’s technical work. In this regard, CBO directors strive to supply the budget committee chairmen and other members with CBO work that assists political officials – not CBO directors or staff – in making policy statements.
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The production of meanings drawn by students in tutoring in undergraduate nursing

The production of meanings drawn by students in tutoring in undergraduate nursing

while learning in undergraduate and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of tutoring demonstrated in free drawings constructed by the students during the training of nursing students. Method: A qualitative research. The scenario a private college in Rio de Janeiro. The subjects 87 students from 1st to 7th periods in nursing. The ethical and legal procedures were present and the authorization of the Ethics in Research-Protocol n.º 581-11. Results: The analysis of data collected contemplated the thematic analysis. From reading the drawings we obtained an understanding that students value the mentoring, to having to build learning based on responsibility. Conclusion: The study aims to encourage students and teachers in achieving the best quality training. Descriptors: Education nursing, Preceptorship, Drawings.
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Paradoxes of Constitutionalisation: Lessons from Poland

Paradoxes of Constitutionalisation: Lessons from Poland

The disastrous effects of the current crisis is the situation in which both sides of the conflict – the Tribunal supported by the majority of constitutional law experts and networks of legal professionals, and the ruling party allegedly supported by eight constitutional law experts – claim to act in accordance to the law. Paradoxically, both sides waive the flag of the rule of law but apply very different standards of interpretation. The situation may not stabilize without a compromise as long as there is always a counterargument based on the same legal norm subject to interpretation. Yet, one should emphasize that only some interpretations are in line with the tenets of constitutionalism as a prescriptive concept. Clearly, the unconstrained rule by the people is in essence the antithesis of constitutionalism.
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Morphological Characterization of the Lower Reach of the Tenryu River

Morphological Characterization of the Lower Reach of the Tenryu River

By scrutinizing cross-sectional data, aerial photos and flow discharge records, this study shed some new light on the causes of the morphological changes in the lower reach of the Tenryu River. The attention was placed on in-channel vegetation that is considered as a second order effect of dam construction. As a result, a vegetation-related erosion mechanism along the river course was identified.

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