project is currently integrated within theEXCELSIORproject, whose goal is the development ofthe Eratosthenes Centre of Excellence (ECoE) . Theproject focuses on conducting basic and applied research and innovation in the areas ofthe integrated use of remote sensing and space-based techniques for monitoring the environment. The integration of novel EO, space and ground-based integrated technologies, can contribute to a more sustainable and systematic monitoring ofthe environment, the timely detection of societal risks/threats and the growth of vital economic sectors. The establishment ofthe Centre of Excellence in 2020 provides the infrastructure and experts necessary to conduct state-of-the-art research and innovation in the areas ofthe integrated use of remote sensing and space-based techniques forculturalheritage applications within Cyprus. Strategic Partners ofthe ECoE, such as DLR and NOA, will also provide capacity building forculturalheritage in order to facilitate state-of-the-art research and applications in culturalheritage.
On the other hand, there cannot be omitted the fact that Turkey in recent years "uses" theculturalheritage in order to achieve specific political ends. An example of such action is the case ofthe ongoing operation ofthe Holy Monastery of Panagia Sumela on August 15, 2010. Despite the fact that it could be considered as recognition of religious rights of Christian minority, with positive impressions about Turkey, thecontribution to the tourism-economic sector is not inconsiderable. Furthermore, considering the "neo-Ottoman" orientation of modern foreign policy is directly perceived as a need for restoration and display of Ottoman monuments mainly in the Balkans 17 .
design, development and organization of content production environments that im- plement user contributions. In comparison to the concept of participation in social sciences or in political theory a comparable engineering oriented perspective to- wards user contributions hasn't emerged so far, neither in relation to user contribu- tions in general nor in reference to its application in museums and culturalheritage. Therefore this thesis commences in chapter two with a review upon the conditions of user contributions defined by the features of new media before a definition and classification of user contributions is introduced. Based upon this fundament, differ- ent perspectives towards the uses and applications of user contributions are re- viewed whereby in particular the productive and innovative potential of user contri- butions as well its role in the creation of continuous engagement are analyzed. In reference to these theoretical uses of user contributions, practical implementa- tions of user contribution environments are reviewed in order to generalize con- cepts and challenges. To this end, a descriptive model of production processes in user contribution environments is developed and applied to a set of case studies. Chapter two finishes with an analysis of challenges to the management of contribu- tions, ranging from a review of different strategies forthe integration of contribu- tions to incentives forcontribution and finally practical elements of management as rights management, inherent conflicts between productive users and institutions/ corporations as well as the filtering of contributions.
Building an ontology is a time consuming and iterative procedure, which involves a phase of thorough planning and a phase of continual revision. As described in chapter 2.4.5, forthe Semantic Web the two relevant languages in which we can model ontologies are RDFS and OWL. Protégé will, however, always use OWL as its underlying modelling language even though simple ontologies that could be described in RDFS can also be formalized with the tool. The steps towards an ontology include the definition ofthe domain and range of an ontology. Very narrow domains will involve a rather different model than a very broad topic that I want to cover in my ontology. Then we have to think about the use cases forthe ontology. What do we want to achieve with our ontology? We will have to think about the reusability ofthe model. Does it cover all the possible use cases, at least in my domain? The next step would be the first definition ofthe terms we want to use. We can then go on to declare the classes and the corresponding hierarchy. After we have achieved a taxonomy that can be utilised in the domain, we can declare properties and constraints for our terms. Only after these steps, we will be able to create instances (individuals) for our classes. The very last step can be the execution of a reasoner so we can let the machine automatically reason from our input and draw new conclusions. The following example can only give a first insight in how to model an ontology with Protégé as an exhaustive example of an ontology would fill an entire thesis of this kind.
Seven-Parameter Transformation. SfM method delivers camera orientations and sparse point clouds, initially in an arbitrary model space. Each synthetic image involved in the SfM process stores 2D-to-3D correspondences between each image pixel or feature and the 3D laser data. This allows an implicit determination ofthe 3D-to-3D correspondences between the sparse point clouds and the laser data. To introduce scale information to the bundle, a seven-parameter transformation is estimated using the latter 3D correspondences and then applied to the SfM output. This results in having absolute oriented images in relation to the laser data. An alternative method that can increase measurement redundancy is by reprojecting the sparse point clouds onto the synthetic image using equation 4.1. Then, the 3D-to-3D correspondences between the sparse point clouds and the laser data can be determined using the 2D-to-3D correspondences between the latter projected sparse point clouds and the laser data stored in the synthetic image. Forthe reason that some points will be reprojected from object surfaces that are not covered in the generated image, the geometric relationship ofthe 3D-to-3D correspondences should be evaluated to remove these wrong points. This can be done using RANSAC filtering scheme based on seven-parameter transformation. Furthermore, an outlier removal process can be applied on the reprojection errors in object space, e.g. using the X84 rule. As mentioned in section 4.2, some dense matching algorithms deliver individual point clouds for almost each image, e.g. the software SURE therefore, it is more convenient to perform first a dense image matching step and then project only the corresponding single point cloud onto the generated image. This can filter out incorrect reprojected points on the generated image. Dense Image Matching. After the estimation ofthe transformation parameters, the orientation parameters forthe camera images are known in the laser scanning coordinate system. These parameters can be used to retrieve dense surface reconstruction information from the images by means of dense image matching methods. The resulting geometry is in the coordinate system ofthe laser scanner and thus scaled. Supplemental improvement of point cloud registration using ICP is possible.
The aim of multi-view stereo (MVS) matching and reconstruction techniques is to recover 3D object models from a set of images with known camera interior and exterior orientation. Having the camera parameters for an image, we can compute a viewing ray per pixel, i.e., a ray in space containing all 3D object points that project to this pixel. But still the distance ofthe visible object point to the camera along the viewing ray and accordingly also its 3D position is unknown. Therefore, MVS aims at calculating these distances (depths) for each pixel which result in generating dense 3D object surface points (Snavely et al., 2010). As depicted in Figure 2.2, each depth along a viewing ray in one image yields a different projected location in the other images. Therefore, we look forthe depth for which the projected locations in all involved images (> two images) look as similar to each other as possible. In analog to correspondence problem, MVS method determines the depth for which the resulting corresponding patches (small regions in the images around the projected locations) are consistent (Snavely et al., 2010). In the last few years, several high-quality MVS techniques have been introduced and improved rapidly. (Scharstein & Szeliski, 2002) show different overviews on stereo matching while multi-image matching techniques are compared in (Brown et al., 2003). (Seitz et al., 2006) present a classification and evaluation of recent MVS reconstruction algorithms. It shows that, using six benchmark datasets, the PMVS is one ofthe best submitted methods so far in terms of six key properties: the scene representation, photo-consistency measure, visibility model, shape prior, reconstruction algorithm, and initialization requirements.
Due to the innovative work done by professor Pieter Jonker from the vision-based robotics group at the TU-Delft, and notably his PhD student Tim Zaman, high-resolution 3D scanning techniques have improved. His work on simultaneously topographic and colour scanning for Art and Archae- ology was presented at the Technart16 conference at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. In close collaboration with professor Joris Dik, a new scanning technique was developed that scans the surface of paintings in three dimensions, (x, y, z) with a resolution of ten microns. Aside from dig- itisation for monitoring paintings in 3D over time, digital image processing for art historians and material scientists, 3D printing of paintings is a goal of this scanning technique project. The 3D printing ofthe paintings was achieved by professor Jo Geraedts from Océ / TU-Deft and his team. They attracted national and international attention with their 3D print ofThe Jewish Bride and Self-portrait by Rembrandt and flowers by Van Gogh. These 3D-printed paintings were on show during the conference. 9
Measurements results together with the impulse response files are freely available on theproject website (1). Results were prepared in numerical and graphical form for: reverberation time (Figure 3), sound clarity for speech and music, spatial and timbre features, speech intelligibility index and other standard room acoustic estimators.
Therefore it is not a surprise that the protection, maintenance and production ofculturalheritage are common goals for many societies, in developed as well as developing countries (Snowball, 2008). While individuals maximize their utility, governments are expected to maximize society’s utility, i.e. social well-being (Frey, 2003). Political decisions on cultural investments are consequently expected to be judged according to the costs and benefits to society. However, the provision ofculturalheritage is costly and therefore competes with other social goals. The optimal provision of public goods is then to be found by comparing costs and benefits. The cost of protecting culturalheritage can vary greatly depending on the good, its characteristics and location, but the exercise of estimating those costs is not different from any project appraisal. In contrast, benefits arising from culturalheritage and accruing to individuals are hard to estimate. Culturalheritage goods are local public goods, 2 and because they are not traded in markets, the benefits that individuals receive from their enjoyment can only be inferred using so-called non-market valuation methods. Even when the use ofculturalheritage goods is not free, the fees charged are usually nominal, and neither correspond to the total benefits provided by built culturalheritage nor relate to the true cost of providing and maintaining them (Alberini and Longo, 2009).
Due to climate change extreme weather conditions become more and more frequent in the last years. Especially in Germany nearly every year a large flood event happens. Most of these events are caused by strong rain. There are at most two causes for these floodings: The first is locally strong rain in the area of damage, the second happens at damage sites located near confluxes and strong rain in the upper stream areas ofthe joining rivers. The amount of damage is often strongly correlated with unreasonable designation of new construction in such endangered regions. Our presented study is based on an earlier project together with a german insurance company. In this project we analyzed correlations of geographical settings with the insurance data of flood damages over ten years. The result of this study was a strong relation ofthe terrain with the amount and the probability of damages. Further investigations allow us to derive a system for estimating potential endangerment due to strong rain just from suitable digital terrain models (DTMs). In the presented study we apply this method to different types ofculturalheritage (CH) sites in Germany and other parts ofthe world to detect which type of CH sites were build with potential endangerment of strong rain events in mind and which ones are prone to such events.
territory of a non-State party, when he/she is a national of a State party to the ICC, or when the victim State accepts the jurisdiction ofthe ICC for this specific case, although is not a party to the Rome Statute (Art. 12-13 Rome Statute). However, it appears that it is unlikely that the States where crimes against culturalheritage are being committed today (such as Syria, Iraq and Yemen) will resort to the ICC in the near future because on the one hand, they are not parties to the Rome Statute, and on the other hand because the political situation on the ground seems to be too unstable at the moment. Second, the ICC may exercise its jurisdiction when the Prosecutor decides proprio motu to proceed with an investigation. Third, the UN Security Council, acting under Chapter VII ofthe UN Charter, may refer a situation to the Prosecutor. This option has been considered by France with respect to the situation in Syria. However, theproject resolution launched in May 2014 was vetoed by Russia and China.
When managing large quantities of data, it is a common solution to utilize a centralized data management software to forge a connection between metadata and the data objects themselves. In case of text-based objects without any attached metadata, it is easy for humans to contextualize these objects by recognizing patterns such as filenames, titles, authors etc. This task becomes a challenge when dealing with non-text-based objects like images in theculturalheritage domain. Without metadata or expert knowledge, it becomes difficult to estimate the creation date of a painting or tell the name of its painter. Thus, the ability to contextualize data depends on whether there is a working connection between the metadata store and the data object itself. This connection fails as soon as the file is moved on the file system without having these changes also applied in the corresponding data base, or when the file is shared without a reference to its original location. This paper presents an approach to overcome that type of co-dependency by utilizing XMP to embed culturalheritage metadata directly into image files to ensure their location-independent long-term preservation. The “Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi” Germany (CVMA) project serves as an example use-case.
Finally, the (digital) presentation of digital culturalheritage is another challenge to be considered. As Bernadette Biedermann shows in her contribution, contrary perhaps to non- digital exhibitions, the “needs of expert as well as non-expert users” should both be taken into account in the presentation (p. 203). In order to design and develop an interactive and dynamic user-interface that would complement these goals, the scholars need to consider the target audience of a project, that is, to deliver theheritage content to the broader public and to consider the user-friendliness and user experience of a project, making theheritage more alive and active in the lives ofthe users. At the same time, for expert users, it should serve as an instrument for exploration, analysis, and evaluation ofthe current state ofthe selected culturalheritage.
Another example ofthe use of Earth Observation data (Copernicus supporting missions) was the automatic damage detection for two archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq. The study  included fast and robust change detection techniques, based on the extraction of textural information and robust differences of brightness values related to pre- and post-disaster satellite images. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings was derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to theCulturalHeritage sites of interest. Encouraging results were obtained. In the right [2a], change maps derived from differences of Gabor features were mapped. The results were confirm with the post-processed changes overlaid on the 2 September 2015 WorldView-2 image with the damaged areas indicated with red colour [2b].
T h e present widespread availability of personal c o m p u t e r s in Swiss mu- s e u m s suggests that all m u s e u m s should start using them i m m e d i a t e l y , h o w e v e r , this a p p e a r s to be u n a t t a i n a b l e d u e to the lack of t r a i n e d person- n e l . A d d i t i o n a l obstacles are t h e lack of application p r o g r a m s proofed in m u s e u m s a n d the u n c o o r d i n a t e d use of soft- and h a r d w a r e p r o d u c t s exi- sting already. Last not least, t h e political e m p h a s i s in collection policies varies widely.
Non-invasive landscape investigation for archaeological purposes includes a wide range of survey techniques, most of which include in-situ methods. In the recent years, a major advance in the non-invasive surveying techniques has been the introduction of active remote sensing technologies. One of such technologies is spaceborne radar, known as Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). SAR has proven to be a valuable tool in the analysis of potential archaeological marks and in the systematic culturalheritage site monitoring. With the use of SAR, it is possible to monitor slight variations in vegetation and soil often interpreted as archaeological signs, while radar sensors frequently having penetrating capabilities offering an insight into shallow underground remains.
Piaget (1976, p. 20) says that “to understand means to discover or recon- struct through rediscovery. Such conditions must be met if in the future indi- viduals will be formed capable for productivity and creativity, and not only for recognition”. Pupils’ artworks are an excellent depiction of Piaget’s thought; they speak ofthe very power of creation of new flexible ideas and images through the combination or reorganisation of previous experiences, which is a serious and deeply creative capacity. During pupils’ encounter with culturalheritage, they focus on action and are encouraged to notice rules of form in the artistic language oftheheritage. This mode of children working through self-activation supports Piaget’s thesis “ofthe child as the main constructor of its own self- understanding” (cf. Wood, 1995, p. 205). As Ingarden points out (1915), “what is important for constitution of an aesthetic experience is not the spontaneous emotional reaction to sensory qualities of an object, but a focused exploration” (cf. Spajić, 1989, p. 57). Pupils’ activity, their active participation, becomes the value ofthe contemporary school. Therefore, “active learning becomes more and more a term ofthe contemporary pedagogical-methodological literature referring to the activity in which the child through his/her experience of inde- pendent exploration – with the support, cooperation and supervision of adults – acquires knowledge and capabilities in accordance with personal develop- mental potentials” (Kuščević, 2007, p. 22).
different that even reputable publications today list the years 1835 to 1842 as the construction date of Stolzenfels, and the medieval castle that once stood on the site has vanished entirely from public aware- ness. Even the sparse remnants ofthe medieval outer bailey were significantly altered by Schinkel in 1838 in his capacity as the king’s architect. For example, he closed several windows in the gate- house tower and the Adjutants’ Tower and added the gently sloping zinc roofs – which serve a purely functional purpose – that are a typical feature of his designs. That Schinkel’s roofs were always invisible and never constituted a design element of his archi- tecture may be attributable to the technicist influ- ences he absorbed during his journey to England in 1826 as well as his neoclassical alignment. Thus Schinkel, who loathed medieval roofs, described Stolzenfels as a castle »almost without a roof, with battlements all around«. Schinkel’s massive inter- vention in the substance ofthe castle therefore represents an explicit distortion of history. More- over, the reconstruction was a blatant violation of a Prussian ministerial circular decree on restoration methods passed in 1843, in terms of which »it can never be the purpose of a restoration to obliterate even the smallest blemish that remains as a trace of bygone centuries and contributes to the character ofthe building«.
Thus, this view helps to clarify that, if it is a cultural value proposition that is to be offered, the ‘cultural’ value needs to be ‘extracted’ by the offering structure by adopting the user point of view when identifying potential cultural expectations, and valorizing these aspects. Again, this view may help to resolve the dilemma that divides the above-mentioned ‘purist’ view ofculturalheritage, which rejects any other value expression forheritage but that cultural and ‘commercial’ view, which is keen on searching for different forms ofthe exploitation of any potential value (Tunbridge & Ashworth, 1996). It is our opinion that both views can be accepted, but again, what is relevant is coherence: if a ‘cultural’ value is concerned, heritage must be managed accordingly, which will allow forthe full accomplishment of its cultural mission/function. Other uses can and should be creatively devised and proposed to potential users, but it is essential to avoid compromising other opportunities of valorization and, in particular, the primarily valuable – cultural – opportunity. In other words, we monitor because ofthe risk of disregarding the inner cultural value ofheritage. Although contrasting with the discussed trends in devising policies to enhance culturalheritage, we only consider it essential to be aware that by altering the meaning attributed to heritage, we can more or less consciously leave thecultural context to embrace other, most likely more satisfying opportunities.
We will use information on monuments and museums to examine the robustness ofthe results we reach when using historical inner cities and sceneries as our indicators ofculturalheritage. We noted in section 2 that it may be argued that culturalheritage is endogenous. To deal with this concern we will instrument culturalheritage with city rights. City rights were special rights and privileges ascribed to certain towns in the Netherlands during the Middle Ages. The towns that obtained these rights were usually protected by walls and the traditional definition of a city in Europe was indeed that of a town with city rights. All main urban centers in late medieval Europe had city rights. These cities often have a lot ofculturalheritage, which ensures that there is a positive correlation between this instrument and our indicators ofculturalheritage. But the variables that determined whether or not a medieval town could obtain city rights were considerably different from those that determined city growth in the 19 th