The Lithuanian flora contains 1334 plant species. There are more than 460 species, which are used in folk and traditional medicine in Lithuania (R ADUŠIENĖ and J ANULIS , 2004). The majority of medici-
nal and aromaticplants are still collected from the wild; the lack of advanced local varieties limits their cultivation. There are species which are difficult to cultivate and therefore vulnerable to harmful harvesting of wild populations . 33 species of medicinal plants are included in the Red Data Book of Lithuania . Generally, the conservation of wild plants species and their resources is regulated by the the Law on Wild Vegetation (1999), the Law on Protected Areas (1993, 2001), Law on National Plant Genetic Resources (2001) and supplementary legal acts. The protected areas account for 14.8 % of the total area of the country.
This meeting continues a series of international symposia for Breeding Research on Medicinal and AromaticPlants, which started in 1996. Open to all aspects of basic and applied research in plant breeding, the conferences place emphasis clearly on medicinal and aromaticplants. This BREEDMAP 6 Symposium will be organized by the Julius Kuehn Institute, Federal Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI) in collaboration with the Leibniz Institute for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) and the Society for Medicinal Plant and Natural Product Research (GA). Customers all over the world are interested in products based on natural sources. There is a permanent demand for high-quality products. Prerequisite are new varieties and lines of medicinal and aromaticplants with better resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, with adaptation to diff erent conditions in cultivation, and fi nally with an increase of active principles. In many cases we do have a breakthrough but for a broad range of medicinal plants much can still be done in order to improve quality and quantity and to get constant high levels of active princip- les. The BREEDMAP 6 Symposium will present the interna- tional platform to share new results and techniques with an international audience to create new ideas and fruitful collaborations in this promising fi eld.
Customers all over the world are interested in products based on natural sources. There is a per- manent demand for high-quality products. Prerequisite are new varieties and lines of medicinal and aromaticplants with better resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, with adaptation to different conditions in cultivation, and finally with an increase of active principles. In many cases we do have a breakthrough but for a broad range of medicinal plants much can still be done in order to improve quality and quantity and to get constant high levels of active principles. The BREEDMAP 6 Symposium presents the international platform to share new results and techniques with an inter- national audience to create new ideas and fruitful collaborations in this promising field.
6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and AromaticPlants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016
Figure 1: Neighbor joining tree based on Nei & Li distances from AFLP analysis
Börner, A., 2006: Preservation of plant genetic resources in the biotechnology era. Biotechnol J 1: 1393-1404. Danert, S., 1958: Zur Systematik von Papaver somniferum L. Kulturpflanze 6: 61-88.
used in preventing and treating specific ailments and diseases and are generally considered to play a beneficial role in health care. Some cultivars from medicinal plant families are also used as ingredients to season or to give a pleasant flavor or smell to foods. Therefore, the terms “medicinal” and “aromatic” are usually used in conjunction. Essential oils extraction from medicinal and aromaticplants is one of the medium temperature agro-based industries. These oils are used in medicinal and pharmaceutical purposes, food and food ingredients, herbal tea, cosmetics, perfumery, aromatherapy, pest, and disease control, dying in textiles, gelling agents, plant growth regulators, and paper making (Öztekin & Martinov, 2007). A single ounce of most of the oils is worth thousands of Dollars. In the last decade, these oils remedies have gained enormous popularity in industrialized countries as well particularly in the multi-million-dollar aromatherapy business. Out of all extraction methods, the distillation methods have advantages of extracting pure and refine essential oils by evaporating the volatile essence of the plant material (Malle & Schmickl, 2005). At present, there are large and centralized distillation units mostly located in city areas. Due to their high operating costs, these are sometimes unmanageable by farmers or even groups of farmers in most of the developing countries. Further, some essential oils come from extremely delicate flowers and leaves that must be processed soon after harvesting. Thus, for functional, economic and environmental reasons, there is need of a decentralized distillation system. Due to lack of adequate facilities for the decentralized distillation systems, farmers prefer to dry their product rather to sell it at very low price. Results show that conventional drying methods such as open sun drying and conventional-fuel dryers are not suitable which deteriorate the essential oils components in the herbs. Moreover, the drying process necessitates an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy (Fargali, 2008). The on-farm solar distillation is a decentralized approach to reduce the post harvest losses and to prevent spoilage of essential oil components by processing the fresh herbs. Examples of the plants are Peppermint, Lemon Balm (Melissa), Lavender, Cumin, Cloves, Anise, Rosemarie, Patchouli, Caraway, Cassia, Oregano, European Silver Fir, and Fennel etc.
Keywords: Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, fungal pathogens, asexual morphs
Medicinal and aromaticplants (MAPs) are considered minor crops generally grown on limited area. There was a view that they had no serious diseases. The sources of information related to the diseases of MAPs were mostly limited to the areas in which their cultivation reached appreciable levels. During the last decades, mainly Europe and America have experienced an increase trend towards healthy diet and natural products, which led to a growing demand for MAPs, partly satis- fied by collections of wild-growing plants, but to an enhanced extent by cultivation. The increased interest in the use of MAPs is also recognizable regarding the bigger diversity of genera processed in Europe. A negative consequence of the growing concentration in cultivation is an increase of
DOI 10.5073/jka.2016.453.006 Abstract
Plant cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture methods offer a rich scope for creation, conserva- tion and utilization of genetic variability for the improvement and production of elite planting material of medicinal and aromaticplants. Besides, tissue culture techniques are now increasingly being used for the production of bioactive compounds in vitro. Micro propagation ensures true to type, rapid and large scale multiplication under disease free conditions. In the absence of seasonal constraints, 10-30 cycles, depending upon the plant species, can be completed in one year, ensur- ing 5-50 times multiplication per cycle.
Key Words: Herbal products, ITS, MAPs, Minibarcode, psbA-trnH, Phytoextracts, rbcL
Medicinal and AromaticPlants (MAPs) and their preparations are products used in medicine, cosmetics and food industry, belonging to plants, fungi, algae or lichens (E fsa , 2009). Such products are prepared using plants or their parts to exploit their therapeutic and healthy properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory), as well as their flavor or scent (W ho , 1999). According to a report published by the Persistence Market Research, the global market of herbal supplements had a value of USD 40 billion in 2017 and is expected to reach a market valuation in excess of USD 65 billion by 2025 (P ErsistEncE M arkEt r EsEarch , 2017). In the last years, the in- creasing consumption of natural food supplements and the growing awareness of consumers concerning the healthy benefits of these products have been progressively enhancing the market of MAPs (E fsa , 2009). Although most of the herbal products used as food in- gredients have been available to consumers since decades, the regu- lation of these products differs greatly among jurisdictions. While some countries consider MAPs as reliable ingredients for food pro- duction, others regulate them as healthy products or medicines. For example, in the European Union (EU), most products containing Medicinal and AromaticPlants are sold as food supplements and re- gulated under the food law (s ilano et al., 2011); in Australia dietary
11 th Young Scientists Meeting 2018, Braunschweig, Germany, November 14-16
Karimi et al.
Identification and enhancement of second- ary metabolites in medicinal and aromaticplants for potential use as biological pesti- cides and pharmacologicals
Department of Economics, Faculty of Economy, Mediterranean University of Albania, Albania
The medicinal and aromaticplants (MAPs) represent a very important sector for the Albanian economy. According the COMTRADE 2018 statistics, this sector exports rank the country at the 16-th position in the World, indicating that Albania has a very big economical potential in this area (Hoxha, 2016, Naka et al., 2003). Despite this potential, the last 20 years records show that these exports have remained almost constant. The lack of information about the value chain, indicating the asymmetric information is the main reasons of this performance (USAID, 2010, Lekocaj et al, 2017). Therefore, conclusion emerges that there is a limited rationality between the economic agents who work and study in this sector. This study object is to identify the information sources and to fabricate all the channels where this information goes through. To achieve our objectives, we are using systemic approach. At the national level, we have chosen 3 municipalities, while for the information level regarding this sector’s actors we have chosen 12 exporting companies, the most important ones in Albania. The results show that the sector information system has methodological problems on their identification and a lack of a central database, which can be updated at any moment with new information in time and space from all the value chain actors.
T. articulata 72.22± 0.06 70.12± 0.20 57.77± 0.11 64.44± 0.12 84.44± 0.08
D. crinitus - - - 5.55± 0.21 77.77± 0.06
mycelial growth of F. oxysporum, A. solani, A. niger, Penicillium sp1 and Penicillium sp2 by more than 50 %. Among these plants T. capitatus, belonging to the families of Lamiaceae, completely in- hibited mycelial growth of tested fungus. T. capitatus essential oil produced the greatest reduction in mycelium growth with these fungi at 2 μg mL -1 , with percentage reductions of 100 % (Tab. 2). The sec- ond most effective essential oil with this five fungi was T. articulata essential oil, with percentage of mycelial reduction in F. oxysporum, A. solani, A. niger, penicillium sp1 and penicillium sp2 of 36.11, 35.12, 11.11, 34.56 and 45.12 %, respectively, at the same concen- tration (Tab. 2). However, the data indicate that the percentage in- hibition of mycelial growth increased with increasing concentration of essential oils for all strains tested, suggesting that the essential oil of T. articulata inhibited the growth of all strains in a dose-dependent manner. Essential oil D. crinitus cause no percentage of mycelial re- duction, except against penicillium sp2. This activity was more pro- nounced, where the percentage of inhibition increased to 54.32 % at 2 μg mL -1 , reaching a maximum of 77.77 % at 5 μg mL -1 , suggesting that this strain was the most sensitive to the essential oil (Tab. 2).
Keywords : Essential oil, Insecticide, Fungicide, biopesticides, Integrated Pest Management
Bean crops (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) occupy a prominent place in medium and large farming units in Cameroon (Pessoa et al., 2016). Most of the time, the availability of this crop depends on, among other factors, strict quality control, timely harvesting, and appropriate storage. During storage, bean seeds may be destroyed by insects mainly Acanthoscelides obtectus SAY which consume substantial quantities of the beans, and their respiration increases temperature and intergranular humidity which in turn facilitates fungal growth (Rupolho et al., 2006) and production of mycotoxins. Stored grain pest infestation is controlled by various methods amongst which the application of chemical pesticides remains the most effective. However, because of the negative side effects of most synthetic insecticides on environment and human health, alternative control methods are gaining importance. Over the last decade, essential oils from plant origin and other botanicals (plant powders, plant extracts and non-volatile oils) have been developed as potential alternatives for pest control. They are often of low mammalian toxicity, readily biodegradable and pose low danger to the environment if used in small amounts (Regnault-Roger et al., 2002). This research evaluated the insecticidal and fungicidal activities of essential oils from fruits of Piper capense and Xylopia parviflora, and roots of Echinops giganteus and Mondia whitei against Acanthoscelides obtectus and fungi isolated from bean seeds. These plants were selected among others because they are locally available and used as spices in some camerounian traditional foods.
The results presented in this work provide insight into the mor- phological and biochemical characteristics of five commonly used MAP’s. If, by one hand, considerable differences can be observed, both on the leaf characteristics and on their composition between plant species, it is safe to say that all studied plants are rich sources of important bioactive compounds. Indeed, and regarding not only phenolics but also photosynthetic pigments, sugars and starch, the content on the analyzed plants was, in a large extent, higher than previous reports, which may indicate that cultivated plants are bet- ter sources of these compounds than wild ones. Furthermore, the obtained data gives a clear characterization of commercially avail- able plants, ready-to-use and actually used by consumers, rather than a description of wild samples, more vulnerable to the influence of abiotic and biotic stresses on their morphological and biochemical characteristics.
The role of traditional medicine in the east and Middle East has been of great importance in spreading significant achievements in Arab medicine. The founders of the ancient tribal territories are the Sumerites. The Sumerians, the Wakadians, founded several states in Mesopotamia (between the Tigris and Euphrates) several thousand years ago. Archaeological excavations around the Sumerian civilizations show that at that time numerous medicinal herbs were used for the treatment of diseases. With the discovery of the Assur Bonipal (Sandanapal, 668 B.C.) famous library, archaeologists revealed 33 different tableau, each of which was engraved with inscriptions and instructions on medicinal herbs and animal products. These tableaus were dedicated to various diseases. Each of them has been split into three columns, respectively, in the first column the names of the plants, and the second is the diseases for which the plants have been used, and the third is their use. The traditional Persian tradition of Zoroastrianism is known as the Old Iranian fuehrer (about ten centuries B.C.). Traditions indicate that Zoroaster has written the oldest Avesta historical and cultural work, which, apart from the religious, social and cultural issues related to the Bactrian, includes various medical themes and aspects. In Avesta, repeatedly mentioned various medicinal herbs, extracts and resin such as Asa foetida and other products (Babury, 2012).
6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and AromaticPlants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016
66 Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 453, 2016
ESL 5: Parasitic Angiosperms as medicinal plants
Karl Hammer 1 , Merita Hammer-Spahillari 2
As a related approach, analyzing the vast natural variation in organ size using quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping or genome-wide association studies holds great promise for identifying important regulators of size. Until recently this was challenging due to the limited genomic data available for most plant species, yet these limitations are being overcome by the use of next-generation sequencing. To date this approach has identified a small number of genes affecting size. For example, the fw2.2 gene from tomato affects fruit size by modulating cell proliferation  , while the se2.1 gene influences the length of the style by acting on cell expansion  . The maize counterparts to fw2.2 also seem to control size through cell number  . Similarly, QTL mapping within or between closely related species that differ in key traits might yield information about targeted functional changes to size control genes (e.g. [71,72] ). As changes to organ size in natural evolution are often specific to either leaves or flowers, in contrast to the mostly general effects caused by induced mutations, understanding the genetic basis of such size changes will likely provide insight into the link between organ identity and growth control, a largely unsolved problem in plants and animals. By performing this type of study in parallel and in multiple species pairs, the various solutions adopted in different taxa could illuminate either general principles or unfounded assumptions about how size control works.
We further examine the potential determinants of robot adoption at the plant level. Our regression results demonstrate plant size to be the most robust predictor of future robot adoption. According to our preferred estimate, a one-standard-deviation increase in the total employment in 2014 leads to a 1.6-percentage-point increase in the probability of robot adoption from 2015 to 2018, compared with the unconditional probability of robot adoption which is 2.48% over the same period. Conditional on plant size, both low-skilled labor intensity and export status have strong and positive effects on robot adoption, while sub-sample regressions suggest that the effect of low-skilled labor intensity is only found significant within the manufacturing sample. Manufacturing plants that raised wages due to the introduction of minimum wage in 2015 are also found to be more likely to adopt robots. Interestingly, we document that, when controlling for plant size, productivity has little, if not negative, effect on robot adoption. This result questions the overwhelmingly positive effect of productivity on robotization predicted by the existing theoretical work ( Koch et al. , 2019 ; Humlum , 2019 ).