• Nem Talált Eredményt



Academic year: 2022



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Sponsored by a Grant TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/2/A/KMR-2009-0041 Course Material Developed by Department of Economics,

Faculty of Social Sciences, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest (ELTE) Department of Economics, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest

Institute of Economics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences Balassi Kiadó, Budapest



Authors: Éva Orosz, Zoltán Kaló and Balázs Nagy Supervised by Éva Orosz

June 2011

ELTE Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics


Week 7

Health policies for sustainable

financing and improving efficiency

Author: Éva Orosz

Supervised by Éva Orosz




• Driving forces behind increasing health expenditure

• 2000s: changing views on growth in health spending

• Cost-containment policies/instruments and their possible effects

• Policies/instruments aiming at improving

efficiency and quality and their possible effects

• Main challenges


The drivers of health care spending

Demographic factors

• Changing pattern of morbidity (chronic diseases)

• Ageing of the population

Socio-economic factors

• Individuals’ income (distribution of income), individuals’ way of life

• Individuals’ growing expectations toward the health sector

• Socio-economic context of health systems

• General characteristics of the welfare

system, social policy in a given country


The drivers of health care spending

Development of medical technology and the way of medical practice (considered as the most important driver of increasing health spending)

Structural features of the health system

• Features of the financing system and organizational structure

• Health salaries and prices (in relation to other sectors of the economy)

• Informal health care (under-the-table payment)

• Health policy


Differing views on the excess-growth in public spending on health to GDP-growth

• Burden on the budget – to avoid

• Reflects natural structural changes in national economy; growing role of the service sectors

• Investments in long-term economic development

• The need of increasingly affluent and

aging societies require increasing health



Changes in dominant views on health expenditure in the 2000s

• ” Health expenditure is, however, too

often viewed as a short-term cost, not as a long-term investment, and is only now starting to gain recognition as a key

driver of economic growth .”

• David Byrne, European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Protection (2004)


Changing views on the role of health systems in the 2000s

The Tallin Charter: Health Systems for Health and Wealth (27 June 2008)

WHO European Ministerial Conference on Health Systems

• “… the Member States and partners believe that:

investing in health is investing in human development, social well-being and wealth”

• “the Member States, commit ourselves to:….

• Invest in health systems and foster investment across sectors that influence health

• Promote transparency and be accountable for health system performance

• Engage stakeholders in policy development and implementation

• Foster cross-country learning and cooperation…..”


Sustainability of health financing: possible strategies

• Changing the structure of revenue-raising

• Cost-containment in public spending

Supple-side instruments

• Regulation (limitation) of capacities, volume of services and prices

• Financial limitations and incentives

• Regulating individual physician’s decisions

Demand-side instruments (shifting the burden of health spending)

• Cost-sharing (increasing co-payments)

• Reducing the benefit-basket of social health insurance (e.g., subsidized medicine

• Improving efficiency

• Influencing factors with long-term impact on health status


Types of const-containment policies

• Direct and indirect control of expenditure growth

• Budget-limit

• Shifting health pending to private actors


Direct and indirect control on expenditure growth

• Controls on human and physical inputs

(decreasing the number of hospital beds and physicians)

• Controls on investments and application of new technologies

• Regulation of prices (changing the payment- methods)

• Regulation of the volume of services

• Incentives for a shift from hospital to ambulatory care

• Limits on the entrance number of medical students

• Limits on the number of human resources at public



Direct and indirect control on expenditure growth

• Regulating pharmaceutical prices

• Application of reference-prices in the pharmaceutical subsidy system

• Developing medical guidelines and their application by the financiers organisations (e.g., in financing contracts)

• Establishing institutions for health technology assessment (HTA)

• Increasing the role of HTA in „purchasing decisions”

(payment systems)

• Developing and more widely utilising ICT systems

• Increasing the competence and accountability of managers of provider institutions


Budget-limits (budget-caps)

• At national (macro) level

• At regional or sectoral (mezzo) level

• At institutional (micro) level


• Placing the burden on providers (incentives to avoid deficit)

• Savings can be kept by providers concerned

Budget caps are suitable to restrain expenditure;

however with the risks of harmful effects on access and quality.


Changing the payment methods

• Introducing budget caps

• Global budget for hospitals

• Connecting volume and price with different mechanisms

• Introducing fee-for-service items into

capitation-based payment methods (e.g.,

as incentives for prevention in UK)


Policies for shifting costs to private sector

• Narrowing the service-basket of social insurance

• Narrowing the scope of services/priority-setting

• Reducing the scope of subsidized medicine

• Increasing cost-sharing (out-of-pocket payment by patients)

• Bonus (reduction in insurance contribution in the case of non-utilisation of services)

• Making possible the opt-out of compulsory insurance

• Incentives for voluntary insurance

• Incentives for developing arrangements for financing and providing long-term-care in the private sector


Possible negative effects of cost-containment policies

(focusing on public spending)

• Total health expenditure may increase even faster (costs are shifted to patients)

• Negative effects on access to care

• Macro-level expenditure restrain may exert negative effects on micro level efficiency and quality

• Shortage of health manpower (health personnel leaving the profession or the country)

• Harmful effects on innovation


Shortage in health care workforce has become a central issue of health policies in EU countries

• ”A host of problems, ranging from looming shortages of some types of health care workers, accelerating labour migration, and distributional imbalances of various types (geographic, gender, occupational, institutional) to qualitative imbalances (underqualification or misqualification of health care workers) have undermined the capacity of health systems to respond effectively to the challenges they face.”

Rechel, B.: The Health Care Workforce in Europe. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, 2006, p.1


End of 80s: shift in priorities towards improving efficiency and quality

Main issues for health policies to address:

• Successful macro expenditure restrain ≠ improving efficiency

Lack of incentives for provides to improve their efficiency;

Great variations in therapies applied for the same condition, that is in quality of health care

• Low responsiveness to patients’ expectations

• Distorted, hospital-centric distribution of resources

• Inadequate efficiency of the hospital management


Sustainable financing: main trends

Changes in the way of revenue-raising

– Decreasing the share of wage-related contribution, increasing the role of general taxes (e.g., France, Germany)

– Centralizing revenue-raising; increasingly pooling the risks (e.g., Germany)

Developing need-adjusted capitation for the

allocation of resources among purchasers (such as, primary care organisations, insurance organisations, etc.

UK, Germany, Sweden, etc.)

Private expenditure: diverging trends


Main tendencies in the 2000s

• While dominance of public finance sustained, the share of private expenditure increased

• Serious cost-containment between 1992 and 1997; since the late 90s: health spending

growth exceeds GDP-growth

• Countries put different emphasis on different cost-containment instruments

• Growing attention to how to finance long-term



Decision-makers Factors influencing the decisions

Patients Physicians

Management of the provider institutions

Providers’ organizations Financier organization(s) –

social insurance, insurance companies


Information / knowledge

Behaviour patterns / attitudes Financial incentives

Economic regulation Quality regulation

Institutional / organizational arrangements of service provision and financing Human resources

Technology Infrastructure

Quality of care and efficiency of resource allocation is a vector

of the individual decisions by the actors of the health system


Main causes of inadequate efficiency and quality

• Lack of adequate information

• Payment methods do not operate incentives for quality and allocative efficiency

• Deficiencies of quality management

• Outdated structure of the provider network

• Deficiencies of regulatory and supervisory activities of the health care administration

• Nor the financier neither the provider institutions have adequate autonomy needed for efficient decisions.

• Lack of adequate accountability of all the main actors of the health system.


Policies/instruments for improving efficiency and quality

• Greater role of prevention

• Information (efficiency, costs, outcomes)

• Restructuring service provision (taking into consideration public health priorities)

• Incentives

• Activity-base payment methods (DGR)

• Outcome-related payment methods

• Capitation-based resource allocation among territorial units or financiers (insurers)

• Competition


Policies/instruments for improving efficiency and quality

• Quality development systems

• Improving care-coordination (optimal patient- path)

• Changing institutional form, arrangement (e.g., changing the economic form of hospitals)

• Priority-setting in financing

• Empowering patients: more active role in their

own health


Search for strategies to improve efficiency and quality

• Austria: Health Structural Plan, coordination between providers, law on quality


• Denmark: Overall plan for quality improvement in public services, 2007-2018; National anti-

cancer activity plan

• France: hospital-network planning; long-term planning of medical workforce

• UK: health technology assessment, incentives

for providers’ competition


Search for strategies to improve efficiency and quality

• Germany: financial incentives for care- coordination for chronic patients

• Canada: national strategy to prevent and treat mental diseases

• Spain: care-coordination (integrated provider organizations); introduction

long-term care insurance between 2007 and 2015

• Netherlands: encouraging competition

among insurance companies


Similar problems – differing reform- concepts

• The Netherlands, Germany: introduction

competition among insurance organisations in the mid-90s

• Austria:

– Having considered and than decided against insurance competition

– Strengthening the role of planning and



Debated issues

• Whether are private, profit-making providers more efficient than public organizations?

• Whether competition among providers can lead to improvements in quality and efficiency?

• Whether competition among insurance

companies can lead to improvements in quality and efficiency?

• How to incorporate quality-incentives into

provider payment methods?


Policies for limiting spending in a period of budget restraint

Source: (OECD, 2010)


Policies for limiting spending in a period of budget restraint

Source: (OECD, 2010)


Main challenges in the early 2010s for social- and health policies

• Effective strategies for ”Health in All Policies”

• Decreasing poverty and social exclusion. Decreasing inequalities in health.

• Effective fights against old and ”new pandemics” (e.g., obesity)

• Matching the increasing health and social need of the elderly population

• Mitigating the tensions between pressures for

increasing public spending and economic constraints


Main challenges in the early 2010s for social- and health policies

• To ensure solidarity principle in health

financing under changing socio-economic circumstances

• To mitigate tensions between scarce

resources and technological development

• To find new strategies for improving efficiency and quality (Experience with market-type

incentives showed their limitations)

• To coordinate EU countries’ public health

systems (as several public health risks cross



”Social costs” of economic crisis double hit the health sector

• The most serious, long-lasting effects hit the labour-

market. In 2010, average unemployment rate was 10%

in the EU.

• 16–26% of the EU population is at risk of poverty.

• The recovery of the social (health) expenditure is usually slower than that of the whole economy.

Decreasing resources for health

Increasing effects of health-damaging factors


Possible responses of health policies to tensions generated by economic crisis

Renewed attention to sustainability of health financing

• Possible scenarios

• Short-term cut of public spending (to reduce budget-deficit)

• Utilisation of changing political and social attitude – to launch overdue reforms

• Investments in health-related industries – as a tool of mitigations the effects of economic crisis on

employment and the economy

Difficult to predict which scenarios will be taken by the particular countries.



• OECD (2010) Value for Money in Health Spending, OECD, Paris

• Orosz É: A magyar egészségbiztosítás néhány stratégiai kérdése. In: Bodrogi J. (szerk): Az egészségügyi reformfolyamat fő kérdései.

Semmelweis Kiadó, 2010

• Thomson, S. et al (2009), Financing Health Care in the European Union. Observatory Studies Series

No.17. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen



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