Previous study were reviewed the dynamic properties by field impact test and performed the analysis for frequency response function using equations (9-14) and (9- 15) [89, 95, 132]. Dynamic properties of ballasted track were so rough and distributed widely [31, 41, 89, 95, 132]. Therefore to ensure the accuracy of dynamic property, it should be decided that the suitable parameter for the target track section, however it is difficult. Therefore, in present study, equations (9-14) and (9-15) (i.e., introduced in Section 4.2) were conducted in the qualitativeanalysis as a formulated in terms of modal and actual stiffness, damping and mass which was represented in the matrix formation. Further the results of these equations were represented in some range of parameters and response of track dynamics. The constitutive track model is applied to define the continuous equivalent stiffness properties on the longitudinal direction based on an anisotropic formulation, since the sleepers are usually contacted with the ballast by a link element. The selected Euler–Bernoulli beams provide the results for frequencies up to 500 Hz , and the Euler–Bernoulli beam model is easier to implement in a numerical code [6, 31, 89, 90]. Some simplifications are assumed that the connection between the rail and the sleepers is a single vector response on the rail, and only corresponding to the vertical displacement as explained in equation (9-16) [6, 31, 110]. The motion of the rail in the transformed domain is expressed by [6, 31]:
doctors with decades of experience with this procedure and its interpretation. To overcome these difficulties, in 2008, a group of European expert neurolaryngologists founded a working group aiming to provide systematic guidelines for LEMG execution and analysis. In 2012, the group pub- lished a detailed guideline on (1) the minimum equipment requirements for performing and recording LEMGs; (2) the procedural steps to guarantee reproducible results; (3) the essential LEMG interpretation criteria to ensure result standardization, and (4) launched the website https ://www. lemg.org to encourage experience exchange among the sites regularly performing LEMG and those still struggling with its implementation in their routine protocol. The European Laryngological Society emphasized the need of standardized training and regular practice [ 5 ] particularly considering the initial results of the international LEMG registry conducted by this working group between 2012 and 2016, aiming to evaluate the implementation of the LEMG across Central and Eastern Europe. The registry results clearly showed the limit of qualitativeanalysis. To our best knowledge, there is no standardized protocol available to effectively quantify the LEMG results.
The tippe-top is dynamically and geometrically symmetric rigid body on the horizontal plane. If one makes the tippe-top rotate fastly about its vertically directed axis of symmetry, when the center of mass is in the lowest position, it would turn over and start to rotate about vertically directed axis of symmetry, the center of mass being in the highest position. The local analysis of tippe-top dynamics (in the neighborhood of its rotations about vertically directed axis of symmetry) was done by Contensou (1963). The simplest model of the tippe-top is dynamically symmetrical non-homogenous spherical solid; the center of mass belongs to symmetry axis and does not coincide with geometrical center. The friction forces are modeled by Contensou – Zhuravlev dry friction law. The global qualitativeanalysis is based on considering the energy and the projection of kinetic moment to the contact point radius vector. The transition to the overturned position and back is explained completely.
Fig. 7: Normal probability plot
Fig. 8: Predicted vs. residual values
The regression equation obtained after analysis of vari- ance gives the level of average roughness as a function of independent variables: J/T abbreviation, abrasive mass fl ow rate, pressure, traverse speed, traverse direction and material thickness. All terms regard their signifi cance are included in the following equation:
Furthermore, interaction and discourse analyses during the last years in various places gained some relevance in the field of educational science. These approaches, mainly used in research on class-rooms, families and peer groups, include such diverse methodical treatments, as ethnomethodology, conversation analysis, or discourse analysis. While in the U.S., as well as in Germany, studies in conversation analysis specifically dominate the field of family and peer-group research, in France, but also in the UK, as well as in Brazil, discourse analytic research procedures of different philosophical background have been applied in these areas. Conversation analysis is main- ly based on ethnomethodological strategies of research and seeks to expose the methods that are used by actors to produce social order in interaction. Founded by Harvey Sacks (cf. i.e., 1992) the analytical procedure of conver- sation analysis, has been developed further only by a few researchers and up to date presents a relatively coherent research strategy. Contrary to this, dis- course analytic procedures, which mainly date back to the research program founded by Foucault (i.e., 1990), do not consist of a coherent methodical procedure, but include various analytical techniques, which have been devel- oped related to established sociological and linguistic methods (i.e., Fair- clough, 1989, 1995; Keller, 2005). Discourse analytic research strategies are mainly applied to the analysis of political and public discourse, but in educa- tional science as well in class-room interactions and media cultural debates. Additionally, newer methods, such as the documentary method is pre- sented in this book (cf. also Bohnsack, 1989, 2003b, 2008b; Bohn- sack/Nentwig-Gesemann/Nohl, 2007), or the Objective Hermeneutics (see i.e. Oevermann, 1979, 1989, 1993) can be mentioned, as they gained high importance in certain scientific cultures.
However, a numerical solution of Goodwin’s model requires knowledge of all the four numerical constants. A qualitative interpretation of such parameters is possible and is studied in this paper. The paper presents a qualitative approach to the Goodwin model. Deep knowledge items reflect undisputed elements of the corresponding theory. The law of gravity is an example. This law has no exceptions. This is a typical feature of deep- knowledge items. Soft sciences as e.g. macroeconomics, are just very rarely based on deep-knowledge items. Goodwin’s model is based partially on shallow knowledge.
dologists up to the present has tried to adapt the traditional quality factors of quantitative research to reconstructive approaches (i.e. Kirk/Miller, 1985; Morse et al., 2002; Golafshani, 2003). At the same time, this attempt gained much criticism (cf. i.e. Denzin/Lincoln, 1998), because the classic under- standing of criteria, such as validity, reliability and objectivity, do not fit the practices of reconstructive research and needs to be reformulated for the application to qualitative work (see i.e. Seal, 1999; Flick, 2005). A second very present attempt is to develop general and unspecific standards valid for all kinds of research methods, qualitative as well as quantitative. Criteria, such as the fit between research questions, data collection and techniques of analysis, or coherence of background assumption (see Howe/Eisenhard, 1990), are important to improve the quality of empirical research in general, but are not apt for the evaluation and review of qualitative studies in particu- lar. Finally, a third, and in our perspective the most promising attempt, lies in the formulation of standards of quality specific for qualitative research and its practice (i.e. Peshkin, 1993; Lincoln, 1995; Bohnsack, 2005a). Thereby it has been pointed out that, contrary to criteria of quality for standardized methods, standards for reconstructive approaches can be developed only out of the practice of research, such as terms and theories are produced from among the experience of reality, and are not conducted deductively from epistemological principles (see Bohnsack, 2005a). These criteria comprehend the reconstruction of the basic principles of social interaction, the production and orientation on elaborated methods of interpretation, the methodically controlled access to strange life worlds and interaction systems, as well as the disclosure of the difference between subjective sense and the structure of practice (Bohnsack, 2005a).
sector in relation to other Central, East and Southeast European economies (Gligorov & Vidovic, 2004), FDI and competiveness link (Sohinger & Horvatin, 2005), export competitiveness for manufacturing companies (Stojčić, Bečić, & Vojnić, 2012), innovation activities impact on competitiveness (Stojcic, Hashi, & Telhaj, 2011), external deficit and exchange rate influence on competitiveness (Vujčić & Presečan, 1999), corporate governance development importance for boosting competiveness (Ljubojević & Novičić, 2007), differ- ences in foreign and domestic product competive- ness (Leko-Šimić, 2001), major competitiveness ele- ment determinants (Tica, Cenan, & Bilas, 2004) and labor force competitiveness in Croatia (Bejaković and Lowther, 2004), very little research on X-efficiency in transitional countries has actually been conducted. As far as the authors know, in the last two decades, only two non-allocative efficiency research stud- ies in the Republic of Croatia have been conducted. After measuring efficiency in the seventeen Croatian customs service houses, Benazić (2012) found that only five of them were working efficiently and that the main reason of inefficiency was in an inadequate organizational structure of the Croatian customs administration. Another attempt was measuring the efficiency and productivity of the Croatian banking sector in the period 2000-2004, and in that case, Pri- morac and Troskot (2005) found that many banks in that period operated with a negative profit. Given that most of the banks observed in that period changed considerably, the authors concluded that statistical analysis for a banking sector as turbulent as the Croa- tian is has proved useless.
to take place in the simplest conceivable manner, namely according to a logistic law, where we denote by κ the effective growth rate of the population and by µ a parameter controlling death by overcrowding. Evidently, each subdomain cannot sustain infinitely many bacteria, but has a finite carrying capacity only. Therefore, death effects taking place at high population densities cannot be neglected. Indeed, the subsequent analysis will strongly rely on positivity of µ, whereas κ, small whenever typical time-scales of bacterial reproduction are substantially deceeded such as in application contexts like bioconvection, may attain any nonnegative value. Accounting for these effects leads to the equation
In this paper we investigate the content of the notion of common belief of rationality in strategic- form games with ordinal utilities within a qualitative context. In particular, following the literature on qualitative beliefs (e.g., see de Finetti , 1949 ; Koopman , 1940 ), we endow the standard KD45 Kripke structures with a qualitative likelihood relation for each player at each state. This additional structure allows us to characterize each of the aforementioned solution concepts within our framework in terms of restrictions on the qualitative beliefs, and without needing to vary the notion of rationality that we employ. In particular, we prove that IDSDS is characterized by common belief in rationality in a very broad class of models (Theorem 1 ); IDBS is characterized by common belief in rationality if we restrict attention to full-support beliefs (Theorem 2 ); and finally, IDIP is characterized by common belief in rationality if we further restrict attention to correct full-support beliefs (Theorem
3 Presentation of Results
3.1 Understanding of frugal innovations
It was discovered that the basic underlying “idea” of frugal innovation was intuitively clear to all respondents, even though the exact term was not necessarily known to everyone. Here some differences could be observed between experts from the field of business (almost all of whom knew the term) and those from the civil society (some of whom had not heard of the term before). Since business experts often deal with global trends and especially with developments in fast emerging economies, it might not come as a surprise that many had known the term primarily from resource-constrained settings such as India and Kenya. This is also in line with a recent bibliometric analysis showing that also in the academic literature frugal innovations are often associated with India (Tiwari, Kalogerakis, et al, 2016). Recent scholarly discourse has also suggested that emerging economies can act as “lead markets” for frugal products and technologies (Jänicke, 2014a; Quitzow et al, 2014; Tiwari and Herstatt, 2014).
Achievement of critical mass on the market is a complex topic. Critical mass is a certain growth pattern that enables a company to achieve a self-sustaining growth given a cer- tain number of customers [MR99]. To achieve critical mass is every startup's goal be- cause it allows the generation of additional sales with minimal customer acquisition costs. The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how agricultural startups pursue this aim. To reach this objective, the method selected was in-depth inter- views. In the qualitative methodology, the in-depth interview method is seen as the best way to "enter into the other person's perspective” [Pa02]. The following criteria were applied to select digital agricultural startups: 1) the startup's website is online and its product or working prototype is ready to be tested or used; 2) the product or solution has been built based on information technology; 3) the product or a solution is scalable. To find such startups, we used the two largest platforms that provide information about startups worldwide: f6s and AngelList. In addition to these two platforms, we used con- tacts to startups obtained during the Agritechnica fair in Hannover in 2015 and the GIL conference in 2016. In all, 19 startups were contacted; 11 of them agreed to participate in the interviews. Each interview lasted between 40 and 70 minutes. To better structure in- depth interviews, a guideline questionnaire with open questions was prepared. The ques- tionnaire contained questions about founders, product development, early adopters and the startup’s network. Most of the interviews were recorded during a Skype conversa- tion. To analyse the interviews, they were transcribed and uploaded to the qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. This software is one of those most used in academic research for analysing qualitative data such as observations, case studies and interviews. In the literature it is possible to find a software guide for ATLAS.ti [Fr14] as well as
There is however not only one single way of conducting grounded theory research, rather re- searchers can chose from a set of strategies, which they may use to their own discretion. This flexible approach has already been propagated by the original authors of the method, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L. Strauss (Charmaz 2006, p. 9). Researchers may as well "only [acknowl- edge] specific aspects of the approach" (Charmaz 2006, p. 9) and still produce qualitative studies. The classical grounded theory approach is performed circularly which involves reexamination of earlier data or obtaining of new data at certain times during the analysis in order to fill gaps or refine emerging theory (Charmaz 2006, p. 12). Such a typical research process is depicted in figure 2.1. Starting from a research problem and research questions, phases of coding and memo writing are passed. There are typically two coding phases used in grounded theory research, one of initial coding and one of focused coding – two different coding methods which are described in more detail in the next section 2.2. Right from the beginning and also during the whole process the observations and thoughts of the researcher are written down in so-called analytic memos. These memos are used to foster understanding of the data in a kind of conversation of the re- searcher with him- or herself. As the analysis progresses, the codes develop from simple first thoughts to tentative categories, conceptual categories, and theoretical concepts. This process is supported and documented by writing analytic memos. Later on, the memos are integrated and presented visually. The first draft of the final document is constructed from the stack of memos and diagrams produced. Also this stage of writing is still part of the circle. That way the whole process of theorizing and constant data analysis "extends into the writing and rewriting stages" (Charmaz 2006, p. 154).
A critical discussion of the own research results seems to be crucial for a scientific approach. The classical criteria, deriving from the test theory (objectivity, reliability and validity) cannot be simply transferred to qualitative approaches (cf. Steinke, 2000). But an introduction of totally different criteria seems to be problematic as well. A position, influenced by a constructivist theory of science, that qualitative and quantitative approaches, each following their own quality criteria, can be combined by triangulation (e.g. Flick, 2007) is not compatible with our intention of a unified scientific process. I think, validity in a broader sense is usually less of a problem within qualitative approaches, because they seek to be subject centered, close to everyday life (naturalistic perspective, field research), especially when the research process remains theory driven (construct validity). In qualitative research, efforts have to be made to enhance reliability in a broader sense. Within Qualitative Content Analysis, the rule guided procedures can strengthen this criterion. Objectivity, defined as total independence of the research results from the researcher, is held to be difficult within qualitative approaches. But on the other side, they discuss the interaction researcher–subject and strengthen objectivity in a broader sense.