Die englischsprachige Original-Skala der PositiveandNegativeAffect Schedule (PANAS) wurde 1988 von Watson, Clark und Tellegen entwickelt. Aus einem umfangreichen Itempool, bestehend aus 20 Kategorien mit Stimmungsitems, wurden zunächst aus jeder Kategorie drei Items ausgewählt. Daraus ergab sich ein Set bestehend aus 60 Items, die einer exploratorischen Faktorenanalyse unterzogen wurden. Die Stichprobe zur Überprüfung der Faktorstruktur bestand aus n = 649 (momentane Gefühlslage) beziehungsweise n = 1,002 (Gefühlslage während der letzten Tage) Collegestudenten, Collegeangestellten und collegeexternen Erwachsenen. Die Teilnehmer und Teilnehmerinnen beantworteten die Items auf einer Skala von „very slightly or not at all“ über „a little“, „moderately“ und „quite a bit“ bis zu „very much“. Das Ziel der Faktorenanalyse bestand darin, diejenigen Items auszuwählen, die möglichst stark auf nur einen der Faktoren Positiver Affekt oder Negativer Affekt luden. Daher wurden im nächsten Schritt alle Items eliminiert, die eine Faktorladung < .40 aufwiesen. Weiterhin wurden alle Items aus der Skala entfernt, die eine Faktorladung von ≥ │.25│ auf den jeweils anderen Faktor aufwiesen. Unter zusätzlicher Berücksichtigung von Reliabilitätsanalysen wurden schließlich 10 Begriffe für die Skala Positiver Affekt ausgewählt. Bei der Skala Negativer Affekt wurden auf Grundlage der Faktorladungskriterien 14 Items ausgewählt. Zusätzlich wurden 4 Items zu Verachtung (contempt) und Ekel (revulsion) entfernt, da sie nicht zur Erhöhung der Reliabilität und Validität der Skala beitrugen und weniger salient für die TeilnehmerInnen waren, was an der niedrigeren Antwortrate ersichtlich wurde. Daraus ergab sich die endgültige Struktur der englischsprachigen PANAS mit 10 Items zu Positiver Affekt und 10 Items zu Negativer Affekt.
4.3 Limitations and Further Research
There are some methodological and substantive limitations that should be considered. First, the data collection of the affect ratings only was conducted for three randomly selected episodes per person per year. Anusic et al. ( 2017 ) demonstrated the validity of the random-sampling DRM. Nevertheless, the reliability of the measurements must be viewed rather critically, in particular at the within-person level. Second, the operationaliza- tion of NA might not be sufficient. There are a variety of other affective states that have not been examined in this study. For example, anxiety, which plays a central role in many theories about affect, was not considered. The measurement of PA could also be reconsid- ered. A wider range of PA items should be included for further examinations since it is not possible to model subfacets on the basis of three PA items. Third, we have analyzed the aggregated within-person structure for all participants over 2 years and treated this as being informative about between-person differences. Individual structures, however, may differ from the aggregated within-person structure. Fourth, the reliabilities of the latent affect factors are lower at the within-person level (PA = .75, NA1 = .79, NA2 = .62, NA3 = .54) than at the between-person level (PA = .90, NA1 = .93, NA2 = .85, NA3 = .87), particularly so for NA3. This needs to be taken into account when interpreting within-person relations of these factors to other time-varying variables. Similar to the lower correlations among the affect factors, the lower correlations among the items of each affect factor may indicate a more differentiated affect structure at the within-person level. This may be further inves- tigated using more items to represent each of the affect factors identified here, which may potentially allow a differentiation into further sub-factors (e.g., separable factors of bore- dom and loneliness). Fifth, the range of age is very large. This age heterogeneity leads to differences in time use and activities in everyday life (e.g., employment vs retirement) andaffect. Studies showed that older adults with increasing age tend to experience less happi- ness (Bjalkebring et al. 2015 ) and less anger (Kunzmann et al. 2013 ). This confounding between age andaffect should be taken into account in further investigations.
What is known about emotional correlates of FPE and FNE emanates from two research lines: a psychometric research line has shown that both FNE and FPE go along with generally higher negativeand generally lower positiveaffect (i.e., PositiveandNegativeAffect Scale scores) (Wang, Hsu, Chiu, & Liang, 2012 ; Weeks & Howell, 2012 ; Weeks, Jakatdar, & Heimberg, 2010 ). Thus, this research line suggests a general shift of affective level (that is, generally higher negativeand lower positiveaffect intensity) in individuals with high FNE and FPE without further specifying sources or triggers of such affects. A second, mainly laboratory-based research line followed a symptom-provocation paradigm and examined whether standardized social stimuli elicited increased affective responses in individuals with elevated levels on each (FNE/FPE) fear component. Following this affective reactiv- ity research line, Weeks and Zoccola ( 2015 ) used a standardized social stress test (i.e., an evaluated speech) and showed that FPE and FNE were each uniquely linked to elevated anxiety and elevated negativeaffect reactivity. Even more control was implemented in the studies of Weeks, Howell, and Goldin ( 2013 ) and Reichenberger et al. ( 2015 ), each using videos clips depicting standardized nega- tive andpositive evaluative sentences. In both studies enhanced affective reactivity (i.e., increase of state anxiety, unpleasantness ratings, respectively) was documented. Although validating the con- cepts of FNE and FPE, neither line of research optimized external validity. That is, actual daily experi- ences are not directly taken into account, nor are naturalistic triggers of affective reactivity known.
mental health activities, individual resources, as well as state and trait PA and NA. Preliminary results indicate that mental health activities were perceived to be useful for enhancing positiveaffectand reducing negativeaffect (Kohlmann & Hofmann, 2018). However, these perceptions need to be confirmed in longitudinal studies. This seems to be a promising avenue, especially because mental health activities might also be important in regard to the hedonic adaption. The hedonic treadmill model assumes that significant life events affect people’s emotions only temporarily (Brickman, Coates, & Janoff-Bulman, 1987). After a certain amount of time, individuals adapt to these changes and return to their genetically determined set-point. However, this model primarily focused on major life events instead of everyday activities. Since daily hassles are a highly relevant for psychological and somatic health and even better predictors than life events are (Charles, Piazza, Mogle, Sliwinski, & Almeida, 2013; Lazarus & Folkman, 1987), it seems to be a good strategy to alleviate these daily hassles by daily activities to increase well-being. Indeed, subsequent longitudinal studies have shown that the genetically determined set-point can be elevated with intentional activities and that these elevations can have lasting effects (Diener et al., 2006; Garland et al., 2010; Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2012). By increasing positive emotions, building individual resources, and satisfying psychological needs, daily activities can lead to various benefits (Fredrickson, 2004; Hobfoll, 2002; Lyubomirsky, King et al., 2005;
To sum up, there is extensive evidence suggesting that affect regulation may play an important role in the devel- opment and maintenance of mental disorders and that the two extensively investigated regulation strategies Cogni- tive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression are related to personal well-being. However, from a clinical perspective, it appears promising to extend Gross’s model of emotion regulation by a second response-focused strategy called “Externalizing Behavioral Strategies” which appears to be of major importance in clinical populations and thus also promises important practical benefits. To our knowledge there is no instrument that combines the two Gross scales with an assessment of Externalizing Behavioral Strategies. This provided the rationale for the current study which aimed at developing the NegativeAffect Repair Question- naire (NARQ) including those three scales, measuring them with more palpable, behavior-related items that measure different aspects of Reappraisal and Suppression and ensuring their stability across clinical and non-clinical groups. The focus on negativeaffect allows us to exclude confounding effects that could arise from differences in regulation of positiveandnegative emotions. Consistent with previous results and Gross’s theoretical model, we
Starting from Gross’ model, Gross and John developed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; ), which was designed to measure Reappraisal and Suppression - the two emotion regulation strategies the authors consid- ered to be most typical. In their original study, Gross and John found internal consistencies ranging from .68 to .82 with no cross-loadings on the two factors . Egloff et al.  reported good internal consistencies (mean α = .81) for a German adaptation of the ERQ in a sample of 82 psychology students. While the ERQ includes regulation of positiveandnegative emotions, no separation is made between regulation of positiveandnegative emotion in the sum score, assuming that the valence of the regulated emotion is of less importance than the strategy in general. The wording of the items are very similar, asking for Re- appraisal and Suppression on an abstract level and with seven answer options, which might be difficult to answer and to interpret, especially for people with mental disor- ders . Additionally, the factor structure of the ERQ could not be replicated by Stadelmaier .
3. Study two: Negativeaffect regulation strategies in patients with a Major Depressive Disorder
Negativeaffect repair refers to strategies, thoughts and behaviors intended to improve negative mood and emotional states (Campbell-Sills & Barlow, 2007). Negativeaffect is part of everyday life, with a profound impact on emotional adjustment, interpersonal functioning, mental health and well-being (e.g., Eisenberg et al., 2000; Gross, 1998). Therefore, people tend to actively change their negativeaffect, often by using strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, spending time with others, and seeking pleasurable activities or distraction (e.g., Fichman et al., 1999; Thayer et al., 1994). It is evident that persons differ in the use of affect repair strategies and that different pattern of use can have positive or negative effects on mood and well-being (e.g., Campbell-Sills et al., 2006; John & Gross, 2004). Therefore, a better understanding of negativeaffect regulation is not only of major relevance for healthy people but also for patients with mental disorders (e.g., Linehan, 1993; Swendsen et al., 2000). Affect regulation, for example, seems to play a significant role for onset and maintenance of depression (e.g., Campbell-Sills & Barlow, 2007; Gross & Munoz, 1995; Joormann et al., 2007).
that are present in biofluids and cell culture media ( 6 ). Assembly of EV depends on their cell of origin and differs remarkably encompassing a broad spectrum of antigens, cell surface-expressed receptors and/or ligands, metabolites, and nucleic acids ( 7 ). Generally, the unique molecular signature of EV guides their biodistribution, uptake and internalization ( 7 ). As multifactorial vehicles, EV orchestrate various systemic processes, triggering changes of the state of the recipient cell ( 8 ). In malignancies, EV play a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of the tumor microenvironment (TME) ( 6 ), which enables tumor development by continuous crosstalk between tumor cells and their microenvironment and by providing the tumor with cellular and soluble components including nutrients, oxygen, metabolites, and several other soluble factors ( 9 ). EV can either directly fuse with a target cell enabling the transfer of bioactive molecules to both, adjacent and distant sites, or be internalized via phagocytosis, endocytosis or micropinocytosis, thereby contributing to an intracellular signaling mechanism ( 10 ). Of note, fusion depends on an acidic micro-environment which naturally occurs inside tumors ( 11 – 14 ), while uptake and internalization of EV are primarily receptor-mediated via adhesion molecules ( 15 ). Thereby, tumor-derived EV (TEV) may represent an alternative mechanism of immunosurveillance deficiency impairing diverse immune cell lineages ( 6 ).
Our research questions scrutinized whether and under which conditions negative brand-related information can have positive effects in the context of customer interaction on social media platforms. Imagine that you are reading through your Facebook news feeds and you see that one of your Facebook friends went to a restaurant and had a horrific evening there. How does this piece of negative information affect your per- sonal intentions to visit this restaurant? Is this piece of infor- mation useful or valuable for you at all? These questions point to the need to examine the outcomes that result from cus- tomers’ brand-related interactions in OSNs. In line with pre- vious research (e.g., Ein-Gar et al. 2012 ), we assumed that there would be a difference, depending on whether the user already had an initial (positive) attitude towards the object or not. Study 1 addresses this issue by focusing solely on partic- ipants who were familiar with the target restaurant brand. The analysis indicates that users familiar with the mentioned res- taurant had initial high attitude scores towards the restaurant chain. The results show, similar to the findings of Ein-Gar et al. 2012 that a small dose of negative information posted by distant acquaintances (i.e., weak ties) indeed significantly increases the readers visiting intentions. However, no such positive effect was found for negative brand-related informa- tion posted by a strong tie. Furthermore, users tend to perceive a comment about a restaurant they know from a close friend as more diagnostic than a comment from a distant acquaintance, independent of the valence of the post. These findings are consistent with those of other studies in the context of
Participants were recruited through a press release in a local newspaper and posters placed in strategic locations. Healthy younger male adults (N = 16) between the ages of 20 to 38 years (M = 25.2 ± 5.0) and healthy older male adults (N = 16) between the ages of 62 to 77 years (M = 69.4 ± 3.8) participated in the present study. Each partici- pant completed a health questionnaire including questions about major life areas (e.g. physical and mental health and prescription medications, education) that served to iden- tify participants who met the inclusion criteria. Individuals with neurological or mental disorders and those taking medications that affect their cognitive functioning (e.g. anticholinergic drugs, beta blocker) were excluded. Also excluded were participants who did not fulfill the inclu- sion criteria for investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, e.g. anyone with any metal in the body as cardiac pacemakers, aneurysm clips, cochlear/ retinal implants, hearing aids, tattoos, metal plats/pins/ screws on bones). All participants were right-handed and were informed about the objectives and procedure of the study. The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee and all participants gave written consent. They were paid a small allowance.
Hirt et al. (2008) suggest another mechanism which may explain the potential link between creativity andpositiveaffect. They based their studies on the “Hedonic Contingency Theory” of Wegener and Perry (1994). This theory implies that happy people want to maintain their positive mood and therefore choose activities which will either maintain or enhance their current mood. Contrary, people in neutral or bad mood want to improve their current mood. Thus, Hirt et al. (2008) proposed, that people who are in a happy mood would outperform people in a neutral or negative state in creative tasks. They argued that happy people would transform mood-decreasing tasks in order to maintain their mood resulting in higher originality and fluency. They conducted a series of studies to evaluate their hypotheses. Generally, subjects with a positive mood showed higher fluency, flexibility and originality in creativity tasks than people in neutral or sad mood. Moreover, happy subjects transformed unpleasent (e.g. causes of death) into pleasant tasks by creating more sensational and comical causes of death than participants in other mood conditions. Further, their findings revealed that positive mood increased motivation for creativity tasks and pleasant tasks, whereas motivation for tasks concerning interest and difficulty was descreased. This indicates that a motivational factor may influence the potential link between creativity andpositive mood as well. A similiar effect was yielded in a study by Hirt, Melton, McDonald, and Harackiewicz (1996). Subjects who have listenend to positive statements during the mood manipulation did not only reach higher scores in fluency and originality, but also showed a higher task interest.
The correlation among these indicators is presented in Table 2. Data is extracted from several international databases (Eurostat, OECD Education at a Glance database, the web sites of academic rankings) and serve as a base for constructing the panel data for the period of the years - 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2009 - for EU27 countries in addition to Switzerland, Norway, the United States and Japan. We decided to use the panel data analysis in order to obtain more reliable results by analyzing observations on multiple phenomena observed over multiple times in multiple countries. In this work, only correlation (R) of above 0.5 is determined to be an indicator of a strong correlation between the indicators: if a correlation of above 0.5 is found (whether positive or negative), it indicates that there is a strong relationship between selected knowledge economy indicators and tertiary educational indicators. The advantage of the correlation analysis is that, unlike the regression analysis, it shows how those variables affect each other regardless of the direction. On the other hand, it does not suffice in determining whether there is a cause-and-effect link between the variables (it would instead be determined by regression analysis at the later stage of this paper). At this stage, the correlation analysis suffices as we are interested in testing whether there is a correlation of any kind in between selected two variables and if so, how strong.
This point of view contributed to the modern operationalized diagnostics used in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Here, schizophrenia is classified by a long list of phenotypical symptoms including the symptoms described by Bleuler as well as those described by Schneider. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV classify schizophrenia into diverse subtypes such as the paranoid or the catatonic subtype by combining special groups of symptoms. This classification is solely descriptive without any prognostic capacity. This prognostic capacity is assigned to the conception from Crow  and his distinction between type-I and type-II Schizophrenia. The basis of this classification is the distinction between positiveandnegative symptoms. Positive symptoms are symptoms with productive character such as hallucinations, delusions or bizarre behaviour and are supposed to be dominant in type-I. Type-II is dominated by negative symptoms. These symptoms are characterized by the absence of normal experiences and appear, for example, in deficits of the affect, of thinking and communication or in decreased motivation. This classification allows a connection between diagnosis and prognosis, as negative symptoms are supposed to be associated with poorer response to antipsychotics: type-I is therefore called acute schizophrenia, type-II chronic schizophrenia. Although this simplifying concept of type-I and type-II schizophrenia could not be validated , the distinction in positiveandnegative symptoms plays a central role in modern discussion and is part of important psychiatric rating scales.
Ionen chlorhaltiger Verbindungen konnten nur als negative Ionen nachgewiesen werden, ein Nachweis positiver chlorhaltiger Ionen war nicht möglich. Der Grund dafür, daß positive chlorierte Ionen sich nicht im Massenspektrum finden lassen, liegt wahrscheinlich in ihrer geringen Konzentration. Signale dieser Ionen werden durch Signale unchlorierter Spezies überlagert, so daß die chlorierten Verbindungen nicht mehr als solche zu erkennen sind. Ein Erklärungsversuch über eine deutliche Erhöhung des Ionisierungspotentials oder eine Erniedrigung der Protonenaffinität scheitert, da sich diese Werte durch die Einführung eines Cl-Atoms nur wenig ändern. Im Falle der negativen Ionen hingegen erhöht die Anwesenheit eines Chloratoms die Elektronenaffi- nität und somit die Nachweisempfindlichkeit des entsprechenden Moleküls. Dabei konnten an aromatischen Molekülen fast ausschließlich Derivate des Phenolat-Ions nachgewiesen werden. Nicht aromatische Ionen konnten, mit Ausnahme des Cl – und des HCl 2 – , nur als sauerstoffhaltige Verbindungen mit maximal einem C-Atom detek- tiert werden. Ionen chlorierter PAH, chlorierter Fullerene oder chlorierter Polyine sind nicht nachgewiesen worden. Folgende chlorierte Ionen können in den untersuchten Flammen nachgewiesen werden:
understanding  and facilitation of motor output during imitation .
Beyond the putative human mirror neuron system and motor-, as well as sensorimotor cortices, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) was reported to be involved in imitation of emotional facial expressions [9,13,16]. Furthermore, the insula and the amygdala were hypothesized to be part of an emotional perception-action matching system [11,17] and therefore to ‘‘extend’’ the classical MNS (which was shown to respond to goal directed hand movements) during emotion processing . Both regions were previously reported to be involved in observation and imitation of emotional facial expressions (angry, happy, fearful, sad, disgusted, surprised ). Interestingly, right insula activation was predicted by the magnitude of facial movements of participants (angry, sad and happy; when exclusively masked with non-emotional facial expressions). Moreover, left amygdala activation was predicted by extent of movement during imitation of happy facial expressions . In contrast, no activation of insula and amygdala was reported during observation (angry, happy, fearful, disgusted, neutral ) and imitation of emotional facial expressions in two further fMRI studies (angry and happy ). Van der Gaag and colleagues  found increased bilateral anterior insula activation but did not find increased amygdala activation during observation of emotional facial expressions (happy, disgusted and fearful, all emotions pooled together) when contrasted with observation of non-emotional facial expressions (blowing cheeks). In a further analysis of their data the authors compared the BOLD signal of the amygdala during observation between disgusted, fearful, happy and non-emotional (blowing cheeks) facial expressions but found no significant differences. This was true for passive observation, observation for discrim- ination of facial expressions and observation for delayed imitation (motor aspects were not included in the general linear model). Significant differences of amygdala activation were noted only when observation of facial expressions was compared to observation of patterns but amygdala activation was not specific to emotional processing . Hennenlotter and colleagues  showed involvement of the left anterior insula during both observation and execution of pleasant facial affect. The bilateral amygdala was also involved in both tasks, but activation sites differed. During observation the bilateral ventral amygdala was activated, whereas the bilateral dorsal amygdala was involved in smile execution. Contrary, shared representa- tions of observation and execution of happy facial expressions were found in the same part of the bilateral amygdala .
Apparently, political strategists have been convincing in advising candidates to vilify their opponents. Yet, the academic debate on the effectiveness of negative ads in persuading voters is still open. Indeed, despite its popularity among practitioners, the empirical evidence on whether negative ads are more or less effective than positive ones is ambiguous (Lau et al., 2007). Negativity seems to reduce the voters’ evaluation of the targeted politician (Kahn and Kenney, 2004). However, this effect may not be sufficient to lower political support for the target of the negative ads, as political choices are hard to change (Lau et al., 2007). Moreover, negativity may also have a backlash effect, by worsening the evaluation of the attacker (Carraro and Castelli, 2010; Lau and Rovner, 2009) and may therefore reduce his support (Kahn and Kenney, 2004; Lau and Rovner, 2009). Going negative is thus a strategic choice that a candidate makes, by weighting the benefit from driving down the positives of the opponents (i.e., the target effect ) against the risk of being perceived negatively (i.e., the backlash effect ). Several aspects of this strategic decision have been analyzed in the literature, such as the closeness of the race, the existence of an incumbent, differences in the amount of funding or in the polls (Dowling and Krupnikov, 2016; Mattes and Redlawsk, 2014), or the heterogeneous response of voters by gender (Galasso and Nannicini, 2016).
Interestingly, activation of the insula specific for happy affect extended to the IFG op (BA 44) and pars triangularis (BA45). Several studies have found activation in IFG op during imitation of hand-movements (e.g. ) or during imitation of emotional facial expressions [9,13,16]. IFG op is part of the putative human mirror neuron system, which is believed to mediate action understanding [12,14] by decoding the goal of an observed action [38,39]. Evidence for the importance of the IFG op for imitation came from a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study, which found that perturbation of left and right IFG op significantly increased error rates in a finger imitation task . But it is still under debate if this area plays a pivotal role in imitation (e.g. [9,37,40,41]), or if its involvement in imitation is overestimated . For example, IFG op activity might be confounded by other cognitive functions like execution timing . Importantly, in our study execution timing was needed during imitation of both facial expressions. Therefore, timing issues cannot explain the increased activation for the happy (as compared to the non-emotional) facial Table 3. Analyses of insula and amygdala activation.
temperature-dependent structural modifications and MR property. Here we report on detailed temperature- dependent powder diffraction, angular-dependent magnetic characteristic and transport studies of GdSi single crystals. We find anomalous anisotropic giant MR and spontaneous magnetostriction (MS) effects, in particular, an antiferromagnetic (AFM)-driven negative thermal volume expansion (NTVE) and a nontrivial positive to negative MR transition, which can be well understood by combining the magnetic tunnel of conduction electrons and the concept of magnetic polarons 12 , i.e., local short-range FM spin regimes 12 .
Chapter 5 is dedicated to uniqueness questions. Its first section concerns the SST- generalized stationary Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown in Theorem 22 that the proof of a known uniqueness result for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations under smallness assumptions on the force (see e. g. [Tem84, page 167, Theorem 1.3]) carries over to the general SST setting. The question whether uniqueness can be established without this smallness assumption seems to be an open question in the special case of the stationary Navier-Stokes equations according to [Tem84, page 168, Remark 1.1]. As far as general SST spaces are concerned, the question has a negative answer: By means of a counterexample it is shown in Theorem 24 that the smallness assumption on the force is indispensable in the general SST setting. After that, in sec. 5.2, the well-known fact that the uniqueness of solutions to linear difference schemes can be proven without smallness assumptions on the data in the case of the Navier- Stokes equations (see e. g. [GR79, page 171, Lemma 2.1]) is shown to generalize to SST spaces. Nonlinear difference schemes are discussed in sec. 5.3. All results are first established for the implicit Euler scheme and subsequently transferred to other nonlinear schemes. To our knowledge, the uniqueness of solutions to nonlinear difference schemes for the Navier-Stokes equations has only been studied in the case of spatial discretizations. In that case the Dirichlet and L 2 norms are equivalent,