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Negative affect repair questionnaire (NARQ) : development and validation of an instrument assessing negative affect regulation strategies

Negative affect repair questionnaire (NARQ) : development and validation of an instrument assessing negative affect regulation strategies

The NMR was used as a template for the development of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS, Gratz & Roemer, 2004). The DERS is a 41-item questionnaire consisting of six sub-scales: non-acceptance of emotional responses, difficulties in engaging in goal-directed behaviour, impulse control difficulties, lack of emotional awareness, limited access to emotional regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity. Difficulties in emotion regulation are assessed with eight items and the introduction “When I’m upset, I believe that …”. Cronbach’s alphas from a homogenous sample of psychology students (mean age = 23 years) range between .80 and .89, and construct validity with the NMR (Catanzaro & Mearns, 1990) between -.34 and -.69. This brief overview of questionnaires designed to assess mood and emotion regulation suggests a number of issues that these measures have in common. First, the terms, affect, emotion, and mood, are used inconsistently, and often interchangeable. In order to avoid this confusion we use the term “affect regulation” in the sense of a superordinate category for all valenced states. Consequently, negative affect regulation describes the tendency to actively and positively influence negative affect with various strategies. Second, all of these questionnaires were designed for and validated in non- clinical populations (mainly students) making their use potentially difficult for clinical groups. Third, the majority of the instruments are empirically derived (by use of exploratory factor analyses), i.e. without theoretical foundation or without testing the appropriateness of the theoretical model used. This may lead to problems in the interpretation of the empirically derived factor structure. However, one exception is the theoretically postulated and empirically confirmed two-factor structure of the ERQ (Gross & John, 2003).
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The negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples

The negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples

positively influence negative affect with various strategies. This includes the regulation of emotions and moods. Another problem concerns the available instruments to measure affect regulation. Many instruments are purely empirically derived (by use of exploratory factor analyses), i.e., without clear theoretical foundation or without testing the appropriateness of the theoretical model used. This may lead to uncertainties about the number and interpret- ation of the empirically derived factors [13,14]. Some of these instruments include Thayer et al’s questionnaire [5] or Garnefeski at al’s Cognitive Emotion Regulation Ques- tionnaire (CERQ), where a principal component analysis was used [15]. Other measurement instruments assess affect regulation as one aspect embedded in a broader the- oretical construct, for example emotional intelligence or generalized expectancies of negative mood regulation [16-18]. Several more instruments to assess emotion or mood regulation strategies exist, especially in the context of certain therapeutic outcomes, for example, the Accept- ance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ) [19], which was developed in connection with Acceptance and Commit- ment Therapy (ACT) [20], or the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire [21] which asks participants about their view on different competencies in relation with emo- tion regulation and which is connected to an emotion regulation training [22]. Diverse coping scales also include items similar to those found in affect regulation literature.
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Capturing affective well-being in daily life with the day reconstrution method: A refined view on positive and negative affect

Capturing affective well-being in daily life with the day reconstrution method: A refined view on positive and negative affect

Abstract In the last years, there has been a shift from traditional measurements of affective well-being to approaches such as the day reconstruction method (DRM). While the traditional approaches often assess trait level differences in well-being, the DRM allows examining affective dynamics in everyday contexts. The latter may ultimately explain why some people feel more happy than others (e.g., because they experience more gratification during everyday experiences). Even though DRM research has increased in the last years, little is known about the structure of affective well-being in everyday life, and potential structural differences of affect at the within- and between-person level have rarely been considered. We thus thoroughly examined the structure of affective well-being in daily life, using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 2401) of the German Socioeco-nomic Panel Innovation Sample that were obtained with the DRM. Multilevel structural equation models revealed that (1) affective well-being in daily life cannot be reduced to the two global dimensions positi- ve and negative affect (PA and NA) but that the structure of NA is more nuanced; (2) the emerging subfacets of NA have distinct associations with global indicators of well-being (e.g., life satisfaction); (3) there are structural differences of affective well-being at the within- and between-person level, and (4) the relationships between affect subfacets and activities such as “work” can be opposed at the within- and between-person level. These results show that a more differentiated view on the structure of affect contributes to a better understanding of affective well-being in everyday life.
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Reflecting on existential threats elicits self-reported negative affect but no physiological arousal

Reflecting on existential threats elicits self-reported negative affect but no physiological arousal

Importantly, we took a more fine-grained approach to investigating arousal than previous studies by measuring arousal on a high time-scale over the whole course of threat reflection. This is a novel approach, as previous existential threat research only measured affect before and after threat reflection ( Burke et al., 2010 ; Lambert et al., 2014 ) or physiological activation during threat reflection ( Klackl and Jonas, 2019 ). Measuring both physiological and subjective arousal on a high time-scale is especially relevant since the dual process model of terror management states that thoughts of mortality are suppressed with a clear temporal sequence, i.e., (almost) immediate proximal and delayed distal defenses against death anxiety ( Pyszczynski et al., 1999 ; Greenberg et al., 2000 ). Therefore, subjective arousal increases in response to MS would (almost) immediately be regulated by proximal defenses. In contrast, Lambert et al. (2014) showed that MS does in fact elicit affective responses, which can be captured by more specific measures that can distinguish between different emotions. To test these contrasting predictions, we measured physiological and subjective arousal in a high time-scale as well as self-reported affect before and after reflection and distinguished between general positive and negative affect and between several specific negative emotions. Specifically, besides using a questionnaire to measure general positive and negative affect before and after reflection, we used a content analysis of descriptions of thoughts during threat reflection to measure the number of positive and negative affect-related words, as well as three specific negative emotions: anger, fear/anxiety, and sadness. We expected to find larger increases in subjective arousal and more negative affect in the existential threat conditions as compared to the control condition, with each threat potentially evoking specific negative emotions; with MS evoking fear/anxiety and sadness
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The negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples

The negative affect repair questionnaire: factor analysis and psychometric evaluation in three samples

To sum up, there is extensive evidence suggesting that affect regulation may play an important role in the devel- opment and maintenance of mental disorders and that the two extensively investigated regulation strategies Cogni- tive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression are related to personal well-being. However, from a clinical perspective, it appears promising to extend Gross’s model of emotion regulation by a second response-focused strategy called “Externalizing Behavioral Strategies” which appears to be of major importance in clinical populations and thus also promises important practical benefits. To our knowledge there is no instrument that combines the two Gross scales with an assessment of Externalizing Behavioral Strategies. This provided the rationale for the current study which aimed at developing the Negative Affect Repair Question- naire (NARQ) including those three scales, measuring them with more palpable, behavior-related items that measure different aspects of Reappraisal and Suppression and ensuring their stability across clinical and non-clinical groups. The focus on negative affect allows us to exclude confounding effects that could arise from differences in regulation of positive and negative emotions. Consistent with previous results and Gross’s theoretical model, we
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Increases of negative affect following daily hassles are not moderated by neuroticism

Increases of negative affect following daily hassles are not moderated by neuroticism

The occurrence of daily hassles is associated with increased subsequent levels of negative affect. Neuroticism has been found to exacerbate this effect. So far, most research used single-item measures for the assessment of daily hassles or relied on daily diary studies. This study aimed to examine the interrelations of daily hassles, negative affect reactivity, and neuroticism in daily life employing an extensive inven- tory of daily hassles. Seventy participants (18 –30 years; M = 23.9 years, 59% female) completed a 4-week smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment study reporting the occurrence and perceived strain of daily hassles as well as negative affect at five semi-random signals between 9 a.m. and 8 p.m. Multilevel analyses rev- ealed significant associations between elevated levels of negative affect and higher cumulative daily hassle strain ratings per signal in concurrent and time-lagged ana- lyses. Contrary to our expectations, there was no moderation by neuroticism on these associations. The results suggest that daily hassles can accumulate in their impact on mood in daily life and exert a prolonged effect on negative affect. The absence of a significant moderation by neuroticism may be interpreted in the light of methodological specifics of this study.
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Deutsche Version der Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS (GESIS Panel)

Deutsche Version der Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS (GESIS Panel)

Die englischsprachige Original-Skala der Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) wurde 1988 von Watson, Clark und Tellegen entwickelt. Aus einem umfangreichen Itempool, bestehend aus 20 Kategorien mit Stimmungsitems, wurden zunächst aus jeder Kategorie drei Items ausgewählt. Daraus ergab sich ein Set bestehend aus 60 Items, die einer exploratorischen Faktorenanalyse unterzogen wurden. Die Stichprobe zur Überprüfung der Faktorstruktur bestand aus n = 649 (momentane Gefühlslage) beziehungsweise n = 1,002 (Gefühlslage während der letzten Tage) Collegestudenten, Collegeangestellten und collegeexternen Erwachsenen. Die Teilnehmer und Teilnehmerinnen beantworteten die Items auf einer Skala von „very slightly or not at all“ über „a little“, „moderately“ und „quite a bit“ bis zu „very much“. Das Ziel der Faktorenanalyse bestand darin, diejenigen Items auszuwählen, die möglichst stark auf nur einen der Faktoren Positiver Affekt oder Negativer Affekt luden. Daher wurden im nächsten Schritt alle Items eliminiert, die eine Faktorladung < .40 aufwiesen. Weiterhin wurden alle Items aus der Skala entfernt, die eine Faktorladung von ≥ │.25│ auf den jeweils anderen Faktor aufwiesen. Unter zusätzlicher Berücksichtigung von Reliabilitätsanalysen wurden schließlich 10 Begriffe für die Skala Positiver Affekt ausgewählt. Bei der Skala Negativer Affekt wurden auf Grundlage der Faktorladungskriterien 14 Items ausgewählt. Zusätzlich wurden 4 Items zu Verachtung (contempt) und Ekel (revulsion) entfernt, da sie nicht zur Erhöhung der Reliabilität und Validität der Skala beitrugen und weniger salient für die TeilnehmerInnen waren, was an der niedrigeren Antwortrate ersichtlich wurde. Daraus ergab sich die endgültige Struktur der englischsprachigen PANAS mit 10 Items zu Positiver Affekt und 10 Items zu Negativer Affekt.
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Positive Spillovers from Negative Campaigning

Positive Spillovers from Negative Campaigning

We contribute to a large literature on the effects of negative campaigning on electoral outcomes. 1 In their seminal experimental paper, Ansolabehere et al. (1994) use responses from a post-test questionnaire, administered after subjects had seen the advertisements, to show that negative ads reduce average voting intentions by 5%. Arceneaux and Nickerson (2010) implemented a field experiment, in which volunteers personally delivered a political message to their treatment groups to find that, while canvassing is effective in influencing voters, there is little evidence of a differential effect between negative and positive campaign- ing. 2 Studies on negative campaigning, which use aggregate and survey data and classify the negativity of actual campaign advertisements, find either no impact of negative campaigning (Wattenberg and Brians, 1999), or even supporting evidence for a “stimulation” effect on electoral turnout (Finkel and Geer, 1998; Freedman and Goldstein, 1999; Kahn and Kenney, 1999; Freedman and Goldstein, 2002; Clinton and Lapinski, 2004; Brooks and Geer, 2007). A meta-analytic assessment of this literature by Lau et al. (2007) reports inconclusive re- sults: negative campaigns are neither effective to win votes, although they may be more memorable, nor seem to depress turnout.
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Scalar diversity and negative strengthening

Scalar diversity and negative strengthening

4. The uniformity hypothesis: A modified version The studies of Doran et al. (2009, 2012) and van Tiel et al. (2016) convincingly show that the uniformity hypothesis s 0 (i) = s for a constant s is false. However, the question arises whether the assumption of a uniform constant can be maintained if the effect of negative strengthening is factored in. Given the anti-correlation between s o ( i) and 1 − n o (i), the simplest reformulation of the uniformity hypothesis (UH) is to postulate a constant ratio between these values, i.e. that there is a constant s such that for all scales i s o ( i)/(1 − n o (i)) = s, or, equivalently, that s o ( i) = s −sn o (i), see (4). The constant s can be fitted to the data. Using the data from van Tiel et al.’s scalar implicature task and our negative strengthening task, an optimal value of s = 0.77 was found. 3 Figure 2 shows s o (i) over n o (i) for all scales i. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict s o (i) (yes-answers in van Tiel et al.’s SI task) based on n 0 (i) (yes-answers in our NegS task). A significant regression equation was found (F(1,41) = 7.80, p < .01), with an adjusted R 2 = 0.14. The proportion s o (i) of yes answers in the SI task is equal to 0.68 − 0.55 n o (i). The regression line (blue) is also shown in Figure 2, together with its 95% confidence interval. The green line is the regression line predicted by the modified uniformity hypothesis with s = 0.77, i.e. s o ( i) = 0.77 − 0.77 n o (i). As can be seen from Table 2, the line predicted by the modified uniformity hypothesis lies within the 95% confidence interval of the calculated linear regression line. Hence, the predicted regression line does not significantly differ from the calculated one, and can, therefore, not be rejected. In this sense, the modified uniformity hypothesis is consistent with the results found by van Tiel et al.
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Negative Emotionen älterer Konsumenten in der Kaufsituation

Negative Emotionen älterer Konsumenten in der Kaufsituation

Die Aufteilung in emotions- und problemfokussierte Strategien ist allerdings keine absolute. Die Annahme, es würde nur die eine oder die andere Strategie zum Einsatz kommen, ist zu einfach. Vielmehr weist die Copingforschung darauf hin, dass verschiedene Strategien gleich- zeitig angewendet werden können (vgl. Luce 1998, S. 409 ff.). Die Copingprozesse können sowohl bewusst als auch unbewusst ablaufen und bestimmen das Verhalten der Person (vgl. Lazarus/Folkman 1984, S. 284; Thomae 1996, S. 106 ff). Je nach Art und Erfolg der gewähl- ten Strategien, können die negativen Emotionen behoben oder sogar noch verstärkt werden. Die nach dem Copingprozess entstandenen negativen Emotionen könnten als Emotionen „zweiter Stufe“ bezeichnet werden, da sie erst durch den Versuch, negative Emotionen „erster Stufe“ zu beheben, entstehen. Copingprozesse können somit zu „Vermittlern“ von Emotionen werden (vgl. Lazarus 1993, S. 9) und sind auf diese Weise ein Teil des Emotionsprozesses (vgl. Lazarus 1996, S. 297; 1993, S. 8).
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Vom Verschwinden des Menschen. Günther Anders’ negative Anthropologie

Vom Verschwinden des Menschen. Günther Anders’ negative Anthropologie

Dass die menschliche Natur im Gegensatz zu der von Tieren indefinit, also nicht instinktgeleitet sei, ist nun zwar eine Definition, die der junge Stern ver- tritt – für den älteren Anders ist sie zwar nicht falsch, aber auch nicht mehr hinreichend, denn gerade eine Definition des Menschen in Abgrenzung zum Tier scheint ihm verfehlt (AM I 327). Denn sie ist nicht nur Hybris; »negative Anthropologie« meint auch gerade etwas, das über die Opposition zum Ani- malischen hinausgeht und das spezifisch für seine geschichtlich gewordene Situation ist. Heute muss der Mensch nämlich in Abgrenzung nicht zu ande- rem Organischen, sondern zu seinen Produkten definiert werden, jenen Din- gen und Maschinen, die ihn nicht nur be-, sondern am Ende auch verdrängen – zum Verschwinden bringen. Philosophische Anthropologie ist damit voll- ends unzeitgemäß, eben »antiquiert«:
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Positive und negative ethische Aspekte von Korruption

Positive und negative ethische Aspekte von Korruption

Dies bedeutet zwar nicht, dass Korruption automatisch eine pareto-ineffiziente Allokation nach sich ziehen muss 1 , aber durch die Ausschaltung des Wettbewerbs kann es zu Monopolbildun[r]

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Negative journalistic communication: a review

Negative journalistic communication: a review

stadium, markets etc.). All other powers (which media supervise) want to communicate with this public, so they need the press. Negative Journalistic Communication is a complete dissertation of mass-media communication, it is a book in which conviction and persuasion will, at least programmatically and outside, convictive, compelling. Positive journalism and journalist relies decisively to convince, to transfer an internal conviction, to induce a convict. Instead, the negative journalist and journalism relies decisively to persuade, induce a foreign conviction, one that knows that it is not legitimated and interested promotes it. There is not negative the journalism that deny, but journalism which denies himself, becoming the tool of foreign interests of journalistic ethics of certainty (of conviction).
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Negative Dysphotopsie nach Kunstlinsenimplantation : Eine retrospektive Analyse

Negative Dysphotopsie nach Kunstlinsenimplantation : Eine retrospektive Analyse

weit temporal eintreffende Strahlen in Abhängigkeit davon, ob sie die Kante oder die Rückseite der Kunstlinse durchlaufen, unterschiedlich stark gebrochen. Hierdurch entsteht ein Schatten auf der nasalen Retina, der nach Überzeugung der Autoren das Korrelat der negativen Dysphotopsie darstellt. Voraussetzung ist das Vorliegen eines scharfen hinteren Kantendesigns (bzw. eines Eckenradius ≤ 0,05 mm bei abgerundeter Kante), eine Distanz hinter der Pupille zwischen 0,06 und 1,2 mm für Acryl-IOLs, eine kleine Pupille, ein hoher Brechungsindex der IOL-Optik sowie eine funktionelle nasale Retina, die sich nach anterior bis vor den Schatten ausdehnt. Eine negative Dysphotopsie bei Silikonlinsen wurden von den Autoren als möglich, jedoch weniger wahrscheinlich eingestuft, da der Typ 3-Schatten in dem verwendeten Modell für Silikon-IOLs in der Ausdehnung deutlich kleiner war und nur bei einer Distanz hinter der Iris zwischen 0,06 und 0,62 mm entstand.
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Eine negative Einkommensteuer für Deutschland? Optionen und Konsequenzen

Eine negative Einkommensteuer für Deutschland? Optionen und Konsequenzen

Zusammen mit für den einzelnen unangenehmen Antragsprozeduren, Unkenntnis der komplizierten Rechtslage und materiellen Ermessensspielräumen der Behörden führt die Angst vor einem soziale[r]

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Affect: On the Turn

Affect: On the Turn

the process of transformation. This highlights the fact that many of the positive, exciting, desirable features attributed to “affect” are characteristics of liminal occasions, but also that these occasions can have a darker side. A second advantage is that it encourages us to recognize the long history through which different “technologies” have emerged to manage, generate and communicate the liminal affectivity typical of liminal occasions. The oldest of these “liminal affective technologies” is ritual, which dates back to prehistoric times. Without denying the distinctiveness of the present moment, in which affectivity is routinely summoned and manipulated by a host of new technological means, this argument opens up new ways of locating our present within a broader genealogy.
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Warum Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag negative Arbeitsanreize setzen (Negative Arbeitsanreize durch Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag): Themenschwerpunkt Arbeitslosengeld II [zwei]

Warum Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag negative Arbeitsanreize setzen (Negative Arbeitsanreize durch Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag): Themenschwerpunkt Arbeitslosengeld II [zwei]

Darüber hinaus ist auch die Bestimmung der Ein- kommenshöhe, ab dem der Kinderzuschlag wieder ent- fällt, nicht auf das ALG II abgestimmt, wodurch auch hier negative Arbeitsanreize entstehen. § 6a Abs. 1 BKGG sieht vor, dass der Kinderzuschlag entfällt, sobald das nach den geltenden Freibetragsregeln bestimmte berei- nigte Nettoeinkommen die Summe aus Gesamtkinder- zuschlag und dem bereinigten Nettoeinkommen, ab dem der Kinderzuschlag gewährt wird, übersteigt. Diese Festlegung soll dafür sorgen, dass für Familien, die kein ALG II erhalten würden, auch der Kinderzuschlag entfällt [D EUTSCHER B UNDESTAG (2003), S. 83].
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Warum Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag negative Arbeitsanreize setzen (Negative Arbeitsanreize durch Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag) : Themenschwerpunkt Arbeitslosengeld II [zwei]

Warum Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag negative Arbeitsanreize setzen (Negative Arbeitsanreize durch Zuverdienstregeln und Kinderzuschlag) : Themenschwerpunkt Arbeitslosengeld II [zwei]

Darüber hinaus ist auch die Bestimmung der Ein- kommenshöhe, ab dem der Kinderzuschlag wieder ent- fällt, nicht auf das ALG II abgestimmt, wodurch auch hier negative Arbeitsanreize entstehen. § 6a Abs. 1 BKGG sieht vor, dass der Kinderzuschlag entfällt, sobald das nach den geltenden Freibetragsregeln bestimmte berei- nigte Nettoeinkommen die Summe aus Gesamtkinder- zuschlag und dem bereinigten Nettoeinkommen, ab dem der Kinderzuschlag gewährt wird, übersteigt. Diese Festlegung soll dafür sorgen, dass für Familien, die kein ALG II erhalten würden, auch der Kinderzuschlag entfällt [D EUTSCHER B UNDESTAG (2003), S. 83].
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How will EMU affect cohesion?

How will EMU affect cohesion?

Policy Challenges and Open Research Questions The ultimate purpose of this study was to identify what we do know and what we need to know to promote cohesion in the new policy environment of EMU. Our review of research findings on these impacts of EMU on cohesion contains good and bad news for policymakers in EMU. To the obvious question: “Will EMU further cohesion?”, the literature repeatedly answers with a resounding “It depends!” But we now know much better on what it depends. Moreover, the catching-up processes seem to be responsive to policies, not only in the negative but also in the positive. Thus, to the other obvious question of policy makers: “What to do?”, the liter- ature offers at least some partial answers if not straightforward recipes for success.
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Does Commuting Affect Health?

Does Commuting Affect Health?

values of the joint significance. The joint significance tests indicate whether there is indeed a U-shaped relation between commuting time and health. 23 Table 2 shows that people who spend more time commuting report lower health satisfaction and a lower current health status. Commuting time squared is positive in both models, suggesting that the negative relations flatten out. However, the turning point for health satisfaction is around 45 minutes of commuting time and around 50 minutes for health status. Since 85% (90%) of the people in the sample have a one-way commuting time of 45 minutes (50 minutes) at most, the negative linear relation between commuting time and health status and satisfaction holds for a substantial share of the sample. Whereas the effects are highly significant, their size is relatively small. An increase in commuting time of 20 minutes with an initial commuting time of 10 minutes is, on average, associated with a 0.05-point lower health satisfaction (on a seven-point
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