The EU Enlargement Experience in England and Wales *
The 2004 European Union enlargement resulted in an unprecedented wave of 1.5 million workers relocating from Eastern Europe to the UK. We study how this migrant inflow affected life satisfaction of native residents in England and Wales. Combining the British Household Panel Survey with the Local Authority level administrative data from the Worker Registration Scheme, we find that higher locallevel immigration increased life satisfaction of young people and decreased life satisfaction of old people. This finding is driven by the initial ‘migration shock’ – inflows that occurred in the first two years after the enlargement. Looking at different life domains, we also find some evidence that, irrespective of age, higher locallevel immigration increased natives’ satisfaction with their dwelling, partner and social life.
hile offline participation has become something like a standard in Western/ Northern urban development, the number of implementation cases at the locallevel (from street level via neighborhoods to whole cities) is still much larger than those at regional, national or global level. For political and legal reasons, the introduction of new or innovative forms of participation is much easier at the locallevel. Often assumed is that members of civil society can relate easier to the smaller scales and thus come up with more adequate ideas and solutions.
2. Local energy action plans in Lithuania
Policy implementation at the locallevel allows for greater flexibility to meet local needs. Local governments’ knowledge of their constituents’ needs can help frame the local discussion surrounding clean energy in a way that demonstrates the potential benefits. Citizens are also more likely to interact directly with their local government, providing greater opportunities for addressing local issues (Bushe, 2010). Decentralized energy and climate change mitigation policy allows for greater experimentation as each government designs the policy to best fit the locality’s unique context (Lutsey and Sperling, 2008). Policy implementation at the locallevel can provide insight into the effectiveness of innovative policies and unique policy design components that can be adopted by other governments, at the local or state, levels (Lindseth, 2004). Framing the energy saving and GHG emission reduction issue as a local issue increases citizen involvement in the clean energy discussion because they have the ability to be more directly involved in the local decision-making process (Pearce, Greene, 2009).
None of these points, except partly for the first one, could have been carried out using the official (i.e. of the Italian Central Statistical Office) local statistical data. The usual problem incurred by economic studies at locallevel arises: the available statistical information is very limited.
As far as Italy is concerned, the status of statistics at locallevel can be summarised into three adjectives: it is scarce, full of gaps and heterogeneous. It is scarce because there are no economic information at locallevel outside the years of productive and population census. It presents relevant gaps since there is no information at locallevel on some fundamental variables such as GDP, investment, household consumption, public spending, etc. It is heterogeneous because the most interesting information at locallevel comes from administrative data (that are difficult to compare and lack of coherence with the official data of the Central Statistical Office) or separate estimates of the same phenomena (performed with different techniques and therefore difficult to compare and/or to be used together with other estimates).
10 It is important to consider potential links between household wealth and historical local-level emigration
levels, as the latter may increase the former through receipt of monetary remittances. The correlation between the two variables is positive but relatively low (0.028, significant at the 95% level). Estimating models 1-5 of Table 1 without the local-level emigration rate still yields a coefficient of the wealth index that is positive and statistically significant; when the wealth index is excluded, the local-level emigration rate also remains negative and statistically significant in models 1 and 5 and statistically insignificant in models 2-4. In all cases, the absolute values of the estimates of the wealth index and the local-level emigration rate are somewhat lower, reflecting (the relatively low) correlation between the two. It also should be remembered that households with similar wealth levels (as defined in this study) may have different environmental impacts. For example, households in high-migration areas may have bigger houses and less economical cars and thus a greater carbon footprint than households in low-migration areas with smaller houses and economical cars, even if the wealth indexes of the two, based on whether the household possesses (any) house and car, would be the same.
We report our main results in Section 3. They show that Chinese health aid increases infant mortality at the locallevel, but decreases mortality when focusing on countries instead. We argue that these differences can best be explained by fungibility, and test this channel in a number of ways. First, we show that the availability of clinics in the vicinity of Chinese aid projects is not affected by aid, potentially indicating that recipient governments channel the aid to build facilities they would have financed themselves or with aid from other donors absent of Chinese support. Second, we find that the number of deliveries in health clinics is reduced by aid. This can explain how fungibility renders the effect of aid at the sub-national level negative rather than just null. Aid-financed facilities specialize in areas that are less effective in reducing infant mortality than the facilities replaced by aid, or alternatively, poach skilled staff from an existing health clinic. Service provision thus decreases both in terms of quantity and quality (also see Deserranno et al. 2020 ). Third, and in line with this interpretation, we show that the number of births attended by skilled health staff is reduced by aid, while more births are attended by traditional health staff in turn. Fourth, the turnover of health staff at existing clinics seems to increase, and average (educational) quality to decline as a consequence of aid. It thus seems that aid-financed projects poach staff from existing clinics. Fifth, the effect of aid on mortality is larger when governments are already allocating relatively high levels of domestic public expenditures to the health sector prior to the receipt of aid and when more aid has been received from Western donors. This is in line with the interpretation that fungibility should play a larger role when alternative sources of funding are available. More directly, at the locallevel, we also find that World Bank aid for health is reduced as a consequence of Chinese support to the same localities. Sixth, we test whether results in a sector of particular interest to China—but not necessarily to the recipients of its aid—improve as a consequence of aid, which would be the case if total funds focus more strongly on these sectors as a consequence of China’s interventions. In line with this expectation, we find that Chinese health aid increases the probability that women took anti-malaria pills during pregnancy (with the fight against malaria being a major goal of Chinese operations). 5
Theoretically speaking, an integrated transfer system therefore offers not only important advantages in terms of efficiency, transparency, oversight and civic monitoring, but also complies closely with the principles of the new aid agenda defined by the Paris and Accra Declarations. In practice, however, such a scheme is quite difficult to establish, since key political interests are usually linked to existing systems with higher levels of fragmentation. Es- tablishing an integrated fiscal transfer system may provoke the opposition of powerful sector ministries that would lose some of their freedom to allocate resources to the locallevel. IFD may also be harmful to central govern- ment’s local allies, who, under the old system, can count on discretionary transfer mechanisms to provide them with additional resources. In some cases, parliamentarians will also oppose these reforms because they will limit their chances of using political transfers for their individual con- stituencies. Finally, some donors may also be reluctant to support IFD because it will shift resources away from off- budget projects to government-owned mechanisms. Given this constellation of possible opponents, it is not surprising that hardly any country in the world has a fiscal transfer system which fully complies with all the elements of IFD, even though the benefits of the concept appear to be obvious from a collective perspective.
Further, in Table 2 we explore the two previously discussed channels through which FDI potentially affects corruption. Although data limitations prevent us from clearly identifying these channels, we try to approximate the extent to which they play a role. First, we control for economic activity using night light intensity data merged to an individual’s place of residence (col. 1). 9 We find that higher economic activity is positively associated with corruption experience at the locallevel, which is in line with the theoretical consideration that economic growth increases rents that could be shared. However, controlling for economic activity does not change our main finding (although the effect of FDI on local corruption decreases in size), indicating that FDI does not affect corruption exclusively via higher economic activity. Second, we use several variables to capture different drivers of norm transmission, namely via linkages with foreign suppliers (col. 2), foreign employees (col. 3), and the degree of corruption in the investors’ country of origin (col. 4). 10
From a macro-political perspective, many observers have regarded Liberia’s transition process as a success (Harris ; Nilsson ). To be sure, the transition experienced rampant corruption and it was unable to lay the structural foundations for effective and reformed statehood. In the wake of the ﬁrst post-war elections, the UN noted the fragility of the security situation, pointing out regional volatility, weak domestic security forces and limited government authority in most parts of Liberia (UN Security Council ). Nonetheless, the resumption of large-scale violence was avoided, arguably the key objective of the power- sharing transition. Most CPA provisions were implemented and the former enemies basically abided by the peace agreement, permitting peaceful elections in (Harris ; Sawyer ) and . It was however due to the presence of UNMIL that further large-scale violence was avoided, rather than the top-down imposition of power-sharing. At the time of writing over , uniformed peacekeeping personnel remain in the country; on the national scale the war as such has ended. How does this situation of fragile peace relate to the locallevel? Although the locallevel was at best marginally addressed, both in terms of local content and local power-sharing, the situation in the towns of Ganta and Gbarnga more or less mirrored the overall trend in the country. A tacit form of peace emerged relatively quickly in the wake of the CPA. Whilst the two arenas certainly remain more fragile to this day compared with other parts of Liberia, neither of the two have faced extreme violence since the end of the war either.
The paper evaluates the types of e-democracy initiatives on locallevel in the Republic of Macedonia. E- democracy initiatives were classified by the elements of the democratic process, which they work to enhance: transparency, accountability and active participation. For the purpose of our research we analyzed websites of the units of local self-government in the Republic of Macedonia in the period of 2017, with special emphasis on e- democracy initiatives in order to provide a framework for classification. The research discovered many outstanding local e-democracy initiatives. However, there is a little evidence that these initiatives have done much to ameliorate the problems on locallevel that Republic of Macedonia is facing, such as: weak democratic institutions and low level of citizen participation in democratic processes using ICT as intermediary. The paper also provides some recommendations for improving e-democracy initiatives on locallevel and their performance in general.
2.2 DHS-based development indicators as dependent variables
Our dependent variables are constructed from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which are large periodic household surveys that have been carried out in low-income coun- tries in Africa and elsewhere since the 1980s (ICF International, 1992-2013). These surveys primarily collect information from women at childbearing age on a wide range of topics related to health, nutrition, fertility and education, as well as a set of household character- istics such as access to infrastructure and ownership of household assets. In each country, households are selected to produce nationally representative samples. Usually, sampling is done through a stratified cluster design, based on the country’s most recent population census, in two stages. At the first stage, clusters are drawn from official listings of census enumeration areas, which in most countries correspond to small villages or blocks within larger villages or cities. At the second stage, a sample of households is drawn randomly from a list of households in each cluster. Mean outcomes for a cluster should thus provide an accurate measure of the locallevel of development.
apartheid local elites, and important decisions such as the budget vote could only be taken with a two-thirds majority (Powell 2012). In this interim phase, new municipalities were demarcated. These municipalities are rather large, with a total of 232 local municipalities and an additional eight so-called metropolitan municipalities with high population density (such as Cape Town, Johannesburg or Port Elizabeth). In addition, district municipalities were established that include around four local municipalities and are supposed to support local governments. The transition phase ended in 2000 with the holding of the ﬁrst truly democratic local elections. Since then, two additional elections were held at the locallevel in 2006 and 2011; in both, the ANC won the majority of seats in an overwhelming proportion of the muni- cipalities (in 203 municipalities in 2006, in 197 municipalities in 2011). Local governments are ﬁnanced by a mix of local taxes, service charges and grants from the national treasury. Because of the very uneven socioeconomic development of South African provinces – a legacy of apartheid politics – the share of own resources and transfers from national treasury differs greatly between municipalities. Many municipalities that absorbed former homelands and rural areas in provinces such as Mpumalanga or Limpopo depend fully on these national transfers. 5
Ecosystem services are provided at different spatial and service/functional scales. The locallevel is the basic unit for ecosystem services, especially when it comes to the human dimension of urban landscapes. These services are provided by green elements (patches) or basic complex ecosystems (green areas) which differ from their neighbourhoods through their structures and functions. This study reviews the generally available knowledge on urban green functions and services at the site level and explains them by using own studies in five different cities in three different continents related to distinct ecosystem services. This allows the development of a methodology to evaluate and compare ecosystem services at the site level. The methodology is based at two levels, patch and green space, and includes the relationship with the surrounding green and built-up space. Different urban green space types are characterized by their internal structures of vegetation, size, shape and location in relation to at least a semi-quantitative scaling of their urban ecosystem services. The evaluated urban green spaces are public urban green spaces. The urban ecosystem services assessed include climate regulation, biodiversity, nature experience, recreation and he- alth. The actual urban challenges, such as land use change, adaptation to climate change, demo- graphic change and urban cultural diversity, demand a systematic and very concrete monitoring of urban ecosystem services at the site level.
Economics Institute, Belgrade
From the point of view of economy, regional development policy could be seen as a tool for the efficient administration and utilization of comparative and competitive advantages in space and time. In the last few decades, the experiences in the Republic of Serbia in this field are not of major importance. They have evidenced that the application of a centralised administrative model in the management of social and economic trends is not able to deal efficiently with the cumulated contradictions neither at the national nor at the regional / locallevel to the least. It is necessary to deal with these contradictions as soon as possible by changing the model of social and economic development, since the negative effects of wrongly applied strategies and development policies so far have reached unanticipated boundaries. Such an approach is also required for the fact that Serbia has opted for joining the European Union, which means complying with their standards and models of regional/rural/local development.
Sustainability needs local solutions. To truly anchor energy transition to the locallevel, local governments need to be given the mandate to develop their own energy projects feeding in local electricity supply. RE technologies like smaller wind farms, solar parks or rooftop photovoltaic offer the opportunity for local electricity production and local grids. Unlike other countries in the region, Tunisia has planned to install 640 MW in rooftop PV and has thus acknowledged the paramount importance of capitalizing on the de- centralized capacities of RE technologies. It benefits from indispensable experiences already gained with decentralized energy production. The successful “Pro- gramme Solaire” (Prosol) for solar water heaters on residential rooftops is followed by “Programme Solaire – Electrique” (Prosol-Elec) for rooftop PV. Tunisia has regulations and systems in place that can be the basis for a decentralized, local energy production, both resi- dential, commercial and industrial (440 MW installed capacity of co-generation planned for 2030). The de- centralization of electricity production means a sub- stantial transformation of sector governance and in- frastructure development. The Tunisian government should carefully consider moving further along this track in the longer term. Now that cost-competitive, easily applicable and manageable RE technologies are available, enabling local energy projects for munici- pal auto-production is a promising step towards im-
Figure 2 - Metropolitan Areas in Romania
Source: Representation based on data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs – UCRAP
Unfortunately, the biggest problem of these structures is their relatively reduced functionality triggered by frequent conflicts between the officials of these units. The worst examples are usually related to the projects of integrated management of waste, because in this case, no official is willing to allow the construction of such facilities on the territory of its locality. However, the utility of such structures cannot be denied. Possible subsequent legislative modifications may introduce more prerogatives for these areas; moreover, raising the awareness that such associations can bring an economic benefit for those involved may lead to a future increase in the level of performance.
Apart from previous contributions, scholars that consider the importance of economic conditions (Greenwood and Hunt, 1989) assume that migrants’ decisions are made trying to maximize the expected net benefits (Greenwood, 1975), which can be proxied, for instance, by higher wages (Smith et al., 2000) or on increased availability on local employment opportunities (Fuguitt and Beale, 1996). The causality relationship between location of population and employment has been traditionally discussed among scholars (Freeman, 2001) and, mainly, two theories have been supported (Muth, 1971). From a demand- side approach it is argued that changes in labour demand cause changes in population who migrates trying to find a job (“people-follow-jobs approach”), while from a supply-side approach it is argued that variations in the labour supply (in terms of changes of population structures) cause changes in
Table 3 shows results of similar estimation of the transition matrix with ve classes based on the quintiles of the initial distribution, but for educational achievements. One can observe much weaker persistence of the distribution of exam results the probability of staying in the same group was on average equal to 28.8% and did not dier much across groups (relatively highest for the lowest group municipalities with the worst exam results). Mobility between groups is higher than in the case of relative income distribution all cells include non-zero probabilities, which means that mobility between all groups was observed in both directions. The highest probabilities concentrate along the diagonal, however not as strongly as in the previous transition matrix. But similarly as before, the probabilities to the right from the diagonal are higher than the ones to the left. This indicates a higher chance of improving than decreasing exam results during the analyzed period. However, keeping educational achievements on the highest level (above 102.86 as in group 5) is not highly probable (23.8%). That is why the ergodic vector indicates that if such dynamics as described by the estimated transition matrix was observed in a long run, only groups 3 and 4 would relatively increase their size (to about 25.5% and 25.7% while initially all groups were equal sized). As these two groups are located around the average value of the exam (100), estimation results suggest a convergence process (in the long run more municipalities will have their exam results close to the average, so the distribution will be more concentrated around the mean), which however is relatively weak and slow as these groups do not increase their size signicantly.
the municipal budget point of view, and only activities that overlap or can be easily integrated in activities of local development plan are conducted. Implementation of other activities is considered only when external funding is available. As the analysis highlighted in a few examples (struggle with data collection, data analysis) municipalities lack qualified personnel for energy management. This contributes to the fact that some municipalities analyse only realized measures, but not their impact on the amount of greenhouse gas emissions.
Another relevant approach to reflexivity in the social sciences is the theorisation about “team reflexivity” (West 2000) in the field of the psychology of organisation, which is considered to be central for this dissertation, because it is widely used in studies, which already detected the link between team reflexivity and better team performance (West et al. 1997; Hammedi et al. 2011; Hoegl et al. 2006). In these studies, team reflexivity on a team level is always seen as a “list” of certain actions/behaviors, which the team, as an undifferentiated whole, performs during the project like planning, questioning, reviewing past events with self-awareness, learning at a meta level, etc. (West 1996). Team reflexivity has been seen here as a process of “conscious reflection on team functioning” (Schippers et al. 2013:8), which can be induced during the project as a practical intervention that can improve the final performance of the project. Some studies detecting this link between team reflexivity and final performance found evidence about the role of reflexivity in fostering virtuous processes of team adaptation and adjustments (Argyris & Schoen 1978; Hoegl et al. 2006; Schippers et al. 2013), but other studies showed that the effects of reflexivity are more ambiguous than it has been assumed (Moreland and McMinn’s 2010, Klueger and DeNisi 1996). For example, the study of Klueger and DeNisi (1996) “showed that over one-third of feedback interventions led to negative rather than positive effects on performance.” (Schippers et al. 2013:8). This because the link between team reflexivity and action (in this case to learn from the negative feedback and to improve) is not automatic. As further research confirmed the link between team reflexivity and team performance is mediated by team learning, defined by Wilson, Goodman and Cronin (2007:1043) as a “change in the group’s repertoire of potential behavior.” So, only if a team is able to learn and change after an induced team reflexivity intervention (negative feedback) it is then more likely that the final performance will improve.