There has been growing interest in the concept of EmotionalIntelligence (EI) resulting in several publications aiming to define it (Petrides & Furnham, 2003). Being one of EI conceptualisations, Trait EmotionalIntelligence (TEI) associates emotion with intelligence and denotes the idea of effectively dealing with emotions and behavioral dispositions whose intelligent use helps individuals make successful decisions in intrapersonal and interpersonal contexts (Petrides et al., 2016). Despite its popularity and the explosion in the number of studies investigating its role in education (Perera, 2016), little research has been done to examine its power to predict various dimensions of personal functioning such as the adoption of goals (Martinez-Pons, 1997). Achievement Goal Theory (AGT) is an important theoretical strand in motivational research (Nicholls, 1989). Instead of regarding students as motivated or demotivated individuals, AGT studies the goals students perceive and pursue (Maehr, 1989), their performance and the way they think about themselves when engaged in learning (Ames, 1987).
Keywords: emotionalintelligence; risk taking; decision making; adolescence; emotion
In the last three decades research has shown an increasing interest in investigating people’s risk taking behavior. Adolescent populations offer a paradigmatic instance to study this phenomenon, as the likelihood of initiating risky behaviors is higher during adolescence than during any other developmental period (i.e., an inverted U-shaped trajectory having a peak in adolescence as well as young adulthood) (e.g., [ 1 – 6 ]). With this regard, recent neurobiological models have provided empirical evidence that two distinct brain systems are involved in adolescents’ risky behaviors (e.g., [ 2 , 4 , 6 ]). Some authors posited that the dual-system theory tends to distinguish between a cognitive control system and a socioemotional system [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. The former supports decision-making processes by inhibiting impulsive behavior, whereas the latter may bias decision making because it relies on impulse as well as emotional arousal [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 6 ]. It has been postulated that compared to adults, adolescents are more likely to behave in a risky manner, as during this developmental phase an imbalance occurs between the relative maturity of brain areas that are in charge of the socioemotional system (i.e., the amygdala, ventral striatum and nucleus accumbens) and the immaturity of the brain areas involved in cognitive control (i.e., the lateral prefrontal cortex; [ 1 , 2 , 4 , 6 ]). This phenomenon of adolescent risk taking has received a lot of attention, but only recently has research begun to identify the conditions and circumstances that contribute to increased risk taking in adolescents under controlled laboratory conditions. Accordingly, the current study is aimed at the investigation of risk taking under cognitive-deliberative conditions in a controlled laboratory experiment, as it seems to be relevant to the understanding of how adolescents behave in this domain (i.e., deliberative-cognitive condition).
Received September 2010
The aim of the study was to develop and validate a theoretical model explicating the structural relationships between diversity complexity cognition, emotionalintelligence and a positive attitude towards diversity in the South African business context. The sample selected for the study consisted of 237 employees from various South African organisations. The content and structure of the latent variables were investigated by means of item analysis, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) demonstrated good model fit for the refined measurement models and the structural model. A positive relationship was found between emotionalintelligence and the latent variables of valuing individual differences and positive perceptual depth. The practical implications were highlighted to ultimately inform management seeking to build an ethically diverse and productive workforce that values the individuality of others.
In concluding this paper, we present a proposition for structuring social-emotionalintelligence, competences and skills based on the information in Chapter 2. Due to space constraints, this has been done by way of example, allowing insight into what an extensive, all-embracing structure might look like. We used the six attributes pre- sented in Chapter 2.6 (attributes that allow the awareness of one’s inner state, attrib- utes that allow the control/management of one’s inner state, attributes that improve one’s wellbeing, attributes that identify the state of others, attributes that allow the control/management of others’ inner state and attributes that improve social interac- tions) to organize the elements of the above-presented validated assessments of so- cial competence, emotionalintelligence, emotional competence, social skills and so- cial intelligence and to illustrate the proposed structure. Each one of the six attributes is presented in a table that can be found in the annexes. We then categorized each component of the presented measurements as either an intelligence, skill or compe- tence element. This turned out to be very complicated, with some elements being allocated to more than one category. Difficulties in differentiating these components from personality traits and mood factors also arose.
tasks in everyday occupational routines are continuously growing. When it comes to qualifying a person’s ability to interact with others, two prototypical concepts are often used: social competences and emotionalintelligence. In connection to discus- sions about curriculum standards in Germany, these are viewed as important attrib- utes that should be taught, supported and if possible assessed in educational path- ways toward an occupation (KMK, 2007). However, in looking for a generally ap- proved and widely used definition, many problems arise on the inter-conceptual and intra-conceptual level, triggering implementation difficulties in educational curric- ula. This article highlights these difficulties by selecting five well-established key theories and comparing their communalities and differences. Analyzing definitions of intelligence, competences and skills, taking an action regulation perspective and highlighting the interdependence of social and emotional aspects, a structural system to facilitate the transfer into the educational context is proposed.
As a person makes a transition from the transactional to transformational approach to create a necessary socio-emotional nearness with people around him, the trait of emotionalintelligence becomes a reality. The resultant strengthening of bonds between the individuals help both parties to establish trust and mutuality based on common interests, goals, and a sense of mission, creating the necessary conditions for achievement of personal and organizational goals. Essentially, in order to connect the individual has to bring into play certain personal, social and organizational competencies in mutually acceptable combinations for achieving organizational excellence. Thus, emotionally intelligent behaviour addresses the basic issues for bringing workplace effectiveness and helps to attain higher levels of organizational growth and excellence. This essentially aids in the process of developing congenial work environment in the organization leading to efficiency at the workplace and development and enhancement of human capital.
ways to get out of it; (c) resilience (3 items): I usually take stressful things at work in stride and (d) optimism (2 items): I’m optimistic about what will happen to me in the future as it pertains to work.
The Wong and Law EI Scale is used for rating by the sample respondents. The 16-item WLEI scale proposed by Wong and Law ( 2002 ) is having 4 subscales with 4 items each. The self-emotion ap- praisal dimension assesses individuals’ ability to understand and express their own emotions. A sample item is “I really understand what I feel.” The others’ emotion appraisal dimension measures peoples’ ability to perceive and understand the emotions of others. A sample item is “I always know my friends’ emotions from their behavior.” Use of emotion dimension denotes individuals’ ability to use their emotions effectively by directing them toward constructive activities and personal perfor- mance. A sample item is “I always tell myself I am a competent person.” The regulation of emotion dimension refers to individuals’ ability to manage their own emotions. A sample item from this di- mension is “I have good control of my own emotions.” The scale was extensively used in many Indian studies (e.g. Mohanty, Pradhan, & Jena, 2015 ; Pradhan & Jena, 2016 ; Thingujam, 2004 ).
Mainstream of the investors and investment advisory consultants suggest and focus on standard finance models and do not take into account the behavioral and neurological dimensions of finance as neurotransmitters, emotionalintelligence and personality of investors. These aspects of individual investors can cause of several mistakes while investing in stock market. The primary data of 455 investors from Pakistan Stock Exchanges is used for analysis. The data analysis performed with the help of Hierarchical Latent Variable Models in PLS-SEM by using the reflective-formative type constructs as guided by Becker et al., (2012). The empirical evidence of the study reveals that personality dimensions especially openness and consciousness as well as emotionalintelligence dimensions especially self emotions apraisal and regulation of emotions have significant relations with the behavioral features of investor especially investment horizon, personalization of loss and control level. Similarly, neurotransmitter’s dimensions dopamine and epinephrine have significant relation with investment decisions of indiviual investors. In view of this, emotionalintelligence, neurotransmitters and personality collectively have 13.2% impact on ivestor behavior and these dimensions collectively have 4.1% impact on investment decisions of individual investor. The study opens new horizon by providing supplemented inner view of investor’s behavior and their decision’s in the stock market of Pakistan and demands more effort to determine universal latent constructs for combine model of neurofinance and behavioral finance. However, limitation of study is that it does not analyze the current model beyond the current sample size for stock market of other regions of the world.
administrators, examine the effect of emotionalintelligence training on the level of EI for the staff in three of the major schools in the Sultanate, in the Dhufar Governate. Three major government secondary girls' schools were involved with a sample of 65 teachers and administrators in all. The secondary phase is the last phase before students enroll in universities. This is a critical stage for students and applying emotionalintelligence will help in preparing them to meet university life and enables them to overcome some of the difficulties they may face such as change and shift in the culture from school environment being segregated, to a university where they would have to adapt to a mixed culture and a different environment.The government schools in the Sultanate are segregated but at the university level, they are not. Therefore, many students find this as a culture shock, and it takes time for them to adapt and adjust. Wang Questionnaire was used for the purpose of the study (refer to Fig 1).
However, the cognitive complexity of the job has profound effects on the emotionalintelligence as well as cognitive abilities of the individuals.
Emotionalintelligence is of particular concern in the services sector where the interaction among the individuals is direct and frequent. In a research study conducted in the food services, Sy, Tram and O ’Hara (2006) are of the view that highly emotional intelligent leaders are more capable of managing the job satisfaction of their subordinates in the organization. Likewise, other authors have also investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and their ability to alter the moods and emotions while dealing with the customers and subordinates ( Bono, Foldes, Vinson & Muros, 2007 ). Leaders who are highly emotional intelligent tend to exhibit emotional labor at workplace by maintaining positive temperaments when interacting with others. Emotional labor in this context can be described as managing and modifying one's emotions to meet the regulations of job and organization ( Diefendorff, Croyle, &
Source: Cilliers Kossuth (2002)
The traditional organisational climate model in Field and Abelson (1982) indicates three main classes of variables that influence the perceived organisational climate: 1) external influences; 2) organisational influences; and 3) leadership/managerial influences. The awareness of these variables is moderated firstly by the group the individual is a member of, secondly the task of the individual, and thirdly the individual’s personality. The leader influences the psychological climate by his/her managerial behaviour and leadership pattern, rewards and controls . According to Hughes, Ginnet and Curphy (2002) leadership involves both rational and emotional sides of human experience as people think, feel, hope and dream differently. Due to this fact, leaders use rational and/or emotional techniques to influence followers and have to weigh up the consequences of their actions. Leader emotionalintelligence is necessary to distinguish which technique to use, to ensure that the desirable psychological climate is instilled in the follower. An adapted model of Field and Abelson (1982) that portrays this relationship is proposed in Figure 1.
In order for South Africa to increase its level of global competitiveness, attention should be given to the efficiency and flexibility of the country’s labour market with specific reference to inter organisational interaction. The corporate function that is foremost responsible for inter organisational interaction is human resource management. Two constructs that play a reciprocal role in the before mentioned interaction are emotional and cultural intelligence. While both emotional and cultural intelligence is applicable on employees and employers, the central group mediation role of human resource management revolves to a large extent around cultural intelligence to govern diverse human capital stock. The conceptualisation of a cultural facet of intelligence has enormous implications for explaining and predicting the increase of prevalent diverse interactions that currently transpire in business settings. This article explored the link between emotional and cultural intelligence in an effort to investigate the possibility of measuring, developing and effectively managing individual responses to cultural differences that give rise to significant tension within the organisational context. The link between cultural and emotionalintelligence can lead to developmental programs that address both these critical aspects within a single program to increase cost and time effectiveness. Consequently, this article aims to establish a theoretical link for more comprehensive research into cultural intelligence for human resource management. Further research should focus on assessing the status and nature of cultural intelligence in corporate South Africa. Since South Africa has been at the forefront of articulating challenges associated with cultural diversity, lessons learned can be transferred to other countries and is of significant international value.
creating new ventures than others. Furthermore, the results show differences in the emotionalintelligence dimensions of necessity-driven entrepreneurs and opportunity-driven entrepreneurs. In terms of necessity-driven entrepreneurs, they should have higher internal motivation to succeed and create a new venture. This is an expected outcome from an individual who is pushed into starting a new business as an essential mean of income generation. These kinds of entrepreneurs should also have high interpersonal skills, which include effectively communicating, building rapport, and relating well to all people, from all backgrounds and communication styles. It is one of the most important attributes of an entrepreneur, as without them entrepreneurs would only be able to relate to those who share their exact communication style, which would restrict their ability to convey their vision and goals ( Bonnstetter, 2012 ).
Second, the stronger of EI that an employee has, the stronger customer orientation are, that is, as level of emotionalintelligence increases, the level of an employee’s customer orientation attitude increases accordingly. This result confirms that, if employees understand, control, and manage their emotions effectively, they can improve positive organizational performance, such as increased customer orientation. Therefore, this implies that a hotel needs to develop milieu to support counseling service for employees who will be able to balance emotional labor cordially in order to diminish stress and conflicts. In addition,
The aspect of emotionalintelligence towards psychological capital is still not perfectly and adequately certified and is awaited for further analysis and investigation. Similarly, the growing interest on psychological capital within the managerial literature is rarely researched in Pakistan context. The current study aims to examine the mediating effect of emotionalintelligence in the relationship between psychological capital and project success. Main focus is on how employees of construction organizations use their psychological strengths to accomplish their professional objectives. Sample of 213 respondents from 45 construction companies was collected from all over the Pakistan. The findings of the research revealed that psychological capital has significant relationship with emotionalintelligence and emotionalintelligence has also positive relationship with project success. Emotionalintelligence mediated the relationship between three dimensions of psychological capital (self-efficacy, resilience and optimism) and project success whereas no mediation found between hope and project success. The results also indicated that three dimensions of psychological capital (self-efficacy, optimism and resilience) have positive significant relationship with project success and significant mediating effect of emotionalintelligence.
2015 ; Ünal, 2014 ) shared in this idea when they opined that EmotionalIntelligence (EI) is relevant to nursing.
The consortium for research on emotionalintelligence in organizations described EI as “…social and emotional abilities that previous research has shown to be linked to successful performance in the workplace.” (Freshman & Rubino, 2002 ) EI is also defined as “… the ability to accurately perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intel- lectual growth” (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2004 ). In other words, emotionalintelligence is an ability that enables an individual to perceive and understand emotions of self as well as those of others, and be able to regulate these emotions in a manner than engenders positive results for those in- volved. Based on these definitions, Brackett, Mayer, and Warner ( 2004 ) is right to have said accept- able behavior in society is facilitated by EI.
PUBLIC INTEREST STATEMENT
The purpose of this research is to study the mediating effect of leader–member exchange quality variable in the relationship between emotionalintelligence and turnover intention and job satisfaction of employees. The findings of this study can help to increase managerial skills and organizational progress. The results indicate that the managers and their employees should improve their level of emotionalintelligence and their ability to reduce the intention to leave work. Thus, it reduces the probable costs of personnel relocation and increases the organization efficiency, which can increase employees’ job satisfaction. So it makes employees work more motivationally. Also managers should improve the quality of their relationship with their employees, as they can increase job satisfaction by reducing the intention to leave work. The use of this action for organizations is reducing stress, increasing the morale and confidence, and reducing costs of leaving work.
24.7% of respondents were in range of 15-25, 55.9% fell in category of 26-35, 14.7% were in 36-45 and 4.7 % lay in the age category of more than 45.
4.2 Survey Instruments
The survey employed in this study included five sections. The first section was the cover letter that explained the aim of this study and guaranteeing firm confidentiality of participant. Second section covered the demographic aspects including name, gender and organization of the respondent. The remaining three sections consisted of three major constructs; emotionalintelligence, psychological capital and resistance to change. The allocation of the item is as follows; 16 items were used to determine resistance to change, 16 items to determine emotionalintelligence, and 12 items to determine psychological capital. The scale used to measure resistance towards change was developed by Oreg (2003), having four sub factors naming routine seeking, emotional reaction, short- term thinking and cognitive rigidity (Cronbach’s Alpha α = 0.92). Psychological capital had been analysed by using Luthans et al. (2007) PsyCap Scale. The scale consists of four sub factors naming efficacy, hope, resiliency and optimism (α = 0.89). Lastly, Wong & Law EmotionalIntelligence Scale (WLEIS) (α = 0.91) had been utilised to analyse the emotionalintelligence and its sub factors i.e. self-appraisal of emotions, other’s emotion appraisal, use of emotions, regulation of emotions. These scales have been rigorously validated in previous researches and widely used for measuring the respective concepts. They all have demonstrated excellent reliability and construct validity in previous researches.
thus use those emotions in the process of decision making” (as cited in Gardner and Stough, 2001).
There are three models of emotionalintelligence such as (i) ability model; (ii) non- cognitive model; and, (iii) competency based model. The competency based model was specially designed for workplace application of emotionalintelligence. Based on this model GENOS-EmotionalIntelligence inventory utilize in this study which is specifically designed for workplace emotionalintelligence. Three dimensions of GENOS-EmotionalIntelligence inventory are utilized to define workplace emotionalintelligence. Emotional Awareness (self and others) –measures the comparative frequency with which a person recognize the emotions of self and others at workplace and make use of these emotions in the process of decision making and solving problems (emotional reasoning).
Managers’ emotionalintelligence (EI), organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and leadership styles play an imperative role in the organizational success. The current research investigates the mediating role of EI on the relationship between OCB and transformational leadership (TL). Data has been collected from employees of banking service sector of Pakistan. SPSS and Amos have been used to test the hypotheses of study in the conceptual model. Total sample size for this study is N=300. The value for Cronbach alpha is 0.907. The results provide an evidence for the mediating effect of EI on the relationship between TL and OCB. The paper concludes with the discussion on results and implications for the academicians and manager.