MIND JOURNAL 5/2018

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Petro Pererva, Professor, Head of the Department of Production Organization and Personnel Management National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute” (Kharkov, Ukraine)

Szabolcs Nagy, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, University of Miskolc (Miskolc, Hungary)

Maria Maslak, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute” (Kharkov, Ukraine)

ORGANIZATION OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES ON THE INTRAPRENEURSHIP

Abstract. The article deals with the theoretical study of the category of "intrapreneurship"

(internal business). It is proved that internal business is conducted in two main directions: in the field of strategic management and entrepreneurship. It is proposed to conduct research of the organization of marketing activities using the theoretical and methodological provisions of the intrapreneurship. It is determined that the organization of marketing activity on the basis of intrapreneurship is a rather complex production-technological system, which is implemented in practice in specific organizational mechanisms. Organizational mechanism of marketing activity in general is an interconnected set of economic relations, principles, methods and forms of organization of the creation, implementation and practical implementation of marketing programs and projects. Attention is drawn to the fact that the communicative effectiveness of organizing marketing activities on the basis of intrapreneurship is the result of an adequate response to changes in the external environment, reflects increased opportunities for reception, understanding, assimilation, use and transfer of information, willingness and ability of intrapreneurship to contact potential consumers and the public, influence on them, to push for appropriate actions, taking into account changes in the macro level.

Keywords: intrapreneurship, marketing technologies, entrepreneurship, competitiveness, efficiency, industrial enterprises

Introduction. The formation and development of market economy objectively requires the accelerated creation and implementation of fundamentally new forms and methods of management at all its levels and, above all, at the level of the main production units of enterprises (firms). These forms and methods of management should be adequate to the main principles of the functioning of a market economy, have a high degree of "reaction"

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to changes in the external environment, based on the market philosophy of management (marketing) and progressive directions of the organization of entrepreneurial activity. Lack of comprehension and elaboration of the theoretical and methodological basis in the implementation of solutions to this problem leads to increased crisis phenomena in the domestic economy, to containment of the introduction of innovative processes in its restructuring and entry to the level of developed countries. And here a special place is occupied by processes connected with the development of the enterprise system, which is a priority in a market economy and promotes its rapid growth [Nagy, Sikorska, Pererva, 2018;

Nagy, 2017; Nagy, 2018; Pererva, Kocziszky, Szakaly, Veres, 2012; Pererva, Kosenko, Tkachev, Kobieliev, 2018; Reichling, Pererva, 2017; Sikorska, Kocziszky, Pererva, 2017;

Перерва, Ткачова, 2011; Перерва, 1991; Перерва, 2009; Томилов, Крупанин, Хакунов, 1998; Чистякова, 2013].

The conducted researches indicate that the problem of organizing marketing activities in industrial enterprises on the basis of intrapreneurship is considered mostly superficially.

Often, there is only a brief mentioning of the fact that this type of business takes place. At the same time, the theoretical and methodological provisions of the intrapreneurship, which are actively considered in foreign scientific publications and economics literature since 1990, testify the fact that they are very relevant and in demand. The theoretical study of the category of "intrapreneurship" or internal business is conducted in two main areas: in the field of strategic management and entrepreneurship. Based on these assumptions, in our opinion, it is extremely interesting and important to study the organization of marketing activities using the theoretical and methodological provisions of the intrapreneurship.

Analysis of resent research. The concept of intrapreneurship originated in the 80 years of the twentieth century. The authors of this concept are G. Pinshot [Pinchot, 1984]

and R.Kanter [Kanter, 1984]. For example, G.Pinshot [Pinchot, 1984, p.47] researched the mechanisms of developing new ideas and supporting the entrepreneurial atmosphere in the organization, paying attention to the organizational mechanisms that stimulate the intrapreneurship, the complex of personal characteristics of employees, as well as the peculiarities of the individual workplace. R.Kanter [Kanter, 1984, p.207] used the behavioral approach in analyzing the phenomenon of intra-firm business [Kanter, 1984]

defining the latter as a mechanism by which companies stimulate marketing activities and manifests the initiatives of their employees. Most researchers emphasize the importance of intra-firm business strategy and the need for intrapreneurship ideas to improve company performance [Дубініна, Сирцева, 2017, p.20]. However, the issue of the need for the

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development of intrapreneurship as a way of forming marketing infrastructure within the enterprise remains insufficiently researched [Kocziszky, Veres, Kobielieva, 2017;

Kocziszky, Veres, Pererva, 2017; Kocziszky, Veres, Pererva, 2018; Nagy, Pererva, 2018].

The purpose of the article is to substantiate the necessity, expediency and possibilities of the development of intrapreneurship as a way of forming the firm's internal structure of marketing activity.

Research results. Organization of marketing activities in industrial enterprises, using the theory and practice of intrapreneurship, in our opinion, should develop at several levels, the essence of which are presented in Table 1.

Table 1 Levels of development of the organization of marketing activities on the basis of intrapreneurship

Development levels Characteristic

Individual - use of individual potential of employees of the enterprise in marketing activity;

Group - development of marketing susceptibility of the internal organizational environment of the enterprise

Strategic - creation of target groups for solving problems of marketing of enterprise products;

Source: Developed by the authors using [Дубініна, Сирцева, 2017, p.20; Чистякова, 2013, p. 220]

At the individual level, it is necessary to support marketers-intrapreneurs who can create and implement their own projects in the field of marketing activities of the enterprise.

At the group level, it is necessary to create a climate that will generate ideas and exchange them among workers. Of particular interest are the corporate consulting units that are created as separate organizational structures for implementing risky marketing ideas and bringing them to practical implementation in the practice of marketing activities of the enterprise. As an alternative to this process, collaboration between large enterprises with small innovative enterprises that take exploratory risk marketing projects on outsourcing or independently develop innovative marketing projects and transfer them to other enterprises for realization can be considered.

At the strategic level, the introduction of intrapreneurship allows you to review the business model of the marketing activities of the enterprise, to develop it, including new innovative directions. At the same time, marketing projects should be implemented along with traditional marketing activities. Subsequently, they can gradually replace traditional

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marketing approaches or coexist with them in certain proportions, in accordance with market requirements. In addition, intrapreneurship can also be seen as a way of decentralizing management of marketing activities. To implement it, it is necessary to reorganize the formal mechanism of communication, as well as to strengthen the independence of the newly created economic units. At the same time, if intrapreneurs do not hold control, they will hardly be able to succeed in the market, even if they create an effective marketing program. Only the company's capabilities will allow you to translate an effective marketing program into an efficient business, to cover all costs and bring significant profits to the company.

Intrapreneurship, as an effective form of organization of marketing activities, has its own preconditions for the emergence and its specific effects of use on innovative active industrial enterprises, as shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1 The main preconditions and consequences of the emergence and use of intrapreneurship in industrial enterprises

Prerequisites of occurrence

Consequences of use

Increased

competition in the world and national markets

Activation of marketing activities, growth of demand for marketing research

The need to get funds for the functioning and survival of the firm

The production technology and the active part of fixed assets are outdated

Organization of marketing activity at the enterprise

Converting the owner of the creative idea, the innovator to the partner, co-owner

Increasing the level of information and

economic security of the enterprise

Development and effective use of own opportunities Development of

marketing potential of an industrial enterprise

Development of initiative and creative activity of employees

INTRAPRENEURSHIP

Availability of unused reserves at the enterprise

Striving for self- -realization and self-realization

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Organization of marketing activities on the basis of intrapreneurship is a fairly complex production and technological system, which is implemented in practice in specific organizational mechanisms. Organizational mechanism of marketing activity in general is an interconnected set of economic relations, principles, methods and forms of organization of the creation, implementation and practical implementation of marketing programs and projects.

The motive force of any mechanism is the need. In order to increase the economic benefits, it is necessary to:

- optimization of the production process by automating a certain technological process or its part, which reduces the time and other resources of the economic entity;

- diversification of the commodity portfolio in order to attract new categories of consumers, entering new internal and external markets;

- development of information technologies at the enterprise for qualitative information support of production and management processes;

- improving the quality of the enterprise's products by improving the production process, processing methods for materials and raw materials, updating the elements of the technological line, etc.;

- the differentiation and development of marketing technologies used by the enterprise to stimulate consumers, the formation of demand for existing or renewed goods, increase of sales volumes.

The economic effectiveness of the internal organization of marketing activities is manifested in increasing the effectiveness of advertising campaigns, marketing communications, expansion of markets through the release of entrepreneurs to new segments and markets with modified and new products as a result of the activation of innovation activities.

It is advisable to pay attention to the communicative effectiveness of organizing marketing activities on the principles of intrapreneurship, which is the result of an adequate response to changes in the external environment, reflects increased opportunities for reception, understanding, assimilation, use and transmission of information, willingness and ability of intrapreneurship to contact potential consumers and the public, to influence them, to push for appropriate actions, taking into account changes in the macro level. Typically, intrapreneurship for these actions has significantly more opportunities, desires and resources than directly to the enterprise as a whole.

In order to determine the most important indicators within the framework of the sample, an expert method was used which, though it differs by some subjectivity, however,

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taking into account the lack of a common methodology for assessing the efficiency of technology transfer, as well as the lack of normative values for virtually all selected indicators for analysis, is sufficiently rational .

Our studies allow us to conclude that the significance, importance and relevance of one and the same factor (factor) of efficiency in different circumstances can vary in sufficiently wide intervals. Their size depends on the specific circumstances in the micro- -environment (on the research enterprise itself) and in the macro environment (outside the given enterprise). Therefore, the problem of formation of theoretical and methodological provisions arises, the practical use of which would allow a machine-building enterprise to evaluate and rank the factors of influence on the efficiency of internal-corporate technology transfer, based on the current circumstances prevailing in the enterprise.

Scientific and methodological provisions in this regard, in our opinion, can be presented in the form of several successive and interrelated stages.

Stage 1. Determine the list of groups of indicators for the effectiveness of intra-firm technology transfer and their composition.

The maximum possible list of factors shaping (influencing, contributing) to the increase of the efficiency of production and entrepreneurial activity of the enterprise due to the transfer of intellectual and innovative technologies into the production process is made.

This list includes all possible (existing and prospective) factors, which allows to take into account as far as possible all positive or negative consequences of the transfer process.

We recommend that you consider this list as somewhat versatile, that is, including such factors that may or may not be adequate (neutral) for this enterprise, but in other circumstances may have a positive or negative impact on the performance of the enterprise.

We propose to form groups of factors of efficiency of internal-corporate technological transfer on the following blocks:

a) a block of indicators of the efficiency of the innovative activity of the enterprise;

b) a block of indicators of the efficiency of the progressiveness of the production- -technological base;

c) a block of indicators of financial efficiency of the enterprise's innovation activity;

d) a block of indicators of production and commercial efficiency of investment and innovation activity of the entrepreneur;

e) a block of indicators of efficiency of personnel of the enterprise;

f) a block of indicators of marketing effectiveness;

g) a block of indicators of environmental efficiency;

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n) a block of indicators of communicative efficiency.

In order to evaluate the efficiency of the intra-firm technology transfer system of machine-building enterprises on the basis of the entrepreneurship on the basis of the analysis of modern theoretical and methodological sources, a system of indicators of efficiency indicators, combined by functional components, that reflect the success of the implementation of all of the above tasks, is proposed.

Stage 2. Determination of the weight coefficients of the groups of performance indicators and individual indicators in each group.

Taking into account the above-mentioned parcels, we propose, at the formation and evaluation of the indicators of the effectiveness of intra-corporate transfer of technologies on the basis of entrepreneurship, and in the future use the method of expert assessments, by which it is possible not only to leave for more consideration the more important indicators of the efficiency of the internal-corporate transfer of technologies, and significantly reduce the uncertainty of calculations based on the consideration of expert opinions and their mathematical formalization with the help of special methods and techniques of mathematical statistics.

Stage 3. Formation of the methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of the intra- -firm transfer of technologies of machine-building enterprises on the basis of the entrepreneurship.

An important stage in the calculation of the integral indicator of the effectiveness of internal-corporate technology transfer is the standardization, that is, the standardization of all selected for the analysis of indicators, which can fully ensure their coherence in conducting a particular analysis.

Conclusions and recommendations. The implementation of the above and other tasks related to the improvement of economic activity is also dictated by changes in the environment, the dynamics of the market situation, which always requires active adaptation actions, a high level of flexibility and adaptability. For example, the deterioration of the socio- -economic situation in the country, devaluation of the hryvnia causes a significant reduction in the solvency of existing and potential consumers, changing the structure of their demand.

In turn, access to new markets requires improved product quality, the use of new marketing communication tools, active measures to create a positive image and image on new markets.

Scientific and technological progress, the development of advanced equipment, modern information technology, strengthen the process of forming the internal motive to increase the level of innovation activity of the business entity.

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Thus, the emergence of a certain internal interest in updating and improving production and management processes, marketing tools, and, accordingly, the manufactured product and sales, is amplified by the influence of external stimuli, which provides the formation of an internal motive for the implementation of marketing programs both developed in the enterprise and external implementers.

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Figure

Figure 1  –  The main preconditions and consequences of the emergence   and use of intrapreneurship in industrial enterprises

Figure 1

– The main preconditions and consequences of the emergence and use of intrapreneurship in industrial enterprises p.4

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