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Young Belt and Road (YBNR) International

Young Belt and Road International is a Hong Kong-based NGO founded and directed by young people. Our members include young people with diverse academ ic backgrounds from all across the world. In 2017. we launched a publication project about youth development that culm inated in this book. Since then, we have also co-hosted annual youth conferences that focus on the Belt and Road Initiative By creating an open, intellectual network, we aim to find solutions for the greatest challenges of our lime. For more information, please visityoungbnr.org.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

W e, the editors in the Young Belt and Road Series Editorial Board and the authors w ho contributed to this publication, offer our sincere gratitude to the following institutions and individuals.

In 2 0 17, th is p ro je ct com m enced under th e su p p o rt o f th e Research C e n ter fo r Regional Coordinated Developm ent, Zhejiang U niversity and the Academ y o f International Strategy and Law o f Zhejiang University. The subsequent editing and publication processes w ere generously sponsored by the International Academ y o f the Belt and Road and G reater Bay A rea &

Belt and Road C en ter Basic Law Foundation. W e express o ur m ost sincere gratitude to these organisations that have enabled this publication.

W e benefrtted enorm ously from the edits and suggestions made by Donal Scully, who is a veteran (since 1987) print and digital media journalist with experience w riting and editing in U K provincial newspapers, the prestigious South China Morning Post in Hong Kong and several online news platform s as w ell as assorted book proofreading credits. W e would also like to thank W ang X in , a postdoctoral researcher at Zhejiang University, who helped us in refining the academic aspects o f the publication.

Last but n o t least, th e re is A n ne Lee and th e ed ito rial team at Jo int Publishing Hong Kong, w ithout which this publication would not have been possible.

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y o u n g b e l t a n d r o a d

SERIES ENGLISH EDITORIAL BOARD

e d it o r - in - c h ie f

Mr.WANG Chenxi

University o f Oxford Hong Kong SAR

EDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERS

Ms. LAM Man Wai Winnie

University of Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR

Mr. CAMPBELL William P

U niversity o f California, Los Angeles United States o f Am erica

M s.GOH Shu Li

London School o f Econom ics Singapore

Mr. H O GH Rasmus N

Yale U niversity

United Kingdom & Denm ark

Mr. LO PEZ Adrian

Tulane University United States of America

Mr.WANG Hongxi

Columbia University Hong Kong SAR

Mr. SH ARM A Ujjwal

University of Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR

Ms. DAVIS Alexandra

Zhejiang University United States of America

Mr. PARKER Charlie

London School o f Economics United Kingdom

Ms. CHIUTao Huen Charlotte

University ofToronto Hong Kong SAR

E D IT O R IA L N O T E

U nless otherw ise stated, th e original content fo r all co untry papers in this publication was w ritten between late-2017 to mid-2018. In view o f tim e sensitivity, the editors made m odifications, including changes to gram m atical tenses and m inor updates to factual statem ents, such as titles o f individuals o r facts about certain countries. O th er than historical discussions, mentionings o f 'Macedonia' w ere changed to 'N orth Macedonia' following the official name change in 2 0 19.

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oi o Preface

014 © Introduction: On the Role of Central and Eastern Europe in the Belt and Road Initiative

016 1 The Belt and Road Initiative 018 2 'Central and Eastern Europe' 023 3 Prospects for Cooperation in the CEE 028 4 Current Obstacles and Suggestions

036 ® Albania

038 1 The Politics of Albania

045 2 An Overview of the Challenges and Opportunities for Young People in Albania 051 3 Evaluate the Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative 065 4 Suggestions on Improving the Belt and Road Initiative in Albania

068 ® Bosnia & Herzegovina

070 1 The Politics o f Bosnia & Herzegovina

076 2 A Brief O verview of Bosnia & Herzegovina’s Political Future

081 3 An O verview o f the Challenges and Opportunities for the Youth in Bosnia

& Herzegovina

086 4 The Belt and Road Initiative and its Opportunities for Young People in Bosnia

& Herzegovina

092 5 The Importance of the Belt and Road Initiative to Bosnia & Herzegovina

096 © Bulgaria

098 1 Historical O verview and Implications 102 2 Political and Economic Trends of Bulgaria

110 3 An O verview of the Existing Opportunities for Bulgarian Youth

116 4 Advantages and Challenges of Bulgaria in the Belt and Road Initiative: A Discussion Based on Interviews with Bulgarians

126 Appendixes

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(s) Croatia

134 | O verview of the Political Structure 138 2 Croatia's Political Direction

143 3 Opportunities and Challenges forYoung People in Croatia 151 4 Croatia and the Belt and Road Initiative

155 5 Toward a Successful Belt and Road Initiative 159 Appendix: Questionnaire Form

164 (6) Czech Republic

166 I O verview o f the Political Structure of the Czech Republic 172 2 The Political Direction of the Czech Republic

177 3 Evaluation of the Current Opportunities and Challenges Faced by Young People in the Czech Republic

183 4 Evaluation o f the Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative

189 5 Suggestions and Alternatives for the Belt and Road Initiative

192 ( f ) Estonia

194

1

Political Structure o f Estonia 196

2

Political Direction of Estonia

203 3 Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Estonian Youth 208 4 The Belt and Road Initiative - Opportunities for Estonia 220 5 Estonian Youth and the Belt and Road

226 8; Hungary

228 I O verview o f the Political Structure o f Flungary

233 2 The Future Political Direction of Flungary: W ith Special Regard to the Economic Programmes of Parties Running in the Parliamentary Elections of 2018

238 3 The Current Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Young People in Hungary

245 4 Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative to Hungary

"PAR S T h p R p lt a n r l R n a r l lni+ia+i\/p in R p la t in n t n Y m in a P p n n lp in H i in o a r v

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254 9 Latvia

256 I O verview of the Political Structure of Latvia 263 2 The Political Direction o f Latvia

267 3 Evaluating the Existing Opportunities and Challenges Faced by Young People in Latvia

270 4 The Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative to Latvia

275 5 Suggestions for the Belt and Road Initiative

280 (jo) Lithuania

283 I The Domestic Politics and Foreign Affairs of Lithuania

288 2 The Future o f Politics in Lithuania: Elections and National Projects 289 3 Lithuanian Youth: Opportunities and Challenges

294 4 The Belt and Road Initiative in Lithuania

299 5 Future of the Belt and Road Initiative in Lithuania: A Case for the Youth 302 6 Conclusion

304 @ North M acedonia

306 I O verview of North Macedonia's Political Situation 310 2 What's N ext for N orth Macedonia?

314 3 Opportunities for Youth in N orth Macedonia 317 4 'I move, Therefore I am.’ - Haruki Murakami, IQ 84

323 5 W hat Could the Belt and Road Initiative Focus on in the Future?

328 ( g ) Montenegro

330 I The Political Structure of Montenegro 335 2 Political Direction o f Mortenegro

345 3 Opportunities and Challenges Faced by Young People in Montenegro 355 4 Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative 361 5 Suggestions for the Belt and Road Initiative in Relation to the Young People of

Montenegro

368 (13) Poland

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376 2 379 3 382 4 393 5

Modern Reforms and the Foreseeable Direction of Polish Politics Current Opportunities and Challenges fo r Polish Youth

Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative Suggestions for Improving Sino-Polish Cooperation Under the BRI

398 ® Romania

400 1 O verview o f the Political Structure of Romania 406 2 The Political Direction of Romania

411 3 Opportunities and Challenges Faced by the Romanian Youth

416 4 Evaluation o f the Challenges and Opportunities Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative in Romania

423 5 Suggestions for the Belt and Road Initiative and Improving Relations with the Chinese Youth

428 (g ) Serbia

430 1 O verview of the Political Structure o f Serbia 435 2 The Political Direction o f the Country

439 3 Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Young People in Serbia 444 4 Serbia in 16+1 Cooperation

453 5 Serbian Youth and the Belt and Road Initiative

458 Slovakia

460 1 The Brief History o f Slovakia

464 2 Political, Economic and Social Reforms in Slovakia

468 3 Opportunities and Challenges Faced by Young People in Slovakia 472 4 Opportunities and Challenges Offered by the Belt and Road Initiative 476 5 Suggestions for the Belt and Read Initiative

480 © Slovenia

482 1 Political Structure o f Slovenia: An O verview 486 2 Political Direction o f Slovenia

488 3 Opportunities and Challenges for the Youth in Slovenia

495 4 Challenges and Solutions for the Belt and Road Initiative in Slovenia

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