**2.2 New Scientific Achievements**

**5.1.1 Basic Approaches to Optimal Trajectories**

The basic trajectory design problem to solve is: moving from point A to point B. In general, there are set boundaries on the trajectory in terms of allowed geometrical regions or obstacles, velocity, acceleration or even jerk (third time derivative of displacement) limits are defined.

Usually time optimality and/or energy optimality requirements are associated with a
planned movement along a chosen path. The pure theoretical approach starts with
finding possible 3D geometric path curves from point A to point B. The exact time
optimal solution is then selecting the shortest geometric displacement curve 𝑠 and
traveling along this path with 𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} the maximum allowed velocity for the shortest time
of 𝑡_{𝑓}= 𝑠/𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥}. See Figure 26, where for a very modest v*max** = 0.08m/s an up to 8*^{’}*g’ (8 *
times 9.81m/s^{2}*) acceleration is required, not to mention the jerk of ~10*^{5}m/s^{3}…

We must never overlook that the kinematic results have to be applied to actually moving not a virtual point, but a body of mass 𝑚, while we have real actuator outputs as the means of control instead of arbitrary mathematical signals.

Figure 26.

Instantaneous v* _{max}* trajectory components.

For moving a body of mass 𝑚, such a time optimal trajectory, where an instant
jump-start is demanded with 𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} maximum speed from point A, and then it is planned to
have an abrupt stop to zero velocity at time 𝑡_{𝑓} in point B is, is just physically not
feasible; obviously, there must be an acceleration and a deceleration period – we cannot

27, where the first part of the trajectory was planned for 𝑎_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} constant maximal
acceleration until reaching 𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥}, then traveling with 𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} for the appropriate distance,
and finally decelerating with a constant maximal deceleration −𝑎_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} to reach the target.

Notice the jerk Dirac impulse of 10m/s* ^{3}* despite a very modest speed and barely existing
acceleration levels.

Figure 27.

Acceleration bang-bang trajectory components.

These “bang-bang” trajectories were dubbed „time optimal” trajectories, though
obviously for 𝑎_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} = 𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥}/(𝑡_{𝑓}/2) we get √𝑠/𝑎_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} > 𝑠/𝑣_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} , so actually they are no
longer ‘theoretically optimal’ in the pure mathematical sense.

My comment after analysing Figure 27 is: notice the Dirac impulse of 10m/s* ^{3}* in the jerk
component at 𝑡

_{0}, 𝑡

_{𝑓}and an even larger at time instance 𝑡

_{𝑓}/2. These „bang-bang”

trajectories imply that we plan for using discontinuous force actions, as we have
initially 𝐹(𝑡_{0}) = 0, then in the next infinitesimally close time 𝐹(𝑡_{0}+ 𝜀) = 𝐹_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} = 𝑚 ∙
𝑎_{𝑚𝑎𝑥}; also when reaching the target this trajectory design plans for an instant drop from
𝐹(𝑡_{𝑓}− 𝜀) = −𝐹_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} to 𝐹(𝑡_{𝑓}) = 0. Even a more significant discontinuity is planned for
𝐹(𝑡_{𝑓}/2 − 𝜀) = 𝐹_{𝑚𝑎𝑥} and then 𝐹(𝑡_{𝑓}/2 + 𝜀) = −𝐹_{𝑚𝑎𝑥}, which is also not feasible in real
life dynamics of non-rigid bodies, even if undergraduate studies comfortably operate
with similar kinematic models. So I claim that these, and many other ‘optimal’

trajectories – as I will show – are not ‘feasibly optimal’ in the engineering sense, as no actuator coupled system can precisely track them.

Please, take a step back, and analyse what are control engineers actually trained for:

when control engineering faces these ‘optimal’ trajectories – or any other not feasible trajectory, the best what can be done is to apply fast and strong enough control loops so that the controlled system transient period is acceptably small, while the overshoot and the settling time also remains “controlled” – as obviously, these trajectories induce vibrations, significant system state oscillations. When analysing such control signals well noticeable are the immense energy spikes used for achieving, or at least trying to achieve these fast, discontinuous transients, compensating for overshoots and the resulting vibrations, oscillations after the rise time – be it mechanical or electrical in nature. These effects are unwanted – they increase wear and reduce the life span of

physical systems, in applications like crane transport the oscillations are just uncomfortable and reduce the task duration, in certain applications like remote brain surgery end effector oscillations are absolutely not acceptable, and in extreme cases of high speed vehicles they are source of catastrophic accidents.

A lot of research effort has been put into studying and dampening, controlling vibrations. Vibrations are highly undesirable for any precise path tracking. Be it cranes or robotic manipulators (RMs) – the lowest vibration levels were identified to correspond to the magnitude of the second time derivative of the induced torque, while an appropriately constructed trajectory can decrease oscillations and energy consumption by a factor of 10, – as presented in [73].

Soon after introducing optimal trajectory planning, it had been realised that also the
control effort can and should be minimised. First minimum acceleration trajectories had
been devised aiming for a minimal force action, later special cost functions had been
adopted to consider the direct control energy effort. In [58] Pontryagin defined the
mathematical theory of optimal processes. To minimize the total used energy 𝐸_{𝑡}_{𝑓} of
moving mass 𝑚 from A to B, a cost function like 𝐸_{𝑡}_{𝑓} = ∫ 𝑷_{0}^{𝑡}^{𝑓} _{𝒂𝒃𝒔}(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 is devised by
cumulating the absolute value of the instantaneous applied power 𝑷_{𝒂𝒃𝒔}(𝑡) =

|𝑭(𝑡)𝒗(𝑡)| + |𝝉(𝑡)𝝎(𝑡)| through which the product of the absolute acceleration and
velocity function profile of the shortest geometric path is minimized. Since 𝑷_{𝒂𝒃𝒔}(𝑡) =

∑ 𝑚_{𝑖} _{𝑖}∙ |𝒂_{𝒊}(𝑡)| ∙ 𝒗_{𝒊}(𝑡) this minimization process is like looking for the minimal
acceleration trajectory, which results in a polynomial trajectory of order 3, with a
discontinuity in acceleration for 𝑡 = 0 and 𝑡 = 𝑡_{𝑓}.

Figure 28.

Minimal acceleration trajectory components.

A minimal acceleration trajectory is presented in Figure 28 - notice the considerable
jerk Dirac impulse of 24m/s* ^{3}* despite a very modest speed and acceleration levels.

Figure 29.

Minimal torque trajectory components.

A minimal torque trajectory is presented in Figure 29 - notice the high jerk Dirac
impulse of 90m/s* ^{3}* despite a very modest speed and acceleration levels.

Despite these advanced optimal trajectories system vibrations remained to be a
substantial issue and targeted by myriads of research effort. Research had pointed out
that vibrations are in correlation with the jerk. Experiments on train passenger comfort
have proven that jerk levels higher than 3m/s* ^{3}* are already unacceptable [82].

The first time derivative of acceleration, which is the third time derivative of the
displacement is called jerk 𝒋 = 𝑑^{3}𝒔/𝑑𝑡^{3} = 𝒔⃛(𝑡). Polynomial trajectories of order 5 can
be designed as minimum jerk trajectories – as in Figure 30. The construction of minimal
jerk trajectories, like for the previously mentioned minimum acceleration and minimum
energy trajectories, is by minimization of a cost function; in case of minimum jerk, it
is: 𝑪(𝑠) =^{1}_{2}∫ 𝒔⃛(𝑡)_{0}^{𝑡}^{𝑓} ^{2}𝑑𝑡.

Calculus of variation or Hamiltonian with Lagrange functions is one of the common
tools to solve this mathematical problem, where a perturbation function 𝜹(𝑡) is added
with a constant multiplier 𝛼 in the form of 𝒔(𝑡) + 𝛼 ∙ 𝜹(𝑡), such that for boundary
conditions the perturbation and its derivatives are 0 like 𝜹(𝑥) = 𝜹̇(𝑥) = 𝜹̈(𝑥) = 𝜹⃛(𝑥) =
0 for 𝑥 = 0 and 𝑥 = 𝑡_{𝑓}. Based on calculus of variations, instead of minimizing the
function 𝑪(𝒔(𝑡) + 𝛼 ∙ 𝜹(𝑡)) =^{1}_{2}∫ (𝒔⃛(𝑡) + 𝛼 ∙ 𝜹⃛(𝑡))_{0}^{𝑡}^{𝑓} ^{2}𝑑𝑡, the zero point of its partial
derivative for 𝛼 = 0 is calculated like 𝜕𝑪(𝑠 + 𝛼𝛿)/𝜕𝛼|_{𝛼=0} = ∫ (𝒔⃛(𝑡) + 𝛼 ∙_{0}^{𝑡}^{𝑓}
𝜹⃛(𝑡)) ∙ 𝜹⃛ (𝑡)𝑑𝑡|

𝛼=0 = ∫ 𝒔⃛(𝑡) ∙ 𝜹⃛(𝑡)𝑑𝑡_{0}^{𝑡}^{𝑓} .

Using boundary conditions the result is − ∫ 𝒔_{0}^{𝑡}^{𝑓} ^{(𝟔)}(𝑡) ∙ 𝜹(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 = 0, which per the
calculus of variations is equivalent to the requirement of having the sixth derivative of
the displacement equal to zero: 𝒔^{(𝟔)}(𝑡) = 0. Knowing all the boundary conditions of the
trajectory 𝒔(𝑥) = 𝑠_{0}, 𝒔̇(𝑥) = 𝑣_{0}, 𝒔̈(𝑥) = 𝑎_{0} at 𝑥 = 0, and similarly for 𝑥 = 𝑡_{𝑓}; the
𝑎, 𝑏, 𝑐, 𝑑, 𝑒 parameters can be calculated as a polynomial trajectory 𝒔(𝑡) = 𝑎 + 𝑏𝑡 +

𝑐𝑡^{2}+ 𝑑𝑡^{3} + 𝑒𝑡^{4} + 𝑓𝑡^{5}, 𝒔̇(𝑡) = 𝑏 + 2𝑐𝑡 + 3𝑑𝑡^{2} + 4𝑒𝑡^{3}+ 5𝑓𝑡^{4}, 𝒔̈(𝑡) = 2𝑐 + 6𝑑𝑡 +
12𝑒𝑡^{2}+ 20𝑓𝑡^{3}. A minimal jerk trajectory is presented in Figure 30.

Figure 30.

Minimal jerk trajectory components.

For such trajectories jerk 𝒋(𝑡_{0}) = 𝒔⃛(𝑡 = 0) = 6𝑑, obviously starts with an instantaneous
jump from 0 to 6𝑑, also at the final moment 𝑡 = 𝑡_{𝑓} there is also a discontinuous a jump
from a non-zero to 0 value of the jerk. As we have previously discussed: this induces
oscillations. A sudden jerk induces vibrations; in case of vehicles like elevators, high
speed trains, roller coasters the ride is very uncomfortable at those points.