Limiting the route range served the study well as traffic congestion on EDSA’s super corridor is reflective of the overall bus transit situation in Metro Manila. It accounts for the largest number of passenger flows generated by business districts (Makati and Ortigas) as well as several malls (Ayala Center, Megamall, SM City, Araneta Center). Previous studies also point to the suboptimal situation with EDSA: JICA (2014) estimated that a 50% bus reduction in EDSA is possible without substantial decrease in service level; while, PLANNADES (2007) found that bus occupancy rate within EDSA was as low as 52%. The welfare situation is further highlighted when considering that the poor spends around 20% of their income on transportation (Figure 7).
Box 4. Political aspects of RIA
The political economy of regulatory impact analysis (RIA) in general and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in particular has a long history, and the tools have been used in different ways.
Onthe one hand, economists as far back as Jules Dupuit have urged the use of something like CBA for the thorough and dispassionate analysis of proposals for public-works projects put forward by politicians, ministers, and bureaucrats. In the US for example, the Federal Navigation Act of 1936 and the Flood Control Act of 1939 sought to rein in legislative proposals for projects to be carried out by the Army Corps of Engineers by mandating a formal analysis of the likely costs and benefits, direct and indirect, of such projects. More recently, proposed government-funded transport projects in the EU, UK, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and other jurisdictions have been required by legislation and/or regulation to be subject to cost-benefit analysis. These approaches, as recognized in this report, promote an analysis of welfare benefits that projects/policies yield to society as a whole.
It should be noted that these values relate to trips that would not otherwise be made, and when a rural bus service is withdrawn it does not necessarily follow that all trips on it would cease - some might take place via alternative bus services, demand-responsive operations, etc. A default value of 21% is suggested in the guidance, although this appears to relate to evidence from additional trips being generated (as distinct from diverted) to an improved bus service. In the case of cuts in a rural service, with few alternatives available, it might be reasonable to assume more substantial effects would arise from elimination of a service: for example, only half of the trips would still be made. Taking the guidance figure of £8.17 for a return trip by a non-concessionary pass holder (above) then one could assume that a value of £4.08 for a one-way trip would be applicable. If it is assumed that half of the trips would no longer be made, then a value of £2.04 per one-way trip applied to all trips onthe current tendered service to be withdrawn could be inferred. By the same logic, a value for a concessionary pass holder trip no longer made would be about 96p. Assuming a 50:50 split of concessionary/non-concessionary travellers, the overall average would be about £1.50 at 2010 prices. Factoring up to 2014 prices using a webtag guidance 25 GDP deflator of 8% between 2010 and 2014 would bring this value to about £1.62. It is too early to say whether this guidance is being applied in
Over the past few years, multiple prominent studies documenting the current and ex- pected future rise of MoD solutions have been published. A few examples of the publish- ers are intergovernmental organizations and national associations like the International Transport Forum (ITF, Martínez, 2015) and VDV (2015) as well as leading universities, e.g., the MIT and Stanford (Alonso-Mora et al., 2017; Mitchell, 2008; Pavone, 2016). The ITF report, which focuses on a theoretical case study in Lisbon, has been widely discussed. The authors conduct a simulation based on real trip data and analyze the effects of introducing a fleet of self-driving vehicles on a city-wide level, once as a ride sharing system and once as a car sharing system where passengers use the same cars sequentially. These services are assumed to replace the trips currently undertaken by private car and by bus, and in one extreme scenario even today’s metro trips. While this is a multimodal setup, no intermodality is considered and each trip is realized with a single mode. The outcome shows that a ride-sharing system could satisfy current demand with only 10.4 % of today’s car fleet. This number would only rise to 12.8 % when also replacing the metro (for a car sharing system the numbers are 16.8 % without replacing and 22.8 % with replacing the metro, respectively). Furthermore, this could be achieved while reducing average waiting and travel times significantly.
Summarising the above assessment, we find that default values are mainly being employed for two parameters: fuel emission factors and vehicle efficiency (including a fixed technology improvement factor). 13 In reference to the ASIF model, the used default values fall into the categories modal energy intensity, composed of vehicle efficiency, usage and occupancy (I) and energy content of the fuel (F). It must be noted that defaults can be either national or international, so that defaults themselves can vary across projects. What’s more, vehicle efficiency is only one component to determine modal energy intensity, usage and occupancy rates still need to be assessed on a project-by-project basis. For transport activity (A) and modal structure (S) BRT methodologies also require data to be assessed locally either onthe basis of existing statistics or onthe basis of targeted traffic counts and new surveys. The only exception to this rule is the GEF draft GHG model for BRT, which provides a default factor of 6km as average passenger trip length onthe existing bus system to be used as a fallback option in case that no standard values are available from household or spot surveys. This may be seen as a first step towards standardisation, the implications of which are discussed in the next section.
Nationwide representative studies show that people with low incomes tend to be more affected by traffic- induced air pollutants and noise than those who are better off in society. Respondents with a low socioeconomic status stated much more frequently in UBA’s ‘German Environmental Survey’ and the Robert Koch Institute’s (RKI) ‘German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults’ that they live on a more heavily or extremely busy road than respondents with a high socioeconomic status [Bunge, Katzschner 2009], [Laußmann et al. 2013]. In addition, people at risk of poverty more often state that they feel stressed by traffic noise and that they are affected by traffic-induced environmental pollu- tion [Destatis 2019a]. The RKI reportonthe health of adults in Germany also confirms the connection between low income and higher subjective exposure to road traffic noise in the residential environment [Laußmann et al. 2013].
With respect to external validity and experiencing scenarios in real life, we had to experience some limitations. The choice to design the threat scenarios as interactive discussions was primarily made for reasons of safety and feasibility. The more realistic such a threat is to a participant, the higher the likelihood that said participant would respond in an unexpected manner. This presents a risk to both the researchers and other participants. For the same reason, ethical approval (which we did have for the presented study) for such a procedure would have been difficult to obtain as well. Presenting these scenarios in a realistic way also requires appropriate immersion of the participants, potentially requiring conduction of the study during nighttimes, appropriate acting skills on part of the researcher, and other such factors. If, at any point during the study, the immersion is lost, then so is the external validity. Apart from this, the “missed thebus” scenario is simply very hard to time properly, so that the participants can neither leisurely stroll to thebus and easily board it nor miss it before they have even a chance to reach it. The secondary task before boarding needs to be carefully calibrated, so as to not distract the participants too much, while, at the same time, not appear to specifically set them up just to catch thebus and nothing else, or external validity is lost once again. A contextual discussion, while starting from a lower level of external validity, does not run these risks to the same degree. By having the discussion in thebus as it is driving, we attempted to provide a safe minimal degree of immersion, as the participants would articulate their points from their passenger role in that moment. Our methodological choice has lowered the external validity in comparison with more realistic studies.
We have developed probes whose ﬂoating potential is close, or ideally equal to Φ pl , so that this important parameter can be measured directly and thus with high temporal reso- lution [ 14 ]. Such plasma potential probes (PPP) are either electron-emissive probes (EEP), operable in all types of plasma [ 13 , 15 ], or electron screening probes (ESP) drawing onthe difference of the gyroradii of electrons and ions in magnetic ﬁelds [ 12 , 16 , 17 ]. In both cases the ﬂoating potential V ﬂ,ppp of such probes is a good approximation of the plasma potential [ 14 ]. With arrays of PPPs, electric ﬁeld components can be determined with much higher reliability than with CLP since V ﬂ,ppp does ideally not depend on T e . Onthe other hand, from the difference between the ﬂoating potential of a CLP and the plasma potential the electron temperature can be determined (see below). This can be realised by one CLP and one PPP mounted closely by each other on one probe head. More details onthe EEP and the ESPs developed recently in our group will be presented in forthcoming papers [ 13 , 14 ].
Health care markets in developed countries have become increasingly concentrated, while at the same time there has been an increasing trend of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in these markets. I study the im- pact of M&As in thediagnostic procedure market, a market that is an important part of the health care industry and patient care, but has received little attention in this context. I use detailed nationwide regis- ter data from the Finnish private health care sector. My difference-in- difference estimates show that M&As increased prices in blood tests in both the acquiring and acquired units, but not in X-rays and MRIs. I additionally estimate a patient demand model that reveals that prices have little impact onthe choice of provider while the referring physi- cian’s influence is large, potentially contributing to the firms’ ability to increase their price margins.
Against this backdrop, the initial objective of self- supporting competition and supervisory agencies that restrict themselves to control and remedy abuse should not be abandoned. The currently observable degree of differentiation and the increasing scope of regulation, as well as the increasingly labour-inten- sive design of regulatory processes do not serve this objective. Given the results of this study, the latest call for centralisation of important regulatory func- tions at the European Commission is equally uncon- vincing, all the more so as competition and prices are pointing in the desired direction in the member states. It would be far better to focus again onthe politically mandated transitory character of sector- specific regulation within a market economy regime. This study was conceived as the first step towards a systematic status report. In the course of collecting and analysing the data, it became clear that more information is needed. In the hope that regulatory authorities will be willing to provide information, we will strive to describe more precisely their missions and structures in the future. With this pilot project, the Ifo Institute seeks to contribute to the discussion and provide an impetus for research papers that could, for example, empirically investigate the con- nection between market development and institu- tional change.
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Shapiro, 1990). Thus, it seems to be that the relevant market has to be defined intermodal. Due to the complete termination of PB and BLB services, the number of routes has been decreasing by around 850. At the same time, FB has been decreasing the frequency on routes where it was the only supplier (non-competitive) and on routes served also by others (competitive) before the consolidation. Onthe one hand, FB is reducing overcapacity by not replacing former PB trips on competitive routes. Onthe other, it seems to be the case that FB kept the number of connections artificially high before takeover, in order to prevent competitors from serving non-competitive routes (Schmalensee, 1978). Due to the market exit of the last major competitors, this competitive pressure is lowered. Intramodal competition prevails only on a few routes. These frequency adjustments can be stated as a drop in ’product quality’, since the number of trips per day and route is a measurement of quality for transportation services (Redman et al., 2013).
There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self report measure of bus driver behaviour. For Study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In Study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the ten components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently
The experimental achievement of the coherent coupling of quantum dots  enabled the measurement of intriguing phenomena in mesoscopic transport . A remarkable feature of coupled quantum dots—the so-called artificial molecules with the single dots representing the atoms—is that the energy levels of each “atom” can be controlled by an appropriate gate voltage. In particular, the highest occupied levels of neighboring dots can be tuned into resonance. At such resonances, the conductance as a function of the gate voltage exhibits a peak. This behavior is modified by the influence of microwave radiation: With increasing microwave intensity, the resonance peaks become smaller and side- peaks emerge. The distance between the central peak and the side-peaks is determined by the frequency of the radiation field which provides evidence for photon-assisted tunneling [38–41]. Photon-assisted tunneling through quan- tum dots is, in comparison to its counterpart in superconductor-insulator- superconductor junctions , a potentially richer phenomenon. The reason for this is that quantum dots form a multi-barrier structure which permits real occupation and resonant tunneling. Therefore, a theoretical description requires to also take into account the influence of the field onthe dynamics of the electrons localized in the central region between the barriers. The quantum dot setup used for the observation of photon-assisted tunneling can also be em- ployed as an implementation  of the theoretically suggested non-adiabatic pump [59, 94, 95].
monitoring of the realized minimum fuel efficiency (here maximum fuel consumption per vehicle km f max ) and that the fine is sufficiently high to make all car manufacturers comply.
Following the Fisher & Newell (2008) technique to introduce endogenous technological progress, we assume that the gasoline car producers can, in the first period, invest in a better knowledge base that helps to reduce the costs of vehicles in the second period. The knowledge base is produced by two factors: learning by doing as well as by pure R&D. Learning by doing decreases costs by drawing onthe accumulated production, also known as the experience curve approach. Learning by doing is used in many long term simulation models but is biased because it forgets the learning by pure R&D (Nordhaus(2014)). The pure R&D is the second way to increase the knowledge base. It is difficult to separate the effects of learning by doing and pure R&D. Aghion et al.(2016) in their study of the patents firm-level panel data on auto industry innovation distinguishing between “dirty” internal combustion engine and “clean” e.g., electric, hybrid, and hydrogen patents across 80 countries, show that both factors matter. They showed that the innovation activities of all automobile producers react to fuel price incentives, that gasoline firms specialize in fuel efficiency patents and greener car producers specialize in patents bringing down the costs of electric vehicles. They also show that there are important localized spillovers. In our formulation, we limit the effect of the knowledge base of gasoline cars to the costs that are specific to the fuel efficiency efforts of gasoline cars. This is in line with the separation in Aghion et al between dirty patents and grey patents, where the grey patents are the ones that are related to the reactions of the fossil fueled cars to fuel price changes. The total investment in R&D for fuel efficiency and the learning by doing will then reduce the fuel efficiency related costs in the second period.
The Fraunhofer ISE study , which is represented in Figure 4 in the second category with three different scenarios, points out the possibility of realizing all of Germany’s power and heat demand via renewable energies. In the study, electricity storage is taken into account by including pumped hydro storage and batteries, while thermal energy storage is considered through the inclusion of water as a storage medium. The scenarios refer to different degrees of refurbishment for buildings (heat demands of 64.9%, 50% and 40% in reference to the 2010 values for REMax, Medium and SanMax, respectively). A P2G path is integrated as follows: first, hydrogen that was produced by electrolysis during periods of excess electricity generation is transformed into methane; this methane is then stored in already existing caverns for natural gas; finally, during times of positive residual load, the methane is used to produce electricity and heat. Not modeled are thetransportsector and fuel-based industry processes. However, the study states that if transport was included (by assuming 50% BEVs and 50% FCVs), an additional yearly electricity demand of 290 TWh would be required.
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Received: 29 March 2017; Accepted: 6 July 2017; Published: 21 July 2017
Abstract: The usage of renewable energy sources (RESs) to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals requires a holistic transformation across all sectors. Due to the fluctuating nature of RESs, it is necessary to install more wind and photovoltaics (PVs) generation in terms of nominal power than would otherwise be required in order to ensure that the power demand can always be met. In a near fully RES-based energy system, there will be times when there is an inadequate conventional load to meet the overcapacity of RESs, which will lead to demand regularly being exceeded and thereby a surplus. One approach to making productive use of this surplus, which would lead to a holistic transformation of all sectors, is “sector coupling” (SC). This paper describes the general principles behind this concept and develops a working definition intended to be of utility to the international scientific community. Furthermore, a literature review provides an overview of relevant scientific papers onthe topic. Due to the challenge of distinguishing between papers with or without SC, the approach adopted here takes the German context as a case study that can be applied to future reviews with an international focus. Finally, to evaluate the potential of SC, an analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level has been conducted and is outlined here.