Nach oben pdf Baltic sea region studies: current trends (based on publications in the Baltic Region Journal)

Baltic sea region studies: current trends (based on publications in the Baltic Region Journal)

Baltic sea region studies: current trends (based on publications in the Baltic Region Journal)

The Baltic region is a traditional research subject for scholars from Saint Petersburg and Kaliningrad — the two Russian research centres on the Baltic coast. In 2009, the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in collaboration with Saint Petersburg State University established the Baltic Region aca- demic journal. The journal’s editorial council and editorial board bring to- gether prominent experts from Russia and the other Baltic region states — Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Finland.

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Stakeholder Collaboration in Energy Transition: Experiences from Urban Testbeds in the Baltic Sea Region

Stakeholder Collaboration in Energy Transition: Experiences from Urban Testbeds in the Baltic Sea Region

Starting with a possible limitation, the results proposed and discussed in this article can be attributed to the scope of the AREA 21 project. As such, it concerns the collaboration framework, its features, approaches and methods, which in the project context refer only to the initiation, planning and implementation phase, and not to the execution of the energy efficiency measures. In other words, the stakeholders engaged in collaboration and developed strategies and action plans for the focus urban districts, but they did not put these in practice within the project timeframe. The measures will be executed shortly after the completion of the project. Hence, it can be discussed to which extent the AREA 21 collaboration results allow an assessment of the effectiveness of the collaboration process. On the other hand, the focus of the project and this article are not the measures, but the process that was followed in the various case studies in the implementation of the specific EID objectives. It focused on how diverse stakeholders could go beyond business as usual to promote tailor-made solutions centered on the need for effective energy planning. The cases examined allow specific conclusions to be drawn as they all applied the same instrument of collaborative energy planning, i.e., the EID.
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The influence of the sea on the economic development and settlement structure in the Baltic Sea region

The influence of the sea on the economic development and settlement structure in the Baltic Sea region

Regional development forecasts and coherent regional policies require a typology of regions accommodating the effect of a coastal position. Such a typology must take into account the dynamics of current economic processes and changes in the settlement structure. Translated to the international level, such studies take on added significance for the Baltics region, which boasts intergovernmental bodies established to coordinate spatial development. The Council of the Baltic Sea State (CBSS) has launched the Vision and Strate- gies around the Baltic Sea Region (VASAB). Another important initiative is the INTERREG, the Baltic Sea Region 2014—2020 trans-boundary coopera- tion project. Special measures are taken to coordinate the Strategy for the Socioeconomic Development of the Northwestern Federal District until 2020. The EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea region has been revised. This arti- cle focuses on certain spatial effects of a coastal position on the economic development of the Baltic transnational region.
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The evolution of US political priorities in the Baltic sea region in the 2010s

The evolution of US political priorities in the Baltic sea region in the 2010s

The decisions taken by NATO after 2014 to increase its military presence in the Baltic region indicate that in this issue the United States does not experience significant problems even with those allies in ‘old Europe’ (in particular, Ger- many and France) who are not eager to sacrifice the benefits of their ties with Russia. Donald Trump’s arrival in the White House, which brought a consider- able conflict potential to the US-European relations, did not fundamentally vio- late the intra-Western consensus on the need to rebuff the ‘Russian expansion’. Turkey’s bid to block the adoption of the defense plan for the Baltic states and Poland was the only stumbling block in reaching agreement on the Baltic issue by the Alliance at the London NATO summit at the end of 2019. President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan demanded that the allies agree to recognize the YPG Kurdish armed groups in Northern Syria as terrorist, in exchange for Ankara’s approval of this plan. It became evident that for a key US ally in NATO, its own geopolitical environment is far more important than the problems of the remote Baltic Sea region, and that Russia, as Rachel Ellehuus from the Washington based Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) warned, was quick to play on the re- sulting fissures between Ankara and NATO [21]. Nevertheless, in late June 2020, Turkey withdrew its objections to the adoption of the defense plan for Poland and the Baltic countries. 13
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Energy refurbishment of historic buildings in the Baltic Sea Region

Energy refurbishment of historic buildings in the Baltic Sea Region

efficiency rehabilitation. In most countries there is no formal education for conservators, meaning it is a post rather than a profession. Those holding the post of conservator come from various educational backgrounds. Besides architects or building engineers, they may be art historians or archaeologists, for example. The latter two groups will usually have learned nothing about the physics or energy efficiency of buildings in their studies, while these issues are often of only subsidiary importance in the training of architects and construction engineers. Even in the professions where building physics and energy efficiency are taught, the material studied usually concerns new buildings. This is regrettable because, in Germany at least, more than 50 percent of all construction work now involves existing buildings. Even these professions have a need for further training in the energy efficiency
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Development of international clusters in the Baltic Sea region

Development of international clusters in the Baltic Sea region

German companies take part in international cluster interactions both in the Baltic Sea region and beyond it. The federal government pursues a coherent policy of stimulating cluster development in order to accelerate the process of developing new technologies and further market penetration. Many German research infrastructures are world leaders in the fields of physics, geology, climate studies, and humanities. Being rather independent, federal states develop individual development programmes, finance R&D, and establish research organisations [20].

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Nordic-Baltic security, Germany and NATO: the Baltic Sea Region is a test case for European security

Nordic-Baltic security, Germany and NATO: the Baltic Sea Region is a test case for European security

First , it is a test of political unity, in both times of crisis and daily routine. Would the states of the region and the other Europeans be able to react jointly to Russian aggres- sion in the north-east? This might be par- ticularly difficult in the case of hybrid threats, where violence is often not directly attributable, does not have a clear military character, and often remains below the threshold at which the EU or NATO could clearly react. Although it is likely that Allies and EU members will achieve unity when faced with an existential crisis, it is more difficult to maintain it in everyday deci- sions. The EU’s maintaining of economic sanctions against Russia and NATO keeping unity in the run-up to its 2016 summit in Warsaw are the current indicators of how resilient political unity will be. There will certainly be a display of unity at the NATO summit, but the decisions to be presented will show whether it is based upon a small or a large common denominator. Three areas matter in particular. First, the stance to be taken with regard to Moscow: Will the summit focus exclusively on deterrence and decide on further measures in the north- east, or rather on deterrence and dialogue? Second, to what extent will NATO develop answers to the challenges in the south, such as the Islamic State, thereby balancing eastern and southern requests? Particularly since the 2015 Paris attacks, some Allies, such as France, insist that the instability in the south is as much an existential threat as Russia is in the east. Consequently, opin- ions diverge about how strongly NATO’s military adaptation should be directed east- wards. Third, the current debate on whether and how to adapt NATO’s nuclear strategy to bolster deterrence is already dividing Allies. Finally, transatlantic ties will once again be on trial: Will the European Allies
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Mechanisms of sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea region for the period 1850-2100

Mechanisms of sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea region for the period 1850-2100

Besides, as another crucial factor inducing sea-level change in the Baltic Sea, the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) – which is a consequence of the Scandinavian ice- sheet melting – leads to negative sea-level trends along the northern Baltic coast. The largest land uplift rates occur over the northern part of the Baltic Sea, and reach approximately 10 mm/year. However, the trend of vertical land movement is around of -1 mm/year at the south coast of Baltic Sea (Ekman 1996, Peltier 2004, Lidberg et al. 2010, Richter et al. 2011). Because of focusing on climate-induced sea-level variability in the Baltic Sea region, we need to remove the GIA effect from sea-level time series. Since the GIA-induced trend of the Baltic Sea level is not varied even for a few centuries period, the GIA does not cause an anomaly in the sea-level for 11-year gliding trends. Therefore, as one of the lateral outcomes of the gliding trend method, we filter out the GIA effect from tide gauge time series by using decadal trend anomalies which are not modulated by the GIA-affected signal.
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Climate change adaptation strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Climate change adaptation strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

The countries of the Baltic Sea region are at various stages of preparing, developing or implementing their national adaptation strategies (see Figure 2). Progress depends first and foremost on the political will and the resources available to adapt, but also on a number of other factors, including the extent and nature of observed climate change effects and the assessment of current and future climate vulnerability. In the following section, the statuses of the European national adaptation policies in the Baltic Sea region are presented.
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Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

The countries of the Baltic Sea region are at various stages of preparing, developing or implementing their national adaptation strategies (see Figure 2). Progress depends first and foremost on the political will and the resources available to adapt, but also on a number of other factors, including the extent and nature of observed climate change effects and the assessment of current and future climate vulnerability. In the following section, the statuses of the European national adaptation policies in the Baltic Sea region are presented.
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Environmental intensity of economic growth in the Baltic Sea region

Environmental intensity of economic growth in the Baltic Sea region

The economy of the NWFD regions is becoming increasingly green. The ongoing technological change leads to greater resource efficiency and lower environmental intensity. This results in a re- duction in carbon dioxide emissions and fresh water and energy consumption. However, new technology has not produced a fun- damental change in the current development trajectory. It is neces- sary to employ best practices, particularly, in waste management. Stimulating recycling and the use of recyclables, ensuring greater presence in the world recyclables market, and promoting circular economy business models would have a positive effect on the economy and environment of Russia’s North-West. Another im- portant factor is environmental behaviour. Thus, growing afflu- ence should go hand in hand with greater environmental aware- ness and the transformation of values from consumption to con- servation. The literature shows (see [30]) that consumer awareness of environmentally friendly products has a positive effect on the formation of a green market and green entrepreneurship, as well as on sustainable development studies.
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Industrial restructuring in transitional Baltic Sea Region countries (Baltic States, Kaliningrad oblast)

Industrial restructuring in transitional Baltic Sea Region countries (Baltic States, Kaliningrad oblast)

In period 1995-2000 Estonian industrial output in current prices has risen approx 2 times. In the mentioned period in Tallinn region, which has got the most investments, the rise has been only about 1.5 times, but for example in peripheral and less developed Narva city region the output has risen almost 4 times (Statistical Office of Estonia). It shows that the prices of real estate and the salaries in manufacturing are too high for the branches which are behind re-industrialization (textiles, electronics): already now it is more efficient to relocate low qualified producing to cheaper (peripheral) regions. But if the salaries and prices rise in peripheral regions as well then it is more sufficient to relocate this kind of producing to countries with cheaper industrial labour. Most probably it would mean new de-industrialization.
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Economic and geographical structure of the Baltic Sea region

Economic and geographical structure of the Baltic Sea region

The Baltic Sea region is one of the most developed transnational regions. It is com- prised of the coastal areas of Russia, Ger- many, and Poland and the entire territories of Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. New spatial forms of international economic cooperation are emerging in the region. The region is not homogeneous in terms of socioeconomic development, thus there are certain diffe- rences in dimensions and intensity of inter- national cooperation. The author sets out to identify structural characteristics of the Baltic Sea region. This requires studying practices of transnational and transboun- dary cooperation and possibilities for their adoption in other regions of the world. An important characteristic of the Baltic Sea region is a considerable difference between its coastal territories, the fact that affects the development of multilateral relations. This article examines the most pronounced socioeconomic differences that should be taken into account when forecasting coop- eration trends in the region, including those between the Baltic territories of Russia and their international partners.
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Economic and Political Perspectives on Integration in the Baltic Sea Region

Economic and Political Perspectives on Integration in the Baltic Sea Region

(85) and Estonia (78). It seems that the explanation has to be found in patterns of urbanization and regional division rather than transition and development. The BSR in the European Regional System More then ten years after the start of the process of transition in the Baltic Rim and Europe as whole, huge changes has taken place, both internally in the transition economies and in the political and economic relations between the countries. Economically, the former CMEA has disappeared: The EU is now the unchallenged hub in the economic system of the BSR. Poland Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia will become members of the EU 2004, and also Russia has developed closer ties to the EU, in particular since Putin became president. For the BSR as a whole regional consolidation is almost finished. Finland and Sweden are now members of the EU, and Norway is closely linked to the internal market through the European Economic Area agreement. For the transition countries this process has not been without obstacles and drawbacks. No paved road leads from an isolated non-market based economic system to a position as full-fledged member of the western market based economic system. The purpose of this article is to assess the development in the BSR, to identify some of the trends of the past thirteen years. Main trends identified in the last decade are:
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The future of the Baltic Sea region: Potentials and challenges

The future of the Baltic Sea region: Potentials and challenges

2 | Trade with the Mare Balticum Back during the day of the Hanseatic League, between the middle of the 12th and the middle of the 17th centuries, maritime transport made it possible for regions with access to the Baltic Sea to trade goods with each other exten- sively. These advantages in the interregional exchange of goods made being located on the sea or on a river a critical factor for the economic development of a city. The ongoing integration of the worldwide economy will offer the ports in the Baltic Sea region particular potential in future as well, especially for the maritime industries and related businesses. The intensification of trade and transport cost advantages tend to strengthen the spatial concentration of economic activities in favour of locations near the sea (cf. Ott et al. 2010). According to empirical studies, the costs of transporting goods from one region to another increase by 20 to 30% when the two regions are twice as far apart (cf. WTO 2004). This correlation helps us to understand why interna- tional trade relationships tend to be more intense, the smaller the distance between the trading partners is. For one, this explains why trade within Eu- rope is more important for the EU Member States than trade outside Europe (cf. Großmann et al. 2006) and why the neighbours within the Baltic Sea region have intense import and export trading relationships with each other. Other reasons for the intense interconnection are the spatial proximity, the histori- cal bonds between the new federal states and the nations of Eastern Europe and the traditional economic interconnections between the Hanseatic cities. The neighbours within the Baltic Sea region are important trade partners for the EU Member States. In 2009 they exported goods worth EUR 725 billion to other EU nations, equal to 33% of exports within the EU. Adding trade out- side the EU, this share increased to 34% or a total of EUR 1.1 trillion (all figures excluding Russia). Altogether the Baltic Sea states imported goods worth EUR 993 billion in 2009 (28% of them from countries outside the EU), accounting for 30% of total imports to EU countries. For the sake of comparison: the Mediter- ranean Sea states (Greece, France, Spain, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus and Italy) accounted for 25% of EU exports and 29% of EU imports.
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Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Region : The Vulnerability of German Ports

Climate Change in the Baltic Sea Region : The Vulnerability of German Ports

In a recent survey on the vulnerability of German Baltic Sea ports due to climate change within the frame of the German research project RADOST, the Institute for Ecological Economy Research (IÖW) has questioned port operators and port-based businesses (for details on this survey see page 8). The survey results on the ports’ current readiness for a rise in sea level show that a majority of participating ports will be required to adapt by 2050 if the sea level rises faster than predicted by the IPCC. Especially older and low laying port areas will have to be elevated to avoid flooding. This opportunity of modernisation and reconstruction should be utilised to implement other adaptation measures.
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Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

Russia also participates in energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. In 2012, it exported 4.78 billion kWh to Lithuania (the country accounts for 26.0 % of the Russian export, ranking first in these terms) and 3.79 billion kWh to Finland (20.6 %, ranking second) [24]. The export capacity, which reached its peak (11.3 billion kWh) in 2003, has been decreasing since 2009 with a steep decline in 2012 (by 60.6 %) [24; 25]. The main reason be- hind it is that Russian electricity is too expensive. For instance, in the first half of 2012, an average market price for Russian electricity reached 40 euros per MWh, whereas an average prices in the energy market of the Nordic countries and the Baltics (Nord Pool) was only 33 euros per MWh (as a result of hydro- power plants generating cheap electricity). Taking into account the existing trends in the Russian and Scandinavian power markets, experts of the RIA Rating agency came to a conclusion that in the near future, Russia would not export electricity to Finland but import it from the country [26; 27].
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The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

The innovative process in the Baltic Sea region

The Baltic Sea region is rather small in a global scale. However, it could be turned to the region’s advantage as the region as a whole can benefit from the geographical proximity for example with regard to transfer of knowledge and information. Close location and direct interaction between different ac- tors can facilitate networking and collaboration. Due to the current economic situation the countries in the region face some challenges which could affect innovation development as well, for example funding of R&D. Despite of that, investing in R&D and innovation development is important because in- novation success stories can attract more capital, educated people and new companies to the region in the future. Still, realising the full innovation po- tential of the BSR would require the development of a common vision and identity of the region, as well as increasing the collaboration in practice not only at national level but also between actors at lower levels, such as various innovation clusters.
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Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

Modern Hanseatic Trends in the Baltic Region

A critical analysis of the Hanseatic traditions may produce consequential methodological material for the study of the XXI-century Baltic regionalisation. Current trends in the development of the Baltic re- gion, whose academic analysis is impossi- ble without considering earlier cases of successful interactions between the peoples of the Baltic Sea region, necessitate politi- cal, economic, and historical research on the strengths and weaknesses of the Hanse- atic League. Unfortunately, in the XXI cen- tury, the Baltic Sea region turned into a stage for geopolitical controversies. This took a toll on the efficiency of cooperation between the cities of Russia’s North-West and their Baltic counterparts. Therefore, it is important to seize opportunities provided by the information society and focus on in- novative areas of regional cooperation. An interesting example of such cooperation is a partnership of Baltic universities aimed to draw up an international agenda for sus- tainable regional development is. The Baltic cities are involved in various forms of cross-border cooperation, providing oppor- tunities for interstate relations and contrib- ute to drawing cross-border cooperation roadmaps and developing civil society net- works. It can be concluded, that the history of the Hanseatic League and its current incarnation — the New Hansa — testify to the fact that productive economic, cultural, and other relations can be established be- tween states but also between cities and universities, thus contributing to closer economic, political and cultural ties be- tween the peoples of the Baltic region.
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Governance beyond the nation-state: transnationalization and Europeanization of the Baltic Sea Region

Governance beyond the nation-state: transnationalization and Europeanization of the Baltic Sea Region

The three case studies have shown, therefore, that the European Union is di- rectly involved in decision making as a stakeholder: it is a signatory of HELCOM, it was involved in the initiation of Baltic 21 and, as an SOG member, it remains a partner in the Baltic 21 process. The European Union is generally responsive to the needs and challenges of sustainable development, on the one hand, and to European governance, on the other. It tries to address these goals by means of new governance arrangements and by assigning a greater role to non-state actors and, to a certain extent, by mainstreaming their involvement in the policy process. However, the soft policy approach taken by the EU on certain issues, for example, within the Northern Dimension, could also be questioned. Therefore, in some areas, a regulative approach promises better outcomes. Sustainable development needs a broad base of support at all levels of government. In this respect the integrative approach of Baltic 21 seems to fit very well into the overall European strategy. 47 The European approach of using a combination of “old” and “new” instruments can generally be considered to be on the right track, although it is not as successful as it could and should be. Despite the shortcomings, however, the
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