According to the reviewed reports, Authorisation is the most important process for the support of substitution by REACH. (In addition, Authorisation is a subject of intense public discussion due to its far-reaching consequences for the availability of SVHCs. This can be an additional explanation for the focus of the studies). The triggers for substitution under the process of Authorisation are listed in the table in chronological order: the entry of intention of SVHC identification into the PACT, the actual placement on the Candidate List and the inclusion in Annex XIV. With each step, the pressure (which can be seen as an incentive) for research and development for substitution rises. At the latest when it is decided that Authorisation must be applied for a certain substance, an assessment of alternatives must be carried out. Already before, classification and labelling of a substance (and mixtures) or other regulatory actions such as the Risk Management Options Analysis can start discussions on substitution in companies which are following the REACH activities.
Only the most stringent scenario allows domination of T2 due to an early ban of T1, whereas the less stringent scenario is characterized by the coexistence of T1 and T2 but still in great favor of T1. Thus technology substitution from T1 to T2 does happen when regulation is very stringent resulting in a significant reduction of environmental impact in the form of a reduction of the VOC stock. However the effective ban of T1 goes with a great number of failures in the industry since every firm still having T1 in their portfolio cannot use the technology anymore after the cutoff date. In turn green pioneers specialized on T2 are rewarded of their risky attitude and can go on capitalizing on the green technology. Progress on T2 is thus early and rapid. Moreover the radical selection of T2 resulting from the early ban of T1 brings a reduction in the market size due to unsatisfied demand regarding the new technology which turns to be expensive and of low quality at the cutoff moment. Again the reduction in the market size contributes to an increase in firms’ exit and thus in the number of failures. In total industry concentration increases and distribution of market shares appears significantly unbalanced.
Some indirect benefits are linked to improved working conditions stemming from improved risk management, with a highlighted benefit being a reduction in productivity losses. Reductions in healthcare costs per effect of better management of risk, reduction of releases into the environ- ment andsubstitution/withdrawal of hazardous substances are also identified among the indi- rect benefits of REACH regulation. These have, however, received significantly less attention than the direct impacts and often there has been little effort to produce aggregate estimates of these benefits for employers and for national governments. For instance, savings in healthcare costs due to better management of risks may be estimated and presented in restriction dossiers and AfAs, but there is a lack of research providing aggregate estimates. There are also no col- lated data on the potential efficiency gains (or losses) from REACH in terms of changes in re- source use, energy demand and material losses. Some data on these aspects may be available from Authorisation dossiers in terms of the negative effects of moving to alternative substances or processes, however, the potential gains linked to improving the recyclability of products at a broad level have not been assessed.
Allocentric information inﬂuenced reaching end- points irrespective of whether prior knowledge about the reach target was available during scene encoding. However, the inﬂuence of allocentric information was stronger when the reach target was unknown. Previ- ous studies demonstrated that prior knowledge from a brief glimpse could generate an abstract visual representation that can be retained in working memory and used to guide subsequent eye movements (Castelhano & Henderson, 2007; Hayhoe, Shrivasta- va, Mruczek, & Pelz, 2003). Moreover, eye movements have been generally considered to be controlled by top-down processes that restrict ﬁxations to task- relevant locations (DeAngelus & Pelz, 2009; Hayhoe & Rothkopf, 2011; Land & Hayhoe, 2001; Mills et al., 2011; Oliva et al., 2003; Rothkopf et al., 2007; Triesch et al., 2003). This is supported by the present ﬁndings demonstrating that participants mainly ﬁxated either all the table objects serving as potential reach targets or the one table object that was introduced before- hand. Taking into consideration that only the visual information of previously attended task-relevant objects are retained in working memory (Holling- worth & Henderson, 2002), participants may have had a less detailed and less precise memory representation of the other objects when the reach target was known, leading to a reduced inﬂuence of allocentric coding. However, prior knowledge did not lead to a complete lack of allocentric coding as we observed allocentric weights different from baseline (no object shift) when the reach target was known and gaze was free, i.e., in situations closest to everyday behavior. This suggests that allocentric information is still used for reaching even when the task could be solely performed in an egocentric reference frame. Such a combination of egocentric and allocentric reference frames likely provides a more precise estimate of the visual target location in space.
In this paper we demonstrate that the Lisbon Strategy’s key ‘at risk of poverty’ indicator and the Europe 2020 ‘at risk of poverty or social exclusion’ indicator have inappropriate and very misleading names. While according to Atkinson, Marlier and Nolan (2004), the task force that helped to develop the social indicators highlighted that the ‘at risk of poverty’ indicator does not provide a basis for assessing people as ‘poor’, the European Commission and the Council subsequently agreed to label the indicator as ‘at risk of poverty’. Poverty has many different definitions, as summarised by, for example, Coudouel, Hentschel and Wodon (2002), Marx, Nolan and Olivera (2015) and Weziak-Bialowolska (2016). However, a standard definition of poverty, which coincides with the everyday use of the word ‘poverty’, refers to a situation in which the individual has little money and few possessions. The ‘at risk of poverty’ indicator is used in such a context in dozens of documents from EU institutions and in the speeches of the representatives of those institutions. But we have not been able to
Der europäische Importeur wird in diesem Fall dann formal als nachgeschalteter Anwender angesehen und hat keine Registrierungspflichten mehr. Er braucht deshalb auch keine detaillierten Informationen vom außereuropäischen Hersteller für seine eigene Registrierung einzufordern. Dies bedeutet wiederum für den außereuropäischen Hersteller, dass er keine vertraulichen Daten, wie die Zusammensetzung der Zubereitungen, an seine Kunden weitergeben muss, weil der europäische Importeur nur als nachgeschalteter Anwender fungiert. Er hat lediglich Informationspflichten und keine Registrierungspflichten. Im bisherigen Recht gab es auch schon Alleinvertretungsregeln. Diese vor allem im Bereich der Neustoffanmeldung der Stoffrichtlinie bestehenden Regelungen wurden im Großen und Ganzen in REACH übernommen. Der primäre Unterschied besteht aber in der Mengenberechnung. Wurde in dem altem Recht die gesamte Menge, die eingeführt wurde, addiert, ist unter REACH nur die Menge, die jeder einzelne Importeur einführt, ausschlaggebend. Der Alleinvertreter übernimmt zwar für alle Importeure die Verpflichtungen, aber nur für die jeweilige Menge. 117
3 Children not in school and subnational financing
8 See: UN Sustainable Development Goal 4: Quality Education (www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/education/).
This section explores the extent to which subnational financing allocations of government and donor spending are correlated with children not in school, as a proxy for educational outcomes, noting any significant differences from when the analysis is based on educational attainment or years of schooling. There are clearly challenges to be addressed in improving access to education for the poorest. More than half of school-age children not enrolled live in sub-Saharan Africa and half of those out of school live in conflict-affected areas. Of the 265 million children out of school, 22% are of primary- school age – so they are not receiving even basic levels of education. 8 Educational attainment is
(3) Emissionsbegrenzungen gem. Abs. 1 sind auf der Grundlage der gem Anhang 1 Z 3.3. Verordnung (EG) Nr. 1907/2006 (REACH) ermittelten PNEC-Werte für den Umweltbereich Wasser festzulegen. Durch die Abwassereinleitung dürfen diese Immissionsgrenzwerte nicht überschritten werden. Zur Einhaltung der Emissionsbegrenzungen gem. Abs. 1 ist gegebenenfalls ein geeignetes Abwasserreinigunsgverfahren nach dem Stand der Technik vorzusehen. Dabei ist eine zusätzliche Abwasserbelastung durch die für die Abwasserreinigung eingesetzten Stoffe gegen die Emission der maßgeblichen Inhaltsstoffe so abzuwägen, so dass sich in Summe die geringstmögliche Wassergefährdung ergibt.
Although the idea that happiness levels adapt has been explored empirically by psychologists since the 1970s (Brickman et al, 1978), it is only recently that economists have started applying time-series data to study what happens to the path of people’s happiness over time following changes in the life events. Clark et al (2008) provide one of the most comprehensive longitudinal findings of its kind. In their study, they show that men and women do not generally adapt to the unhappiness brought about by shocks to their employment status, while adaptation to marriage, divorce, widowhood, and children tends to be complete in a matter of a few years for both genders. A similar set of results are obtained by Frijters et al (2011). For instance, using the quarterly life events data in the Australian panel, they find that unemployment starts off bad and stays bad for men and women.
5. Nach Inkrafttreten der neuen Chemikalienverord- nung müssen Hersteller oder Importeure, die Chemika- lien in Mengen > 1 t/a produzieren oder importieren, diese Stoffe bei der zukünftigen Europäischen Chemika- lienagentur registrieren lassen (siehe Abb. 1-1). Dies be- träfe dann gleichermaßen neu entwickelte wie bereits auf dem EU-Markt befindliche Stoffe, die andernfalls nicht mehr produziert oder importiert werden dürfen. Für Stoffe, die bereits auf dem Gemeinschaftsmarkt sind und nicht nach dem Neustoffverfahren notifiziert wurden, gel- ten besondere Bedingungen. Es sind dies die Stoffe der EINECS-Liste (European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances, Europäisches Altstoffverzeichnis), die zu ei- nem Stichtag 1981 von den Herstellern als Produkte ge- meldet wurden. Diese so genannten Altstoffe können in einem Vorregistrierverfahren angemeldet werden, sofern die Hersteller die Registrierung durchführen wollen, und kommen dann als so genannte phase-in-Stoffe, in den Ge- nuss einer erweiterten Fristsetzung für den Abschluss des Registrierverfahrens. Die können bis zum Ablauf dieser Frist und bei vollständiger Registrierung auch danach produziert oder importiert werden. Die Fristen zur Inan- spruchnahme der Vorregistrierung enden für Stoffe mit mehr als 1 000 t/a (synonym high production volume, HPV-Stoffe oder Großstoffe) 1,5 Jahre nach Inkrafttreten der REACH-Verordnung (REACH-VO) und für alle an- deren Stoffe 4,5 Jahre nach Inkrafttreten der Verordnung. Für neu entwickelte Stoffe muss vor Produktion oder Im- port von mehr als 1 t/a das Registrierverfahren abge- schlossen sein. Diese Regelung gilt auch für Altstoffe, die nicht innerhalb der Vorregistrierfristen gemeldet wurden, für die aber zum Beispiel die Wiederaufnahme einer Pro- duktion geplant ist.
By scrutinizing cross-sectional data, aerial photos and flow discharge records, this study shed some new light on the causes of the morphological changes in the lower reach of the Tenryu River. The attention was placed on in-channel vegetation that is considered as a second order effect of dam construction. As a result, a vegetation-related erosion mechanism along the river course was identified.
modulation index of 0, a unit whose directional modulation is equal to the standard deviation of its residuals would have a normalized modulation index of 1, and a unit whose directional modulation is larger than the standard deviation of its residuals would have a normalized modulation index greater than 1. We included all channels with baseline rates below 100 Hz and with normalized modulation indices above 0.1 for S3 and 0.05 for T2. For T2, we included a maximum of 50 channels; channels with the lowest normalized modulation indices were excluded if this limit was exceeded. Across the six sessions, the number of channels included in the Kalman filter ranged from 13 to 50 (see Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Fig. 8). The state decoder used for hand grasp was built using similar methods, as previously described 8 . Briefly, threshold crossings were summed over the previous 300 ms, and linear discriminant analysis was used to separate threshold crossing counts arising when the participant was intending to close the hand from times that s/he was imagining moving the arm. For the state decoder, we used all channels that were not turned off at the start of the session (see Setup in Methods) and whose baseline threshold crossing rates, calculated from the previous block, were between 0.5 Hz and 100 Hz. Additionally for T2, we only included channels if the difference in mean rates during grasp vs. move states divided by the firing rate standard deviation (the d-prime score) was above 0.05. As for the Kalman filter, we included a maximum of 50 channels in the state decoder for T2; channels with the lowest d-prime scores were excluded if this limit was exceeded. Across the six sessions, the number of channels included in the state decoder ranged from 16 to 50 (see Supplementary Table 1). Immediately after a grasp was decoded, the Kalman prior was reset to zero. For both robot systems, at the end of a trial, velocity commands were suspended and the arm was repositioned under computer control to the software-expected position of the current target, in order to prepare the arm to enable the collection of metrics for the next 3D point-to-point reach. Additionally, during the DEKA sessions, 3D velocity commands were suspended during grasps (which lasted 2 sec).
It is submitted, that article 1 of the Charter of the Fundamental Rights of the EU gives an important part of the answer when it states: “Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.” Hence, when we aim at providing safety and security for a society which has human rights at its core, we must do so in a way that promotes human dignity. Living in a dignified society is not possible without the right to privacy – regardless of how safe or unsafe it might be. In conclusion, what we need is both: Privacy AND Security.
activation of the movement plan towards the distractor is increased and does compete with the movement plan towards the target. Similarly, as in our study, the distractor did not influence reaching when the target was cued. However, in their study the cue was presented 1–1.5 seconds before target/ distractor was presented. Already before target presentation, a movement plan towards the cued location could have been acti- vated. This was not possible in our study since the cue was presented together with the onset of the target and distractor shapes. Even though our results can be explained by a strong activation of the movement plan towards the target, this could not have been in a preplanned fashion. Alternatively, by cueing the target, the salient distractor could have been suppressed on the attentional priority map which then also affects the motor map. As a consequence, the movement plan towards the distractor would not be activated and thus would not compete with the movement plan towards the target.
Does traffic light labelling patronise mature consumers?
Criticism has also been voiced that traffic light la- belling interferes with the personal responsibility of consumers. Yet this contention overlooks the fact that the traffic light is merely a way to provide infor- mation, and that the consumer is in no way forced to behave in a specific manner. Instead, the consumer is merely provided with the option of choosing a product based upon additional information. Traffic light labelling is also criticised because it ostensibly discriminates against entire groups of foods that are especially flavorful, such as sweets. For this reason, it is said to be a political-ideological attempt to control demand. In fact, the purpose of nutritional labelling is to inform consumers about high levels of certain nutrients in a basic way that is independent of any specific system. The nutritional and health policy aim of labelling is ultimately to support the consumer in making health-conscious food choices. However, the consumer remains free to purchase foods that are considered unhealthy from a nutritional perspective. Thus, labelling repre- sents a low level of regulatory intervention. It would be a different story altogether if indulgent foodstuffs were banned or saddled with a high tax.
German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)
Suggested Citation: Wrohlich, Katharina (2017) : There is a lot left to do to reach gender
equality in Germany, DIW Economic Bulletin, ISSN 2192-7219, Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW), Berlin, Vol. 7, Iss. 43, pp. 427-28
Exploring and exploiting the richness andreach of large scale action re- search projects is a challenge. This challenge focuses inwards as it ad- dresses critical issues of enacting, managing and coordinating the actions of the project and engaging in the reflective processes of learning-in- action and knowledge generation by multiple actors and groups engaged in the project. It simultaneously focuses outwards as it seeks to exploit both the processes of the action research itself and the dissemination of ac- tionable knowledge to multiple audiences. This article describes and re- flects upon the challenges of exploring and exploiting richness andreach arising in the CO-IMPROVE project, a European Union (EU) funded ini- tiative involving action research in complex networks of academics and business. The objectives of CO-IMPROVE included the facilitation of collaborative improvement of operations practice and performance in the extended manufacturing enterprise through action research among both managers and academics.
The first recording of electrical potential from brain activity was reported already in 1875, but still the interpretation of the signal is debated. To take full advantage of the new generation of microelectrodes with hundreds or even thousands of electrode contacts, an accurate quantitative link between what is measured and the underlying neural circuit activity is needed. Here we address the question of how the observed frequency dependence of recorded local field potentials (LFPs) should be interpreted. By use of a well-established biophysical modeling scheme, com- bined with detailed reconstructed neuronal morphologies, we find that correlations in the synaptic inputs onto a population of pyramidal cells may significantly boost the low-frequency components and affect the spatial profile of the generated LFP. We further find that these low- frequency components may be less ‘local’ than the high- frequency LFP components in the sense that (1) the size of signal-generation region of the LFP recorded at an electrode is larger and (2) the LFP generated by a synaptically activated population spreads further outside the population edge due to volume conduction.