Between the mid 1880s and 1914, two distinct developments took place in Germany: the country became not only an imperial power but also a consumer society. Both aspects had huge reverberations for the realm of advertising. In his well-structured and richly illustrated book Advertising Empire: Race and VisualCulture in Imperial Germany, historian David Ciarlo argues that the rise of modern advertising cul- ture and the subjugation of colonized people were closely inter- twined. With the help of an extensive visual archive, the collection of trademark registration rolls of the Imperial Patent Office (Waren -
How to cite:
Goppelsröder, Fabian: „Praktisch kanonisch. Der Reader „Bildwissenschaft und Visual Cul- ture“ des transcript-Verlags [Review on: Rimmele, Marius; Klaus Sachs-Hombach und Bernd Stiegler (Hg.): Bildwissenschaft und VisualCulture. Bielefeld: transcript, 2014.]“. In: KULT_on- line 43 (2015).
Klaassen, Oliver: “Für eine Ethik des dialogischen Sehens in der Kunstgeschichte und den VisualCulture Studies [Review on: Falkenhausen, Susanne (Hg.). Jenseits des Spiegels. Das Sehen in Kunstgeschichte und VisualCulture Studies, Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink, 2015.]”. In: KULT_online 52 (2017).
Harriet M. Sonne de Torrens, Miguel A. Torrens (ed.), The VisualCulture of Baptism in the Middle Ages. Essays on Medieval Fonts, Settings and Beliefs, Farnham, Surrey (Ashgate Publishing) 2013, XVII–232 p., 84 b&w ill., ISBN 978- 1-4094-5675-9, GBP 55,00.
We started our empirical study with the assumption that there would be deep resentment towards the elite residential parts of the city that were being promoted in real estate advertisements, particularly amongst in- dividuals residing in poorer neighbourhoods. Using a mixed method methodology, we collected data, some of which was conflicting. Although our interviews with drivers demonstrated a common understanding that ad- vertised real estate projects widens the inequality gap in the country, our more extensive survey, which featured a broad range of respondents from across the city, found the opposite: that neither the location of a person’s resi- dence nor their socio-economic background influences the degree of acceptance of the real estate advertise- ments. In fact, the majority exercised a sense of neutral- ity towards present advertising campaigns; it is worth nothing that while they are exposed to commercial vi- sualizations, they have also seen the advertised content physical materialize into new towns and gated communi- ties. Beginning with a presentation of Cairo’s current real estate advertisements and ending with an analysis of a commercial, the article explored the broad visualculture of Egypt’s highly mediatized real estate market.
Aesthetic experience has been considered one of the representative means of human life. It has always been mentioned in cultural studies, most recently due to the power of images on the Internet. However, the concept of the nonhuman as a digital process in relation to aesthetic experience has directly changed our lives through the new senses offered by technology. For this reason, we can ask the question: Can today’s realities of visualculture be considered nonhuman or regarded as part of the heritage of human- ity? Perhaps the new practices in art have categorically changed the sense of tradition related to the concept of the nonhuman. Therefore, this affects neither animal life nor the natural environment; however, the artificial world is affected, as it has been created by humans through artifices and inventions. In this regard, the concept of the nonhuman could be considered collective intelligence.
Finally, the emboldened art market, resulting from economic prosperity in the 1990s, facilitated many collectors to buy Cuban art at the biennials, art fairs, and then in galleries and museums. As a result, the proile of Cuban artists living and working outside their country increased dramatically during the 1990s. In many instances, these Cuban born, global art “stars” conceived visual statements without reference to their cultural heritage. Instead their art expressed the language of the avantgarde and was indistinguishable in subject and medium from that of many global artists. This study takes into consideration the issue of exile and emigration and examines the possibility of a Cuban culture and art that transcends geographical borders. Though its diasporic core is in Miami, its ramiications are extensive. They reach many art centers from Madrid and Caracas, San Juan and Mexico City, to New York and Paris.
(see also Föll 2007: 105). Since a title is chosen that adds an obviously crucial meaning, »(Ross),« here, too, visuality and object are not thought of as separate from language. However, diﬀ erent than with Kosuth, the linguistic and visual signs are in no way modes of depiction that could replace one another. The candies do not bring to mind memories of Ross and Ross does not make us think of candies. The weight of the candies, which refers to the weight of a body, cannot be recognized by appearances: no visual sign is employed that refers to an individual body or produces a similarity to a living or deceased person. In addition, there is an entire series of similar works by Gonzalez-Torres—piles or rectangular ﬁ elds of candies in bright colors or in silver cellophane—that all have diﬀ erent titles. ›Untitled‹ (Lover Boys), 1990 (ﬁ g. 3), ›Untitled‹ (Welcome Back Heroes), 1991, and ›Untitled‹ (Public Opinion), 1991 (ﬁ g. 4) all make concrete socio- historical references, but the connection between the names and the candy objects remains arbitrary and it is this arbitrariness that is highlighted. Rather than using tautological multiplication to prevent other meanings from being added to the visual signs, like Kosuth did, exhibited here is that a variety of meanings can most deﬁ nitely be applied to the sign ›candies.‹ And these meanings can be applied in a way that abandons conventional language use. The series of diverse works, per se, produces a reference to the process of assigning meaning as a social practice—an indicative gesture, which is further emphasized by the preﬁ x ›untitled‹ added to the name of all of the works. The convention that the title of a work—as with Kosuth’s One or three Chairs—doubles or explains the presented visual sign, is broken with.
This illustrates the potential of Socialist Modernism, seen both as a research site and data source, to capture the particularities of a rising participatory culture in heritage studies. It can give insights into how social media contributes to the formation of a new public for architectural heritage and how this public understands and experiences her- itage in new ways, by viewing, reacting to, and distributing images. 28 It can also shed
(BLFa) for the ﬁrst time. One of the best-know interventions the BLF stands for is the scam that was directed against the Exxon Corporation: In wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill that had occurred in Alaska on March 24, 1989, the group decided to rejoin after more or less ﬁve years of inactivity and to release an ironic press statement, in which Napier called for solidarity with the corporation by claiming that the “seepage of oil is a natural occurrence […] and, as such, the Alaskan spill should be applauded by all Americans as another step in our ongoing evolutionary destiny. We should capitalize on our good fortune as presented by Exxon Corporation” (BLFb). As if this was not enough, a group of activists around Napier altered the corporate message of a couple of Exxon-billboards in San Francisco in May 1989 from “Hits Happen-New X-100” to “Shit Happens-New Exxon” (ibid.). The technique employed by the BLF as well as by other groups active in the ﬁeld of culture jamming is called
The ‘Euromaidan’ protests in Ukraine (2013–2014) were motivated by people’s great expectations of profound change through implementation of reforms and genuine democratization of the society. The realization of these expectations depends on many preconditions, among them the pattern of political culture, which reflects the readiness of people to contribute actively to the establishment of a new democratic regime in their country. An analysis of the political orientations of citizens over the past two decades shows that only a small part of the population can be called strong democrats, whereas the majority of the population avoids active political participation and holds a rather output-oriented position, which may facilitate the persistence of an authoritarian political regime. On the other hand, a new social movement represented by recently emerged numerous volunteer organizations and initiatives points to a substantial positive change in people’s political orientations.
Asian material culture can be discussed within the framework of the annual Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival, Chung Chiu, and in particular the giving and receiving of moon cakes (yuèbı˘ng 月餅), as they are known in Mandarin, and the ways this specific custom and culture are linked. Given this context, the essay sets out to discuss the underlying symbolism of moon cakes and their meaning, their historical and seasonal significance as well as the fact that the festival is also steeped in legend and mythology, even extending to the fundamental canon of Taoism.
Most applications need to derive a discrete set of visual words from the actual extracted visual features. One possible approach is to partition a set of feature vectors into homogeneous groups or clusters. A representative feature such as the centroid is then chosen for each cluster and called a visual word. The set of rep- resentative feature centroids then defines the visual vocabulary. An unknown feature vector can then be mapped to its nearest representative feature, which allows computing the discrete vi- sual word occurrences.
These two examples impressively demonstrate the great flexibility of the vi- sual system. The very same system rapidly provides a basis for execution of behavioral responses (Kirchner & Thorpe, 2006). At the same time it is up to amazingly detailed representations of the environment and even learning of these representations. In the brain, all these tasks are performed on the basis of action potentials, also called spikes, emitted by densely interconnected neurons. Dif- ferent investigators have proposed mechanisms how a network of neurons could achieve either the speed (see Thorpe et al., 2001, for review) or the analytic capability (e.g. Freeman, 2003; K¨ onig & Kr¨ uger, 2006; Thielscher & Neumann, 2006) of the visual system. The current report will focus on the impact of motor activity on the visual system. Thus, we will focus our attention in most cases to situations like the one in the first exampe with the blue van. Models aiming to explain such fast behavioral responses, usually consider some sort of interaction between the collective behavior of large groups of neurons and the individual behavior of the single cells constituing the whole group (e.g. K¨ orner et al., 1999; Thorpe et al., 2001; Wyss et al., 2003). Thus, what a single cell does becomes meaningful only in relation to what the whole population does. In the following sections we will review some of the basic ideas of these models. We will first stick to highly simplified discriminations between two alternatives and later proceed to more complex situations.
Mit Hilfe von Variationen der Versuchsdurchführung (TASK, 5°- Extramaske) sowie der Auswertungsmethoden (ROI- Definition) erhofften wir uns, Einblicke in das Verhalten des Scanpaths bei Visual Imagery unter simulierter Hemianopsie zu erhalten. Es zeigte sich, dass bei den „a posteriori“ Auswertungen durchgehend eine höhere String Similarity als bei „a priori“ vorlag. Weiterhin fand sich ein deutliches Absinken der String Similarity- Werte bei den Probanden, die Bildbetrachtungen unter vergrößerter simulierter Hemianopsie von 5° (Extramaske) im Sinne einer Ausschaltung des fovealen Sehens durchführen mussten. Unter verschiedenen Aufgabenstellungen (TASKs) ergaben sich nur zum Teil signifikante Veränderungen der Scanpath- String Similarity. Dafür zeigte sich hier eine deutliche Auswirkung auf die basalen Blickbewegungsparameter.
This type of work, however, requires skilful and creative teachers. The role of the contemporary teacher in today’s educational context is becoming increasingly demanding and complex, dictated, on the one hand, by modern pedagogical concepts and the complexity of the school conditions in which teachers work, on the other. In addition to possessing knowledge and skills in the visual arts area and methodology, teachers are also required to have a mentoring approach to the students, to develop creativity among students, to be able to involve students in independent and active work, to include new technologies in the teaching process, to be open and ready to new ideas and approaches, to have a desire to experiment and attempt new ways of teach- ing, and to possess the ability to use contemporary interactive and art-specific teaching methods and procedures. A constructivist-oriented teacher in visual arts classes also plans and encourages student participation in such a way that they help one another in solving visual arts tasks and develop a sense of team- work. To be able to express new ideas in their own way, students also need to be given sufficient time and appropriate working conditions, which is another major challenge in current Croatian school practice, in which only one hour a week is intended for teaching visual arts in elementary school.
IZA DP No. 13607 AUGUST 2020
Gender and Culture *
This paper reviews the literature on gender and culture. Gender gaps in various outcomes (competitiveness, labor force participation, and performance in mathematics, amongst many others) show remarkable differences across countries and tend to persist over time. The economics literature initially explained these differences by looking at standard economic variables such as the level of development, women’s education, the expansion of the service sector, and discrimination. More recent literature has argued that gender differences in a variety of outcomes could reflect underlying cultural values and beliefs. This article reviews the literature on the relevance of culture in the determination of different forms of gender gap. I examine how differences in historical situations could have been relevant in generating gender differences and the conditions under which gender norms tend to be stable or to change over time, emphasizing the role of social learning. Finally, I review the role of different forms of cultural transmission in shaping gender differences, distinguishing between channels of vertical transmission (the role of the family), horizontal transmission (the role of peers), and oblique transmission (the role of teachers or role models).
3.1. From culture to formal institutions
Historical narratives of the relevance of culture on formal institutions
Several studies on the relevance of culture on institutions provide historical narratives of specific cases. Fischer (1989), studying the evolution of institutions in the United States, documents how cultural beliefs brought by the four migration waves of the original settlers generated stark differences in laws. First came the Puritans, arriving in Massachusetts from East Anglia. Known for valuing education and order, they introduced laws promoting universal education and justice, together with town meetings and town covenants mimicking those of their country of origin. Next came the Virginia Cavaliers, who settled in the Chesapeake Bay from the South and Southwest of England. Their beliefs emphasized group inequality as a natural state of the world; they introduced laws with low taxes and low government spending and placed little emphasis on education. The Quakers, who arrived next from England’s North Midlands and settled in the Delaware Valley, revered personal freedom, and thus established institutions emphasizing equal rights and limited government intervention. The final wave, the Scottish-Irish, arrived from Northern England, Scotland, and Ireland, settling in the backcountry of the U.S. South. They believed in freedom from any constraint and, as a result, espoused minimal government intervention and a limited justice
Trying to achieve this goal through international publication rules may serve the short term goal of selecting the qualified faculty, but not without paying a heavy price in the form of undermining the longer term goal of building an indigenous research culture to address the important problems of society.
Immer wenn es zu großen internen oder externen Verän- derungsprozessen (u. a. schnelles Wachstum, Firmenzusam- menschlüsse, Führungswechsel oder Wertewandel) kommt, sollte sich ein Unternehmen bewusst und kritisch mit der ei- genen Unternehmenskultur auseinandersetzen (Sackmann 2017). Nur so ist es möglich zu analysieren, inwiefern die neue Situation durch die Unternehmenskultur gestützt oder gar ge- hemmt wird, um dann entsprechend reagieren zu können. Die Digitalisierung kann als ein solcher externer Veränderungspro- zess verstanden werden. Denn in einer Zeit, in der ein zuneh- mender Einsatz und die Nutzung von digitalen Technologien beziehungsweise die Substitution vormals analoger durch di- gitale Prozesse in praktisch allen Bereichen und Branchen der Wirtschaft eine große Rolle spielen, wird die Anpassung an und Transformation in das digitale Zeitalter als „überlebens- notwendig“ für das einzelne Unternehmen verstanden (Pfeif- fer et al. 2016). Neben der Einführung von technischen Ver- änderungen stellen jedoch meist die sozialen und kulturel- len Änderungen, die solche Transformationsprozesse mit sich bringen, eine große Herausforderung dar. Diese können nicht einfach „eingekauft und implementiert“ werden. Daher wird inzwischen häufig, insbesondere in Veröffentlichungen von Unternehmensberatungen (u. a. BCG 2018; capgemini 2017; McKinsey 2017), von einer „Digital (Corporate) Culture“ ge-