Furthermore, to achieve the aimed height accuracy, more re- strictive selectioncriteria have been derived, which are based on the return-echo pulse characteristics, listed in its data structure, and on MODIS vegetation coverage data. Only return echoes with very little spread are chosen, which guarantees that no or very few selected ICESat points will lie over forested areas or steep terrain. There, the general accuracy of the samples is considerably smaller than that in flat land, and the discrepancies between an X-band DEM and a laser reflection are the biggest. The comparison with the laser DEM has confirmed final height accuracies of the selected ICESat data between around 0.2 and 0.5 m. A detailed global coverage analysis proves that a sufficient set of these highly accurate height references remains after applying the selectioncriteria. In this way, a successful TanDEM-X global DEM calibration is ensured.
Findings of the research showed that there is a significant difference between the rural and urban girls with respect to the secure attachment style. And also findings of the research showed that there is a no difference between the rural and urban girls with respect to the unsafe (Avoidant) attachment styles, unsafe (ambivalent -anxious-ambivalent) and Mate - selectioncriteria . According to the obtained results in this research, the average avoidance and anxiety scores, age of father and mother, their education levels, number of family members, have been significantly higher in urban girls than rural girls. The ECR-R evaluated avoidance and anxiety attachment styles. The results of this research are consistent with those of Roberts et al, and Bartholomew and Shaver. Roberts et al, in their research showed there is a relationship between insecure attachment styles including double-wing and avoidance and anxiety and depression. Also, Bartholomew and Shaver(1996), stated in their research, people having avoidance insecure attachment styles, face problems in being intimate and relying on others. They maintained through attachment styles, one can predict interpersonal problems and the feeling of lack of security in adults. Feeny et al (1994), in their research on the
In section 2, major characteristics of compensation projects are identi- fied. These include inter alia the delivery of real emission reductions, environ- mental impacts, support of sustainable development, costs of compensation, credibility and public reputation, project type, and situation in the host coun- try. In addition, the concept of “high-quality projects” is discussed. Potential interactions between those characteristics are examined, looking at project type and price of reduction certificates. Thereafter, a methodological approach for the selection of voluntary compensation projects is proposed. The method- ology considers both the value system of the compensating entity and project characteristics. It is based on a differentiation between selectioncriteria and indicators, which operationalize the criteria. Selectioncriteria, for example a project’s success probability under a given regulatory regime, or project type and location, are weighted according to the preferences of compensating enti- ties. Several indicators are of a quantitative nature, others are derived from qualitative assessment. A project’s performance with regard to the individual indicators/criteria is to be evaluated by experts and results in a quantitative scoring. Thus, a ranking of different projects within a given group is possible. Section 3 applies the developed methodology to several case studies. The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH decided to offset its CO 2 emissions by means of reduction certificates from a Clean De- velopment Mechanism (CDM) project. Five of the submitted project ideas have been selected for this study. Following that, a sensitivity analysis for the de- fined parameters – indicator scores S n and weighting factors w n – is conducted. Major results are that the proposed methodology is indeed suitable to consider both project characteristics and individual value systems of compensating entities in a standardised manner. An adaptation to the individual task may be appropriate, e.g. the consideration of additional/less indicators. Expert judgement is necessary to comprehensively consider all project characteris- tics, especially the facets of CDM regulations. The case studies also reveal that, regardless of the predefined structures of the approach, a considerable degree of freedom is given to the evaluating expert. In order to enhance consistency of results, the evaluation of a given set of projects should be conducted by the same expert. Finally, quantitative results should not be interpreted too strict- ly. The methodology allows a grouping of projects, but not a sharp ranking based on the second decimal point.
GLOBAL BUSINESS & FINANCE REVIEW, Volume. 20 Issue. 2(FALL 2015), 27-34
established banks in Bangladesh. The selectioncriteria vary from country to country due to differences in culture, economic and legal environments and even these selection factors are gradually shifted from year to year. Some significant factors in one nation might prove insignificant in another one (Rao and Sharma, 2010). Furthermore, People’s demographic characteristics (i.e. education, income level, gender etc.) have a significant influence on selecting types of banks (Jahiruddin and Haque, 2009). Bangladesh has experienced exemplary development in rising mobile phone users; the mobile banking service has also created popularity among the people of the country. Using internet through mobile phone is becoming popular day by day to transfer money, check accounts, monitor loan statements and take out cash from ATM booths (Hasan, Baten, Kamil and Parveen, 2010). With the increase of education rate, usages of internet and smart phone in Bangladesh, banking sector is facing new challanges to meet the demands of existing clients and to catch the attention of protential investors. This study is designed to detect what factors are currrently affecting people’s behaviour in Bangladesh to select their banks.
Abstract : It does not matter whether small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have good, bad, or no IS/IT competencies. Almost all enlist the services of an external consultant at some point. External consultants can handle a wide range of tasks, from fixing an existing bug, to choosing new software or adapting a business strategy in line with state-of-the-art technology. While there is some evidence that external assistance with IT projects is an effective course of action, so far no information has been available on what SMEs pay attention to when choosing their consultants. The aim of the preliminary study was therefore to establish SMEs’ selectioncriteria for hiring IS/IT consultants, to determine what competencies SMEs look for in their external consultants, and to find out if Swiss universities of applied sciences (UAS) are included in their selection process. For this purpose, interviews were conducted with 15 SMEs, most of which are based in the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Schaffhausen. Findings indicate that selectioncriteria vary considerably according to the size of the SMEs. The majority have never consulted a UAS.
The Institute of Business Sciences of the University of Miskolc conducted a survey in 2001, 2005-06, 2011-12 and 2015-16 among consultants and their clients. In this study, the author presents on the basis of which aspects the clients choose a consultant, what the difference is between the opinion of the consultants and their clients, how these aspects changed in the examined period, and how the consultants would be able to meet their clients’ requirements. According to the surveys, consultants – in the case of most selectioncriteria – see the importance of the single criteria similarly to their clients and perceive its change similarly. More flexible, more complex, and more solution orientated proposals would make the consultants more convenient to their clients.
A survey questionnaire which is created by using this list includes pairwise comparisons between all the selectioncriteria and sub-criteria. In selecting the firms, this study draw on the list of
Turkey ’s Biggest 500 Companies (2016) published every year by Istanbul Chamber of Commerce
(Istanbul Ticaret Odasi, ITO). Out of the total number of 21 cement firms included in this list, 14 cement firms agreed to fill out the survey and thus the questionnaire was sent to 25 experts in the field of logistics procurement and transportation related to the third-party logistics provider selection. These firms were selected because they had a more institutional character, had a higher amount of production and hence adopted a systematic approach to achieve an effective logistics
The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to assess existing or novel bio-based value chains from key angles that are of significance to our journey to attaining a fully functional bio-based circular economy. Due to the limited time and resources, it is essential to distinguish the most promising bio-based business model from the rest, and that is precisely what this paper, with its methodology suggests. EU-based bioeconomy and bio-based value chains are diverse in nature and are not restricted to those value chains that have been considered in this study. The preliminary list of 12 value chains was selected based on their relevance and significance to the bioeconomy, their current activity level/contribution and coverage by various sustainability and certification schemes. These bio-based value chains have been selected to ensure the representation of EU’s diverse bio-based value chains in addition to their potential to address the key environmental, techno-economic and socio-economic threats and challenges faced globally. The value chains were selected in two-steps via multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), wherein the first step, the preliminary value chains were ranked by placing them against a back drop of five key selectioncriteria in the current context: feedstock variability; EU feedstock preference; variety of end-of-life options; multisector application and multi-regional supply chains. This step led to the identification of eight bio-based value chains which were subjected to a second round of assessment where five out of the eight value chains showed a promising interest/inclination for bioeconomic development. For the selected five bio-based value chains which included starch to bio-plastics, starch to bio mulch films, starch to frame material, cellulose to bio-based solvents, vegetable fats/plant lipids to bio-based lubricants, elaborate value chain maps were developed to demonstrate the highly informative nature of this tool and its crucial role in understanding the complex interactions among the various process stages, associated processes and stakeholders within a more complex value chain.
port choice in Africa indicate infrastructure, port draft, political stability, market size/ cargo volume, and the international network as the most important selection factors.
Salem and El-Sakty ( 2014 ) study the competitiveness of East Mediterranean ports, considering cost, information technology (IT), location, depth, berth availability, equip- ment, infrastructure, and other factors as selectioncriteria. Zarei ( 2015 ) highlights the quality of products supplied by chandlers, advanced port management, infrastructure, and quality of suppliers ’ services as the main factors for port selection. According to Dyck and Ismael ( 2015 ), port efficiency and performance, political stability, cargo vol- ume, location, costs, and infrastructure are important criteria for port selection in West Africa. Additionally, in evaluating the competitiveness of ports in the West African re- gion, George and Hawa ( 2015 ) reveal that cargo volume, location, efficiency and per- formance, infrastructure, costs, and political stability are significant criteria. Kim et al. ( 2016 ) determine regional gateway port status by taking into account competitiveness in a multipolar port system in Northeast Asia, and they emphasize port availability, op- erational efficiency, port costs, and service quality as the primary factors. Ergin et al. ( 2015 ) indicate that port charges are the most important criterion, while the length of port berthing time and access to an electronic data interchange system are the least im- portant criteria for port selection.
This article contributes to three strands of the literature. First, we show that it is rare to make an error in the selection of regime switching behavior. Selectioncriteria manage to distinguish well between stochastic and deterministic switches in most cases. However, Information Criteria could lead practitioners to make the wrong choice between stochastic and deterministic regime switches. Loss functions computed with true volatility are more suitable for this purpose. The second contribution of this work concerns the selection of models based on selectioncriteria such as AIC, BIC or in-sample forecast performance. Through statistical analysis, we provide empirical evidence that results obtained using these selectioncriteria are directly impacted by estimation performance. Proper estimation of these models is important, and although regime switching GARCH models provide good indicators to explain the financial crisis 17 , selection needs to be made with great care. Estimation methods other than QML are available, like Bayesian or GMM estimations. However, with MS-GARCH models, ML is the one most commonly used in empirical work. Finally, we examine in-sample forecasts and show that the noisy proxy of squared returns is, in a lot of cases, not a good choice when selecting a volatility model.
A. Pantouvakis, C. Patsiouras SPOUDAI Journal, Vol.66 (2016), Issue 1-2, pp. 22-31
academic effort is that tourists who visited Thessaloniki based on their nationality, show differences in destination’s selectioncriteria. Regarding the tourism destination selection factors, we conclude that in most of these a few differences appear with respect to the nationality of the tourists. In particular, visiting historical and cultural monuments seems to be an extremely important factor for the Americans and tends to be insignificant for Greeks and Cypriots. A large variation in significance also appears in the motivation related to emotional and physical renewal, where while for Greeks this parameter is very important; it appears to be trivial to Americans and Cypriots. The motivation for relaxation which seems to be very important for Greeks and Cypriots is almost insignificant for the Americans. One also important conclusion of the present research is that tourists are not satisfied from the city based on their nationality and their personal beliefs. Also, according to the data analysis, the tourists who participated in the research cover a wide range of the “age scale” and they seem to have a high educational level. The three nationalities examined in this study belong to the top five nationalities visited the destination selected in the past years. This is the exact reason that Greek, Cypriots and Americans were selected. This is an important element in order to further investigate the significance of factors and motivations that drive tourists to choose and visit a site.
The findings of this paper validated the ocean carrier selection factors from the ship- pers ’ perspective. This paper has made theoretical contributions by finding the critical factors influencing the shippers ’ choice of ocean carriers. The key contributions of this paper are the identification of the level of importance that the Tasmania shippers attrib- uted to the carrier selectioncriteria. Common price and service-based decision criteria have been examined in the context of Tasmanian shippers. Service-based factors returned higher factor loadings and corresponding higher median response score, price factor received less important from Tasmania shippers. The findings from Tasmania context revealed different pattern compared to similar studies conducted in other de- veloped countries. Tasmania shippers attributed high-level of importance to service-based factors, that is, cargo safety & security and capacity availability mainly due to the limited number of transport operators providing services between Tasmania and the mainland (Melbourne). Even though freight rates are high in Tasmania, never- theless, Tasmania shippers do not attribute high level of importance to pricing. Despite the support of the Tasmanian freight equalisation scheme the freight rates in Tasmania are higher by all standard compare to the mainland counterpart. Notwithstanding, Tas- mania shippers do not consider cost as the most critical factor in their decision making in choosing ocean carriers.
The wavelength selection criterion addressed is cloud attenuation as low as possible. To raise availability for the case of links influenced by clouds long wavelengths should be preferred because they scatter less under presence of small particles. The limit for usable long wavelengths is given by the atmospheric window VIII between 7.5 µm and 15.0 µm as it is defined in . All the atmospheric windows are shown in Fig. 1. The graph is the result of a low resolution calculation with the software suite libRadtran by using the LOWTRAN (LOW TRANsition code) model . Over 15.0 µm the atmospheric absorption does not allow transmission anymore. The goal of this paper is to identify wavelengths with low cloud attenuation and to show the availability of single ground stations and a system with ground station diversity in Europe. For that matter calculations of Mie scattering of various water cloud models are done because these cloud types are the ones with high attenuation. Ice clouds have much less attenuation and are almost wavelength independent because of their high particle radius. The problem with these cloud types is a depolarisation effect on the scattered wave, but this is not a problem which is addressed here. For details about propagation through ice clouds see . The availability of FSOC systems is estimated by using satellite image data of Europe.
Implications of the selection of a time horizon
The farther distant the point in time selected for study lies in the future, the smaller will be the extent of available “hard” knowledge of the future and the resulting prognostic possibilities. The room for possible developments becomes ever broader, meaning that the danger becomes ever greater that factors or developments which cannot be adequately evaluated at the pres- ent point in time will grow in influence (cf. Alcamo 2001, 12). The farther one looks into the future, for example, the more difficult it becomes explo- ratively and prognostically to anticipate changes in the system of interna- tional politics. Since the unpredictability of possible developments then be- comes very great, normative goal-and-wish scenarios are of great practical value, precisely in the case of far distant chronological horizons, as a means of providing orientation regarding the options for shaping these futures and the exigencies for action which result from them. This means asking, for example, how the architecture of the international political system will look in the year 2040 in order to find the required global solutions for problems. It also involves the question: “How can or must DP contribute to turning this vision into reality?“
to be zero. The non observability of Y for specific values of C induces the possibility of selection bias. We shall refer to (2.1) as the outcome equation and (2.2) as the selection equation.
The model is a nonparametric and nonseparable representation of the tobit type- 3 model and is a variant of the Heckman (1979) selection model. It was initially examined in a fully parametric setting, imposing additivity and normality, and esti- mated by maximum likelihood (see Amemiya, 1978, 1979). Vella (1993) provided a two-step estimator based on estimating the generalized residual from the selection equation and including it as a control function in the outcome equation. Honor´ e et al. (1997), Chen (1997) and Lee and Vella (2006) relaxed the model’s distributional assumptions, but imposed an index restriction and separability of the error terms in each equation.
The absence of a formal theoretical model of the connections among the business failure, internal and/or external economic-financial factors, the economic concerns of the various related agents, and management performance has caused changes in the variable selection procedures. Over the last several decades, the variables included in business failure models have been selected less frequently based on economic reasoning and more frequently based on empirical experience gathered in previous studies (Scott, 1981). This is the common use in empirical works trying to accumulate evidence on the performance of known methods previously applied to business failure. In addition, the use of statistical methods, which can quantify the most discriminant statistically significant variables, is growing. However, those works proposing new methods or relevant innovations to any existing method tend to select the same variables as the empirical works they are compared to (Tascón and Castaño, 2012).
CLOUD COMPUTING COMPLIANCE CRITERIA CATALOGUE (C5) | PROVIDING CONFORMITY THROUGH INDEPENDENT AUDITS
sufficient experience with the relevant formal requirements is available or can be obtained. According to the BSI, audits based on this crite- ria catalogue place special requirements on the qualification of the auditor and the members of the audit team. From the BSI’s point of view, the following aspects on professional qualifications and professional experience are suitable indica- tions that these special requirements are met. Therefore, the following aspects are to be fulfilled by those members of the audit team who, accord- ing to the International Standard on Quality Control (ISQC) 1 “Quality Control for Firms that Perform Audits and Reviews of Financial State- ments, and Other Assurance and Related Ser- vices Engagements” or the German IDW quality assurance standard “Anforderungen an die Qual- itätssicherung in der Wirtschaftsprüferpraxis” (IDW QS 1) or other national equivalents of ISQC 1, supervision the execution and review the results of the engagement (including evaluation of the work performed, review of the documenta- tion and the planned reporting):
widespread. For this purpose, not only existing videos are used, but also exclusive videos are created. There are different types of instructional videos used and created for teaching. It is useful to know which design principles these videos should follow in order to evaluate the quality of existing learning videos and to know the criteria one should consider when creating exclusive instructional videos. Therefore, questions arise as to how these videos should be designed to equally support theory and practice and what educational requirements they should meet for the use in teaching. These questions are answered with the framework of the study in hand that applied the method design-based research, incorporating qualitative and quantitative research methods. Survey instruments were guided interviews with experts, questionnaires for school students and a focus group. Participants in the study were teachers and students from the Vienna University of Teacher Education. The field of application was nutrition and consumer education for teaching students of the middle school. The results are presented in the form of design principles.