6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016
66 Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 453, 2016
ESL 5: Parasitic Angiosperms as medicinalplants
Karl Hammer 1 , Merita Hammer-Spahillari 2
DOI 10.5073/jka.2018.460.034 Abstract
Cervicitis is an inflammatory condition of the cervix associated with upper genital tract infection and reproductive complications. Therapy for cervicitis in conventional system is the use of antibiotics and antifungal therapies and surgical interventions, none of these treatments provides the definite efficacy in spite of high cost and side effect. So there is a need for alternate therapy which is safe, effective, easily available and free from side effects. Our study focuses on medicinalplants mentioned in main Iranian Traditional Medicine reference books.
Extract smE006, which was the strongest S. aureus growth inhibitor in this study, did not display antibiotic effects against the UAMS-1 strain [ 65 ]. A similar result was obtained for extract dietE10 (T. asiatica). This significant discrepancy can most likely be explained by the different resistance profiles of the two strains investigated. The results of this study also showed that the antibacterial potential of medicinalplants depends on the species, which plant part is used, the time and location of harvest, and on the solvents used for extraction. The results of this study, reporting pharmacological effects of medicinalplants on inflammatory enzyme cascades and growth of bacterial pathogens, could be the starting point for subsequent studies to investigate potential leads for the development of potent antiinflammatory drugs or antibiotics. Further work is required to characterize the extracts phytochemically in order to identify compounds responsible for the antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the plant species. This could be achieved, for instance, via bioassay-guided fractionation experiments and investigation of the mech- anisms of action. However, these effects might also be due synergistic relationships of multiple active ingredients within the plant extracts. To assess the plant species’ potential for drug discovery endeavors, future research should also include evaluation of toxicity (e.g., cytotoxicity and genotoxicity) and in vivo studies. Regarding future in vivo studies and for more accurate validation of traditional use, it will also be essential to continue including the original preparation cited by the traditional healers in the experimental setup, as well as their route of administration and dose. Extracts that displayed strong antibacterial activity need to be further investigated regarding their ability to limit the severity of disease, as well as their potential of increasing the efficacy of conventional antibiotics (that pathogens may have acquired resistance to already). Future studies should therefore also focus on the deactivation of other virulence pathways, such as secretion systems and biofilm formation.
The interviewed growers have cited 341 medicinalplants, of these, 34 were reported as effective in the process of wound healing. Among the 34 plants, for six it was not possible to obtain a taxonomic identification, because, during the data collection, some plants had no fruit and/or flowers, which made it difficult to identify them, thus preventing the taxonomic classification. For this reason, such herbs were not included in the study, and they are popularly cited as: bálsamo-do-peru, planta-da-alemanha, pitoco, carniceira, erva- paraguaia e malva (mallow).
towards the use of computer modeling for the valorisation of the medicinal potential of African medic- inal plants. The main highlights include the development of NANPDB (the most comprehensive database of NPs from the Northern Africa region), p-ANAPL (the largest collection of physical col- lection of NPs from African medicinalplants), etc. The report also includes the identification NP lead molecules with anti-HIV and sirtuin inhibitory activities by virtual screening, followed by in vitro assays, along with synthetic NP mimics, whose DMPK profiles were predicted using computer-based methods. The third aspect of the results includes the development of a toxicity prediction tool, as well as toxicity profiling of compounds included in the developed NP databases resources. The results are published in 2 dozen outputs and are a product of several collaborations in which several M.Sc. and Ph.D. students have been trained.
Gastrointestinal helminths are a major constraint to small ruminants in extensive husbandry systems of tropical re- gions. Yet, unavailability, high prices, side e ﬀects, and development of parasite resistance often limit the use of synthetic anthelmintics. Traditional medicinalplants might be an e ﬀective low-cost alternative. Therefore the in vitro anthelmintic activity of leaf extracts of the ligneous plants Capparis decidua, Salsola foetida, Suaeda fruticosa, Haloxylon salicornicum, and Haloxylon recurvum from Cholistan, Pakistan, was investigated against adult worms of Haemonchus contortus, Trichuris ovis, and Paramphistomum cervi. Various concentrations (from 7.8 to 500 mg dry matter ml −1 ) of three extracts (aqueous, methanol, and aqueous-methanol) of each plant were tested at di ﬀerent time intervals for their anthelmintic activity via adult motility assay.
The science of medicinalplants is one of the oldest sciences of mankind. After the decades-lasting dominance of chemically produced medicine, today the alternative medicine is booming. These days, more and more people try to fight their daily stress with wellness, Traditional Chinese Medicine or Feng Shui. As a result, people’s interest in natural healing methods and medicinalplants has increased over the years. Therefore, the first part of this diploma thesis gives an overview about the development of the science of medicinalplants over the past millenia. Then the morphology and composition of plants are examined, followed by the most common types of active agents, and finally, the usage of the parts of plants is explained. Since this first part has been written for laymen, the German technical terms concerning medicinalplants are given in brackets right in the text.
(ACS) in a ESF municipality Ijuí/RS. Method: Cross-sectional study, quantitative and qualitative, with 13 ACS. Data collection occurred in April 2014, and the analysis of quantitative data was done using descriptive statistics. The qualitative data were presented through the Collective Subject Discourse. Results: The main understanding of ACS on herbal medicine is related to the use of medicinalplants. Everyone agrees on the availability of plants and herbal medicines in the NHS, and provide information as to the mode of preparation and storage plants. Also believe that the incorrect use of plants can cause health hazards. Conclusion: There is a lack of knowledge about herbal medicine for ACS. Herbal medicine can and should be considered as a field of interaction of knowledge and practice that values and considers cultural resources, practices and local knowledge, with the involvement of the professional health care team.
The results from socioeconomic survey conducted in the present study allowed us to statistically determine how household factors such as wealth status, gender or education may influence the use of forests resources in the Mahafaly region. Some general results on the access to forests resources from the baseline survey (Neudert et al., 2014; SuLaMa, 2011) were also confirmed by our case study (chapter 1). Our findings showed that not only potential household factors significantly determine the resource use in the area, but there are also additional factors related to the type of resources used, particularly cultural factors. However, the survey we conducted did not provide necessary insight into the precise nature of the cultural value and the significance attached to natural resources as this was out of the range of this study, but in the framework of another work package of SuLaMa project (http://www.sulama.de/index.php/en/). The use of participatory research approaches such as forest walks allowed us to increase the scientific credibility of the results (e.g. determination of botanical names of plants compared to local names of plants). Additional information was recorded by GPS devices during the forests walking allowing further studies (see chapter 3). However, it is important to point out the difficulties we experienced in implementing the large ethnobotanical surveys in rural areas as people were aware that their traditional knowledge was recorded. In this context, I conclude that it was beneficial for the study to target a large sample but it may have been more appropriate to use a lower sample size comprising more villages instead. Time spent on conducting survey size could have been more effectively spent on collecting better quality ethnobotanical data. Quantification of indigenous knowledge on plant use proved problematic given the diverse plants used by the local people in this area. The questionnaire provided by the ethnobotanical survey, excluding the socio-economic survey, lasted up to 1.5 hour with a highly knowledgeable interviewee, as we had to record the diversity and use of each cited plant. Therefore, we elaborated categories for the use of medicinalplants and asked at the end of the interview for additional cases of use. Also, by adapting Simpson diversity indices to the use of plants, we could assess at the same time the diversity of plants utilized and the knowledge about their use. Despite the difficulties faced during the data collection, it is felt that data allowed us to test our hypothesis and to attain the objectives of the present study.
978 A. Saleem et al. ■ Phenolics of MedicinalPlants of Pakistan
higher total phenolic concentration and antioxi dant activity with the help of H PLC-DAD. Pheno lic com pounds were identified on the basis of re tention times, the shapes and U V maxima, (Table II). The U V spectra of the selected peaks, compared with those of standards, indicated the presence of hydroxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, and flavonol glycosides. Hydro- xycinnamates were identified on the basis of U V spectra of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid, while hydroxybenzoic acids were compared with gallic acid. Flavonol aglycones were recognized by com paring their U V spectra with that of catechin, and flavonol glycosides with rutin while flavanone in T. chebula (fruits, coat brown) was recognized by comparison with the naringenin spectrum.
Butuano, Malay, Indonesian, and Chinese origin occupy- ing mountain ranges and hinterlands in the province of Agusan del Sur [ 32 ].
Manobo indigenous peoples are clustered accordingly, occupying areas with varying dialects and some aspects of culture due to geographical separation. Their historic lifestyle and everyday livelihood are rural agriculture and primarily depend on their rice harvest, root crops, and vegetables for consumption [ 33 ]. Some Agusan Manobo are widely dispersed in highland communities above mountain drainage systems, indicating a suitable area for their indigenous medicinalplants in the province [ 34 ]. Every city or municipality is governed with a tribal chief- tain known as the “Datu” (male) or “Bae” (female) with his or her respective tribal healer “Babaylan” and the tri- bal leaders “Datu” of each barangay (village) leading their community. Their tribe has passed several challenges over the years but has still maintained to conserve and protect their ancestral domain to continually sustain their cultural traditions, practices, and values up to this present generation. This culture implies that there is rich medicinal plant knowledge in the traditional practices of Agusan Manobo, but their indigenous knowledge has not been systematically documented. Furthermore, there are no comprehensive ethnobotanical studies of medi- cinal plants used among the Manobo tribe in the Philippines to date.
Bouquet of compounds
In medicinalplants, mostly not a single compound is of value, but the whole bouquet of compounds together synergistically forms the scent, the taste, the medicinal effect or even the colour. Lead com- pounds as quality criteria in drugs (pharmaceutical, dried plant ma- terial) are sometimes the active substance itself, but more often, as the pharmaceutical effect bases on the whole profile of compounds, the lead is a compound that easily can be detected analytically and appears in a stable ratio or reaction with the others (n AM et al., 2016).
Traditional medicines have used the potential of nature to synthesize pharmacologically active compounds in plants with often rare structures for thousands of years. In modern pharmaceutical research the search for these active principles or lead compounds remains a major goal. During a previous bioactivity screening of extracts from medicinalplants used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a group of promising candidates with anticancer properties was identified. (Kahl, 2005), (Efferth et al., 2008). The focus of this thesis was on the anticancer potential of five plants from this group – Bischofia javanica Blume, Caesalpinia sappan Linne, Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim., Periploca sepium Bunge and Hydnocarpus anthelminthica Pierre ex Laness. DNA sequence analysis was used in addition to TLC fingerprinting to allow a clear discrimination of the two genera Periploca and Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax). Raw extracts of the five chosen plants were prepared by different extraction methods (ASE, soxhlet and pilot plant DIG-MAZ) using plant material originating from various sources. As a bioassay the XTT assay, a colorimetric assay for the quantification of cell viability and cell proliferation, treating human leukemia cells (CCRF- CEM) was used. Extracts significantly inhibiting cell growth and viability (≤20%) at low concentrations (10μg/ml) were submitted to bioassay-guided fractionation and subsequent isolation of active single compounds by different chromatographic methods such as open column fractionation with silicagel or sephadex, semi-preparative or preparative RP18 chromatography. Structures were elucidated by UV, MS and NMR. Pure compounds were tested in further human cancer (breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, colorectal carcinoma HCT 116 and neuronal glioblastoma U-251) and non-cancer (fibroblasts MRC-5) cell lines to determine their IC 50 values.
Since long time humans know that many of these compounds show beneficial effects on their health and wellness. Plants with any type and a certain amount of pharmacologically active compounds used by man to cure diseases are called medicinalplants. Large scale production of medicinalplants for the pharmaceutical industry requires drugs with stable compound compositions and minimum concentrations of the active compounds. Moreover, an ecological and environmentally friendly agricultural practice is more and more appreciated by the consumer. Thus, the selective application of AM fungi in medicinal plant production could be an attractive strategy to meet these requirements since even relatively small increases of the compound concentration or an enhancement of the biomass could be of economic interest. The background of this study was to find out whether AM fungi root colonization shows an effect on plant growth (increased biomass production) and affects the concentration of pharmacologically active compounds in medicinalplants. The study included the medicinalplants valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae), garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae), red clover (Trifolium pratense L., Fabaceae) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae). The different AM fungal treatments included single inoculation with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices as well as a mixture of 6 different
developing countries leads to higher prices of pharmaceuticals and makes medicinalplants and traditional medicine more attractive (R andRiamihaRisoa et al., 2015). Additionally, some prefer tradi- tional medicine for several reasons including familiarity, tradition and perceived safety (van andel and CaRvalheiRo, 2013). Traditional Malagasy medicine makes use of a wide variety of plants to treat gastrointestinal disorders as diarrhea and intestinal para- sites, which are particularly prevalent in rural areas of the country (leutsCheR and bagley, 2003). These diseases are rarely associ- ated with mortality (gastrointestinal bleeding), but they cause sig- nificant morbidity as impaired physical and mental development (a Reeshi et al., 2013).
were only called out in serious cases and therefore people had to rely on their own or local experts’ knowledge of medicinalplants growing in their surroundings . This knowledge has changed significantly due to changes in people’s socioeconomic situations and improvements in national healthcare facilities due to ongoing industrialisa- tion and globalisation . Austria has a compulsory state-funded healthcare system along with the option of private healthcare which provides a large, high-quality net- work of doctors and hospitals all over the country. Overall health in Austria is among the best in developed coun- tries. Life expectancy at birth is 78 for men and 83 for women. The major causes of mortality are diseases of the circulatory system (50%) and neoplasms (23%) which are patterns of disease similar to those in other developed countries . Medicinalplants for self-medication are now no longer essential, but offer people a popular alternative to conventional health practices such as the use of pharmaceuticals, healthcare professionals and medical facilities. Medicinalplants in Europe, their extracts, active components and finished pro- ducts have been described in many national phar- macopoeias that have ultimately led to a unified European Pharmacopoeia (EP), setting the standards in Europe for the use of these products as drugs. The study sites in Tyrol were chosen to represent the areas from where most of the migrants who moved to Australia, Brazil and Peru came. Most of the migrants living in Treze Tílias today came from Wildschönau (47 27 0 0″N, 12°3 0 0″O), which is in the
Iran is the country of different climates and rich genepool of different medicinal herbs. Both cli- mate variation and available genetic resources, make possible the introduction and improvement of new plant varieties into agriculture. Artemisia dracunculus has been cultivated in different parts of Iran since unknown time. Satureja rechingeri is a wild endemic species growing in desert area of south west of Iran with annual rainfall of less than 250mm while, Solidago virgaurea and Equisetum arvence are native to north and northwest of Iran with more than 700 mm annual rainfall. Several experimets were conducted to introduce new varieties of these plants for economic and high quality plant material production in agricultural systems. Here some of the results are presented. Keywords: Medicinalplants, Introduction, Tarragon, Wild Savory, Horsetail, Goldenrod
6 th International Symposium Breeding Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, BREEDMAP 6, Quedlinburg, Germany, June 19-23, 2016
Julius-Kühn-Archiv, 453, 2016 59
ESL 3: The pharmacological assay as a tool to medicinalplants domestication Ilio Montanari Jr. 1 , Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois Ruiz 1 , Carlos Amilcar Parada 2 , João
Objective: To identify the knowledge of nursing students on the use of medicinalplants as a complementary therapy to health care. Methods: Qualitative research conducted through semi structured interviews with eight nursing students from a Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul in October 2012. In thematic content analysis, three categories emerged: “I learned from my family”, “I acknowledge the importance of medicinalplants” and “I use plants at home, but do not recommend its use in the practical field”. Results: The knowledge of students regarding the use of medicinalplants is of popular source. Insecurity has been observed amongst undergraduates as to their agency as future professionals orienting in the guidelines regarding the use of medicinalplants, pointing to the need of advances in the nursing education. Conclusion: Highlights the need to review the nursing syllabuses in order to contemplate the subject, as a mean of promoting health and comprehensive care.
and phytotherapics in the Family Health Strategy (FHS) of Caico/RN. Methods: A qualitative and descriptive study developed with 19 health professionals. The data collection occurred between January and February 2011 through semi-structured interviews with treatment and analysis mediated by thematic content analysis. Results: The subjects show that the cultural resistance of the population, the lack of knowledge of the health professionals on integrative and complementary practices (PIC), the lack of inputs in the health services and the fragility of popular knowledge hinder the use of medicinalplants and phytotherapy. Conclusion: It is necessary some investments in this area with capacitating actions and training of human resources, besides the physical and structural support. It is suggested the realization of researches along of teaching about PIC and evaluation of the egress’ ability to respond to the demands in health services. Descriptors: Phytotherapy, MedicinalPlants, Family Health Program, Health personnel, Community health nursing.