Nach oben pdf Xenotransplantation — A special case of One Health

Xenotransplantation — A special case of One Health

Xenotransplantation — A special case of One Health

infectivity was not tested in this case) [88] . Antibodies speci fic for HEV were found in 67% of older hunters and in 17% of the general popu- lation [89,90] . Although the impact of HEV infections on the health of in- fected human individuals and on public health in general is unknown, it may be assumed that detection of HEV in domestic pigs using the sensi- tive methods developed for xenotransplantation and the selection of virus-free animals will prevent infection of humans. This raises the ques- tion of whether the expense of eliminating HEV from pig herds might be lower than the direct and indirect costs of medical treatments for infected individuals. In addition, as elimination of HEV from pigs prevents infec- tion of humans, it would also prevent transmission by blood transfusion. Evaluating the potential risk associated with xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues and organs requires also an analysis of epidemio- logical data comparing diseases in individuals eating red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) and vegetarians. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classi fied consumption of red meat as “probably carcinogenic to humans ” and of processed red meat as “carcinogenic to humans ” based on the assessment of more than 800 epidemiological studies in many countries, different continents, with diverse ethnicities and diets [91] . Other studies came to the same or slightly different re- sults [92 –100] . At present it is impossible to determine whether pig meat transmits tumor-inducing viruses or other infectious agents to customers, whether these results are due to chemical carcinogens or both. It is also unknown which impact such infectious agents may have on xenotransplantation if they indeed exist. Interestingly, replica- tion-competent circular DNA molecules were described in serum and milk from healthy cattles and an association of milk and beef with can- cer and multiple sclerosis was suggested [101,102] .
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Household choice of public versus private health institution for maternal health-care: A case study of Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

Household choice of public versus private health institution for maternal health-care: A case study of Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

Department of Economics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan Email: gauhar.muez@yahoo.com0 Abstract In Pakistan the ratio of institutional delivery that is one of the most important components of maternal health-care is lower than in a number of developing economies. The ratio of public sector institutional delivery is again lower than private sector institutional delivery. Government of Pakistan spends a lot of money for health services and there is a complete system of health-care comprising of basic health units to bigger hospitals in the country. For policy making it is necessary to analyze why the households choose private sector health institutions. The paper empirically analyzes the determinants of choice of public versus private sector health institution by the household. For the purpose binary logistic regression (bivariate and multivariate) has been applied on primary data collected form Bahawalpur. The results have shown that birth-interval, woman education, partner’s education, woman autonomy (freedom of movement), planned pregnancy, media exposure, wealth index, birth-interval, number of pregnancies and pregnancy complications decreases the probability of delivery at public sector health institution. The inter-spouse age gap, woman work status and health worker’ visit enhance the likelihood of delivery at public sector health institution. It may be concluded that quality of health- care matters for choice of private sector health institutions and private sector health institutions are substitute to public sector health institutions. The public sector institutions should increase the quality of health-care and there should be a regulatory body for ranking the health institutions.
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Awards are a Special Kind of Signal

Awards are a Special Kind of Signal

Signaling latent qualities. When an agent receives an award, this indicates that the principal values his or her latent qualities, such as work attitude or behavior. This signal can have two further implications. First, it increases the outside options for the agent. A firm issuing an award to one of its employees for "exceptional service" raises the probability that competing firms make a good offer to that employee. The latter might accept the offer or use it to argue for a wage increase. This is a potentially counterproductive effect for the principal. Yet, the same effect can result from the use of monetary rewards. If the latter are raised, this signals to outsiders that the agent is particularly productive and that it may be worthwhile to advance an offer. In the case of awards, there are possibilities to mitigate the risk, for instance by basing the award on criteria that are not very transparent or communicable. In the most extreme cases, the award becomes a currency that can only be used within the organization. Money, in contrast, is understood everywhere without ambiguity and, therefore, allows for comparisons of employees' performances across firms.
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Spatial analysis of environmental health risks: A case of Bahawalpur district, Pakistan

Spatial analysis of environmental health risks: A case of Bahawalpur district, Pakistan

numerous persistent diseases. Furthermore, onwards from the middle of last century, historic technological progress has augmented human capability to manipulate, harm and change the environment. Rapid population growth, rising standard of living and increasing demands for environmental resources have extended the impact of humans on the environment. Environmental health, therefore, can be seen as about all the interactions and dealings of people with their environment and the health consequences of these interactions and dealings (Insel, Roth and Price, 2002). Often man is answerable for the pollution of his environment in the course of urbanization, industrialization, and intensification of other activities. Realizing this, in 1972, the United Nations Conference on Human Environment urged the importance of worldwide attention on the environmental hazards that are a constant threat for human beings (Park, 2009). Environmental health indicator can be defined as an expression of the link between environment and health, targeted at an issue of specific policy or management concern and presented in a form which facilitates interpretation for effective decision making (Smith et al., 1999). For environmental health analysis, it is imperative to choose suitable indicators because environmental health priorities vary from one country to another, especially from less developed to developed countries. WHO, under the title of ‘Environment Health Indicators: Framework and Methodologies’ has arranged all the possible indicators in DPSEEA framework (figure 1), which was basically devised by Corvalan (Corvalan et al., 1999; Smith et al., 1999). This framework consists of an interrelated chain of indicators namely driving forces (D), pressure on the environment (P), state of environment (S), exposure (E
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Impact of health and recreation on work-life balance: a case study of expatriates

Impact of health and recreation on work-life balance: a case study of expatriates

whereas men, in general, suffered from spill-over from work role into the family role (Naithani and Jha, 2009a; Warhurst et al., 2008). In the 1980s, compensation theory assessed how an individual compensates deficit in one aspect of life (such as work) by increasing involvement in some other aspect of life (such as family). Later years of the 20 th century witnessed growing research on the work-life conflict theory. The research focused on different roles an individual plays at work, with family and other aspects of life and how these elements compete for the time, consideration and commitment (Skinner and Pocock, 2008; Roberts, 2007; Pickering, 2006). The research further identified eight relevant sections of life, including work, family, health, finances, spiritual/religious, hobbies, self and social, (Naithani and Jha, 2009a).
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Regularity of Minimizers in Nonlinear Elasticity – the Case of a One-Well Problem in Nonlinear Elasticity

Regularity of Minimizers in Nonlinear Elasticity – the Case of a One-Well Problem in Nonlinear Elasticity

In this note sufficient conditions for bounds on the deformation gradient of a minimizer of a variational problem in nonlinear elasticity are reviewed. As a specific model class, energy densities which are the relaxation of the squared distance function to compact sets are considered and estimates in the space of functions with bounded oscillation are presented. An explicit example related to a one-well problem shows that assumptions of convexity are essential for uniform bounds on the deformation gradient. As an application of the relaxation of the energy in this special case it is indicated how general relaxation formulas for energies with p-growth can be obtained if the relaxation with quadratic growth satisfies natural assumptions.
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A life cycle model of health and retirement: The case of Swedish pension reform

A life cycle model of health and retirement: The case of Swedish pension reform

Sweden is in the process of switching from a pay-as-you-go (PAYG), defined benefit program to a notional, pay-as-you-go, defined contribution plan. The first benefits from the new system were paid out in 2001. But due to the gradual phasing-in of the reform, not until 2040 will all benefits be paid from the new system. There are many issues inherent with the old Swedish pension system, key among them the fact that the pension benefit is based on earnings from only the 15 highest years and only income up to a relatively low ceiling counts toward the benefit. Not only does this have the potential to treat workers with equivalent lifetime earnings very unequally, it does not provide incentives for older individuals to remain employed. In fact, given that wages tend to level off in the 40s or 50s, there is no expected increase in pension benefits from continued employment for the majority of older workers. Furthermore, the system is sensitive to demographic change. One should also note that under the old system disability insurance is very generous. The new pension scheme hopes to address these issues.
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Transnational Engagement in the Area of Health, a Ghanaian - German Case Study

Transnational Engagement in the Area of Health, a Ghanaian - German Case Study

The TNHPs analyzed are based on different funding concepts and sources ( 4.4.1 Monetary and Material Resources). Since most projects are too costly to be sponsored by one single actor, the parties involved develop strategies to mobilize donors and generate money. Multiple party financing is a way to share the costs e.g. of training a Ghanaian nurse in Germany (P3: IOM, German hospital, individual key person) or of supplying hospital beds (P1: donor institution in Germany, GIZ, Ghana Union, customs) between different parties. The shared commitment is not only a way to split costs. The actors show genuine interest and engagement, share responsibilities, create ownership and trust among the different partners. At the same time, it reduces the risk that the failure of an important actor (e.g. in case of sickness or death) puts the whole project at stake, because other partners could step in. Interview partners have made the experience that it can be difficult to find trustworthy and reliable partners. In some situations, it is a promising strategy to rather find many people who contribute a little sum of money, than to find a few people who make big contributions 242 . Depending on the character of a project, it might either be favorable to collect a fixed sum of money from members to fund a concrete activity 243 , or to mobilize regular commitment, with the aim of creating ownership (e.g. adoption of a ward, membership, partnership) and establishing long term obligations.
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Introduction to the Special Issue "Families, health, and well-being"

Introduction to the Special Issue "Families, health, and well-being"

Another reason why there is a constant demand for research on the complex relation- ship between family, well-being, and health is that institutions like marriage and family are subject to continuous structural and functional change. The implications of such de- mographic changes for health and well-being are not yet fully understood. For instance, family scholars in the second half of 20 th century have been concerned with steadily rising divorce rates in many Western countries (Sobotka/Toulemon 2008) that, in the case of the U.S., came to a plateau after 1980 (Raley/Bumpass 2003). Involved in these divorces was an increasing number of children, raising questions about the consequences for post- divorce family members, parents and children alike (Amato/Sobolewski 2001; Schoen et al. 2002). At the same time, marriage patterns (e.g., educational homogamy) have changed because of the massive educational expansion during that period, altering mar- ginal distributions of educational attainment, especially among women (Kalmijn 1998; Mikucka 2016). Because marital benefits for health and well-being depend on the pooled resources that partners bring into the marriage, among them human capital in the form of education, it seems worthwhile to study their implications for health and well-being of married persons.
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Industrial clusters: The case for Special Economic Zones in Africa

Industrial clusters: The case for Special Economic Zones in Africa

operational, the government passed a law setting up an SEZ regime under the authority of the Ministry of Planning, Economy, and Empowerment. Faced with two competing programmes, the government finally enacted the Economic Zones Law of 2011, which unified the EPZ and SEZ programmes. Not surprisingly, the long delays in clarifying the institutional and regulatory regime have resulted in a slow start for SEZs in Tanzania (Kinyondo et al. 2016; McMillan et al. 2017). Ethiopia faces similar risks as municipal and national industrial parks begin to compete for clients. The most common coordination problems occur in implementation. Frequently institutions with very different objectives and incentives fail to work together toward a common goal. For example, currently about 300 enterprises operate in Ghana’s export processing zones. EPZ manufacturing firms are involved in food processing, wood and veneer processing, processing of shea nuts and oil seeds, lubricants and biofuels, garments, and the manufacture of food processing machines and spare parts. The zones also host such tradable services as data processing, telecommunications, and software development. The sheer variety of firms in the zones raises a red flag. In an economy like Ghana, clusters of firms connected along a value chain are more likely to realize significant firm-level productivity gains than geographical concentrations of unrelated firms. One reason for the heterogeneity of firms is that neither the FDI agency nor the SEZ management had a strategy for attempting to attract firms in the same or closely related value chains into the zones.
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A critical analysis of purchasing of health services in the Philippines: A case study of PhilHealth

A critical analysis of purchasing of health services in the Philippines: A case study of PhilHealth

B. Conceptual Framework and Methodology of the Study Buying services on your own is quite simple: you just choose what suits your needs and what is within your budget. But one party (the principal) buying services on behalf of another (the agent) engenders difficult problems. The principal may overspend or underspend the entrusted funds. It may be too stringent or too liberal with the purchased services. This is the case with health services purchased by a third-party (PhilHealth) on behalf of members who collectively contribute in order to obtain services from contracted providers, all under the stewardship of the government dispensing this function through policy and regulation. In health care, buying services on behalf of others is made even more complicated by information asymmetry in which one party in the transaction (the provider) may know more about the disease the other party (the patient), and where the both the patient and the health insurer find it difficult to measure the service quality of the provider. Under this arrangement, three relationships emerge which need to be managed closely: (a) between PhilHealth and members, (b) between PhilHealth and service providers, and (c) between PhilHealth and the government.
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The Challenge of Public Participation in a Multilevel System: EU Xenotransplantation Policies

The Challenge of Public Participation in a Multilevel System: EU Xenotransplantation Policies

The Commission’s general rationale for funding health related research is to improve both the health of Europeans as well as the economic position of Europe; it was described by an interviewee as intended "to improve quality of life and health of the citizens and to improve the competitiveness of the European industry" (g: 257-258). Xenotransplantation was funded under the heading of "new therapies" (g: 16), which includes "non-pharmaceutical cell based therapies, tissue engineering, gene therapy, regenerative medicine (...) human embryonic stem cells, stem cells" (ibid. 17-19). Public funding in this area is considered justified if several conditions are met; these include cases where new therapies (a) would have a high potential to cure life threatening, currently incurable diseases; (b) they would be at a very early stage of development, and, (c) although they would be risky there would be "proof of principle", mostly in animal models, that research therein was "worth trying" (c.f. g: 16-26). Within the "wider program" of new therapies, xenotransplantation was described by an interviewee as one of several "routes" to alleviate organ shortage, amongst treatment of diseases leading to organ failure, regenerative medicine, and artificial organs (g: 36-41; 48- 56; 99-102). After a "hiatus" (g: 64) of funding, stimulated by a concern about porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) and potential cross-species infection, in 2006 the European Commission started funding the integrated project XENOME, which looks at solid organ and cellular xenotransplantation. The fact that the risk of cross infection was no longer regarded as an issue necessarily blocking research encouraged this renewed interest. (g: 68-70). XENOME is “the principle European effort in the field of xenotransplantation” (Stein 2010: 13). Commissioner Geoghegan-Quiinn referred to the project as “the reference for
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Universal health coverage: The case of China

Universal health coverage: The case of China

19 Although the reform of public hospitals was listed as a goal in the initial three-year health reform plan, there were no concrete guidelines from the central government. During 2009-2011 seventeen pilot cities were selected to experiment with different approaches to reforming public hospitals based on local conditions. However, because the mission of the public hospitals was not clearly defined by the central government at the outset, each of these cities experimented with one of two measures for managing public hospitals, such as creating new management bureaus, purchaser-provider splits, and making public hospitals more autonomous. Some cities even sold their public hospitals to private investors or to hospital workers’ collectives. These experiments did not produce useful results that can guide national policy due to their cursory design and lack of scientific evaluations. As discussed, Chinese public hospitals had already become for-profit commercial entities and none of the pilot cities were able to change their hospitals’ organizational behaviour. Until the missions of public hospitals are made very clear, and all contradictory Chinese policies and incentives currently in place are changed to motivate public hospitals to alter their behaviour, the reform of Chinese public hospitals will remain a challenge. In order to implement the above-mentioned health reforms between 2009 and 2011, the Chinese government spent an additional RMB 1.5 trillion. This caused the share of government expenditure as a percentage of total health expenditure to increase dramatically—from 18 per cent in 2006 to 30 per cent in 2011.
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A one line derivation of EGARCH

A one line derivation of EGARCH

Abstract: One of the most popular univariate asymmetric conditional volatility models is the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH) specification. In addition to asymmetry, which captures the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, EGARCH can also accommodate leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. However, the statistical properties of the (quasi-) maximum likelihood estimator of the EGARCH parameters are not available under general conditions, but rather only for special cases under highly restrictive and unverifiable conditions. It is often argued heuristically that the reason for the lack of general statistical properties arises from the presence in the model of an absolute value of a function of the parameters, which does not permit analytical derivatives, and hence does not permit (quasi-) maximum likelihood estimation. It is shown in this paper for the non-leverage case that: (1) the EGARCH model can be derived from a random coefficient complex nonlinear moving average (RCCNMA) process; and (2) the reason for the lack of statistical properties of the estimators of EGARCH under general conditions is that the stationarity and invertibility conditions for the RCCNMA process are not known.
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Trade union decline and what next: is Germany a special case?

Trade union decline and what next: is Germany a special case?

This brings us back to my initial question. Can German unions turn around the decline in membership? In my view, the answer must begin with a dispassionate analy- sis of the manifold reasons of the decline, some of which I have tried to identify in this paper. Next, if unions want to reverse trends membership recruitment should be made into a “Chefsache” and deemed a strategic priority. There is no “magic bullet” and regaining membership will never come from just one ‘stand alone’ policy and it will not come quick. Membership growth, even of modest proportions, will require a mixture of a long-term political strategy towards employers and governments, job growth, the building of supporting institutions, finding concrete measures to limit free riding behaviour, paying constant attention to the membership issue at all levels of union organisation, finding new forms of membership, perhaps not all offering the same package of rights and obligations, as well as new ways of communication with both members, aspiring members and non-members. Given the size and the nature of the Germany economy, the strength and orientation of German unions has always been vital for other European unions and for European industrial relations. They are still largest in absolute numbers. If German unions continue their decline or remain in a state of denial of the new world we have entered, this is bad news for their Euro- pean friends.
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Resource allocation in health care processes: A case study

Resource allocation in health care processes: A case study

Sensitivity of the process performance to sickness absence We wanted to examine what happens if one nurse is absent. We reduced the number of nurse resources by one and calculated the model. The result is quite intuitive: the capacity of the process is reduced by 15 per cent. This means that the department is able to process only 85 per cent of the patients compared to the original patient flow. In reality the case is not that straightforward, since there is some flexibility in the quality of the care. When the nurses are in a hurry, the tasks can be done in a shorter time, but they are usually performed less carefully and mistakes are done more easily. Thus the actual capacity decrease is somewhere between 0-15 percent, but together with impaired quality of care.
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The consistency of the CART-Alogrithm and a special case of random forests / submitted by Lukas Josef Klaffenböck

The consistency of the CART-Alogrithm and a special case of random forests / submitted by Lukas Josef Klaffenböck

There are several other possibilities for the construction of the trees in a random forest. In [33] it is suggested that prior to training the trees on bootstrap samples, a xed number m < d should be specied. Then, before each split, m coordinates are selected at random and a best split on those variables is used to split the nodes. In another approach, each tree is constructed using the whole data set and randomness is induced only by splitting on a random subset of {1, . . . , d} of size m < d in each splitting step. With respect to random forests, not many theoretical results can be found in the liter ature, despite their extensive use in practical problems ([34]). In the next section we will discuss one of the more recent results regarding random forests, which deals with consistency of random forest regression under some regularity conditions. Section 4.2 follows mostly [2].
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Diagnosis, treatment, and effects of the crisis in Greece: A 'special case' or a 'test case'?

Diagnosis, treatment, and effects of the crisis in Greece: A 'special case' or a 'test case'?

First, they link upper class rent-seeking with the failure of the austerity program itself. While wages, pensions, benefits, etc., have been cut, the chronic problems of revenue shortfall and of upper class tax evasion remain – a fact that led the post-2009 Greek governments to impose a multitude of new emergency taxes and cuts. Second, Marx- ist rent-seeking approaches connect Greek liberalization of the 1990s and 2000s with the economic survival and political representation of upper and upper middle classes who benefited from the credit-growth period and became involved in the finance sec- tor. Third, these approaches show why the campaign (conducted especially by the very same parties that were part of the traditional bipartite system) to demonize unionists, protesters, and strikers as “rent-seekers,” had only a limited impact, leading to very frag- ile governments during the crisis and a weak social consensus. Fourth, they provide a class dimension rather than a national one. In other words, they avoid theorization of a Greek rent-seeking system that is supposedly unique within the EU and of its historiza- tion as a structural Greek problem. Such theorization and historization imply that some countries possess an intrinsic “Europeanness” and others don’t, e.g. those in Southern and Eastern Europe. Such an implication verges on occidentalism or possibly even rac- ism (Liakos 2011: 20).
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Product-service systems in health care: case study of a drug-device combination

Product-service systems in health care: case study of a drug-device combination

Despite impressive advances in medicine, the treatment of diseases related to the brain such as certain types of aggressive brain tumours and many neurodegenerative diseases still presents one of the biggest areas of unmet medical need. This is mainly due to the fact that the brain is protected by the “blood brain barrier” (BBB), which prevents it from being damaged or poisoned by substances in the human blood stream. While being vital for healthy people, this barrier becomes a major obstacle for the treatment of many diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Promising drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumours such as Glioblasoma mulitforme (GBM) or neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and epilepsy have failed in human trials over the last decades, although these drugs showed great potential in preclinical studies [17, 18]. Those disappointing results are most likely derived from the fact that the drug molecules never reached their target within the brain [17].
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A Fresh Look at the Health-Wealth Correlation: A Case Study of European Countries

A Fresh Look at the Health-Wealth Correlation: A Case Study of European Countries

Countries * This paper contributes to the development-health literature by studying the correlation between development measures (see below) and health measures - one subjective (‘self- assessed-health-status’), and the other one objective (the individual’s ‘number of chronic diseases’). Correlations are examined for 29 European countries, using the SHARE data set, and country-level development measures. Specifically, we examine whether country fixed-effects in regressions of health measures, controlling for individual socio-demographic variables, are significantly correlated with country development variables, which include: logarithm of per-capita GDP; the Human Development Index; the Social Progress Index; life expectancy; percentage of GDP spent on health; and the novel measure expressed by the Environmental Health Index. The novelty of our study is the introduction of a channel for the significant health-wealth correlation, speculating that the driving forces are psychological.
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