The edited volume DigitalCulturalHeritage is a collection of thirty contributions dealing with culturalheritage in thedigital context. Covering a broad geographical and chronological scope, it presents the reader with an extensive overviewofthe current work in thefield. Some ofthe topics that were given special attention in the volume are questions of preservation and presentation of (digital) culturalheritage, as well as possibilities for its enrichment with the help ofdigital tools. While rich in examples, the volume, however, lacks reader guidance and a rounded approach to the topic.
Inherent in this acceptance of culture in an anthropological sense, historically and territorially contextualized, is the hitherto unidentified notion of bene culturale (cultural goods), which was introduced and properly justified for the first time in Italy in the mid- 1960s with a precise definition: any material evidence with value to civilization (AA.VV. 1967). Consequently, this expression is not one that lends itself to use as a proper new form of words indicating the same object as before. In fact, the expression implies a decisive programmatic culture shift in terms of values and, therefore, purposes and intervention methods. There is an enormous expansion ofthefield because beni culturali include rare and highly aesthetic quality objects, but they are limited neither physically nor conceptually to the sum of these objects. On the one hand, beni culturali include other evidence of civilization and attach even greater importance to everyday materials, even more so if mass produced, because they then tell ofthe ordinary conditions of existence. On the other hand, beni culturali include not only the individual phenomena being considered but also the value of mutual relations, as well as the historical and geographical environment to which they belong. Therefore, the more organic and complete manifestation of bene culturale is viewed in landscape as the visible form of history and the palimpsest of civilizations that have lived one after another in a particular place, shaping it in accordance with their needs. This view also includes tastes and values, in proportion to physical and mental capabilities to produce the desired transformations (Sauer 1925; Golinelli 2011; Petrillo, Di Bella & Di Palo 2012; Montella 2012). Attention is then shifted from exceptional and important items and individual items of particular rarity and worth to the systemic and naturally local value of historical evidence. Italian privilege is especially recognized in the continuous territorial fabric ofcultural phenomena, hence the coining ofthe term museo diffuso (diffused museum) (Chastel 1980).
differences related to image resolution, radiometry, illumination and viewing direction. As a consequence, the identification of corresponding points between generated and camera images requires a robust feature extraction algorithm, which is insensitive to illumination and scale differences and employs region descriptors instead of edge detectors (Böhm & Becker, 2007). A wide variety of feature operators have been proposed and investigated in the literature, e.g. (Tuytelaars & Mikolajczyk, 2008). Generally, repeatability is the most important attribute for a feature operator, which indicates the capability of finding the same exact feature under different viewing and illumination conditions (Barazzetti et al., 2010). (Valgren & Lilienthal, 2007) addressed the high repeatability ofthe SIFT (Lowe, 2004) and the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) (Bay et al., 2008) operators in the case of terrestrial images. (Morel & Yu, 2009) propose the Affine-SIFT (ASIFT) feature detection algorithm which extends the SIFT method to fully affine invariant local image features. The ASIFT method is able to detect reliably features that have very large affine distortions that are measured by a new geometric parameter, the transition tilt. (Morel & Yu, 2009) report that the ASIFT outperforms significantly the state-of-the-art methods such as the SIFT (Lowe, 2004), the MSER (Matas et al., 2004), the Harris-Affine and the Hessian-Affine (Mikolajczyk & Schmid, 2002 and 2004), e.g., SIFT hardly exceed transition tilts of 2 while; ASIFT can handle transition tilts up to 36 and higher. Furthermore, (Morel & Yu, 2009) illustrate that most scenes with negligible or moderate camera view angle change that match with ASIFT also match with SIFT (usually fewer matching points). Nevertheless, when theview angle change becomes important, SIFT and other methods fail while ASIFT continues to work. Thus, ASIFT has been selected for our application. More details on the ASIFT are reported in Appendix F.
The aim of multi-view stereo (MVS) matching and reconstruction techniques is to recover 3D object models from a set of images with known camera interior and exterior orientation. Having the camera parameters for an image, we can compute a viewing ray per pixel, i.e., a ray in space containing all 3D object points that project to this pixel. But still the distance ofthe visible object point to the camera along the viewing ray and accordingly also its 3D position is unknown. Therefore, MVS aims at calculating these distances (depths) for each pixel which result in generating dense 3D object surface points (Snavely et al., 2010). As depicted in Figure 2.2, each depth along a viewing ray in one image yields a different projected location in the other images. Therefore, we look for the depth for which the projected locations in all involved images (> two images) look as similar to each other as possible. In analog to correspondence problem, MVS method determines the depth for which the resulting corresponding patches (small regions in the images around the projected locations) are consistent (Snavely et al., 2010). In the last few years, several high-quality MVS techniques have been introduced and improved rapidly. (Scharstein & Szeliski, 2002) show different overviews on stereo matching while multi-image matching techniques are compared in (Brown et al., 2003). (Seitz et al., 2006) present a classification and evaluation of recent MVS reconstruction algorithms. It shows that, using six benchmark datasets, the PMVS is one ofthe best submitted methods so far in terms of six key properties: the scene representation, photo-consistency measure, visibility model, shape prior, reconstruction algorithm, and initialization requirements.
Overall Benkler and Banks tend in their description of user contributions and productive communities to lead to a concept that reminds on the description of rev- olutionary changes which promises to provide all embracing solutions to virtually all fields of content production. While we begin to understand the benefits of user contributions and their fruitful application, an exaggeration of their effects and a proclamation as salvation to a variety of problems does neither lead to additional scientific insight nor does it provide trust in the critical reflection ofthe authors. Benkler's concepts of modularity and granularity raise some concern regarding their practical use. Similarly to the argument raised before against the universal ap- plication of improvement of content, both terms show significant limitations when applied in a universal way. Chapter 2.3.2 Content Production Environments will there- fore reflect upon the concept of modularity and granularity and discuss the ability of different content formats to be modularized. As Benkler discusses the problem of motivation for participation as well as the sustainability of engagement his argu- ments will be also discussed in chapter 2.3.1 Participation and Participation Inequality in conjunction with Bruns concept of incentives through rewards and social capital. Bruns' concept of produsage provides a perspective to communal production processes. In particular his concept of control through community provides relevant points of departure for the organization of content evaluation and filtering and will be further evaluated in chapter 2.3.3 Management of contributions. Overall his attitude towards the normative effect of communities is however characterized by a posi- tivistic point ofview. In contrast to this perspective, the question needs to be raised whether a community based decision making process should be regarded as univer- sally superior to individual decisions. Decisions made by a group can be better for the group but are not necessarily the best possible way of decision making. To put it bluntly with the use of a related concept in popular discourse, the "wisdom ofthe crowds" [Surowiecki, 2004] can also turn into the terror ofthe crowds 39 . Neverthe-
article I try to articulate a critical assessment ofthe current geopolitical assets ofDigital Humanities. This critique is based firstly on data about the composi- tion of various government organs, institutions and the principal journals in thefield, and secondly on a general reflection on thecultural, political and linguis- tic bias ofdigital standards, protocols and interfaces. These reflections suggest that DH is not only a discipline and an academic discourse dominated material- ly by an Anglo-American élite and intellectually by a mono-culturalview, but also that it lacks a theoretical model for reflecting critically on its own instru- ments. I conclude by proposing the elaboration of a different model of DH, based on the concept of knowledge as a commons and the cultivation of cul- tural margins, as opposed to its present obsession with large-scale digitization projects and “archiving fever,” that leads to an increase in our dependency on the products of private industry and, of course, on their funding.
In Belgium, the inspection of sprayers is performed by official and mobile teams ruled by two regional inspection authorities. The management ofthe inspection is done by the federal Ministry for Consumer Protection, Public Health and the Environment. Regional authorities need to have an ISO 17020 certification, so as a consequence the Belgian inspection is completely independent and objective. In this way inspection results are centralized and can be easily consulted. The inspection results are a very useful tool to have an overviewofthe general condition ofthe Belgian sprayers. Those results can be helpful when advising on changes in legislation. They can also be used as an instrument to advise farmers on how to improve their spraying machines, or what points they have to pay attention to when buying a new or second-hand machine. Therefore, a detailed overview is made ofthe inspection results ofthe year 2008.
territory of a non-State party, when he/she is a national of a State party to the ICC, or when the victim State accepts the jurisdiction ofthe ICC for this specific case, although is not a party to the Rome Statute (Art. 12-13 Rome Statute). However, it appears that it is unlikely that the States where crimes against culturalheritage are being committed today (such as Syria, Iraq and Yemen) will resort to the ICC in the near future because on the one hand, they are not parties to the Rome Statute, and on the other hand because the political situation on the ground seems to be too unstable at the moment. Second, the ICC may exercise its jurisdiction when the Prosecutor decides proprio motu to proceed with an investigation. Third, the UN Security Council, acting under Chapter VII ofthe UN Charter, may refer a situation to the Prosecutor. This option has been considered by France with respect to the situation in Syria. However, the project resolution launched in May 2014 was vetoed by Russia and China.
The attributes and levels were combined and paired into choice sets using a D-ef ﬁcient design (SAS software) for main effects and a generic DCE, in which the alternatives were not labelled. The ﬁnal design included six choice sets formed from two generic alternatives (A and B) representing hypothetical preservation programs and a “none” option, to approximate the real choices in which the respondents always have the option of choosing no change when none ofthe offers is of interest. In the “none” option all the attributes were set at level zero, corresponding to a scenario of absence of preservation. Table 3 presents one ofthe choice sets from which the respondents were asked to choose their preferred alternative, taking into account the trade-offs among the attributes presented and their budgetary constraints. In the example ( Table 3 ), the visitor is asked to choose between the preservation program A that guarantees the presence of both the attributes “mosaic land- scape ” and “traditional agglomerations”, at a cost of €20/household per year, and preservation program B that preserves the attribute “traditional vineyards” at a cost of €60, or the “none” option. 3.2. Data
Many agglomerations invest heavily in some urban amenities as they believe this will stimulate the local economy, which has also been endorsed by the urban economics literature (see e.g. Glaeser et al. 2001; Clark et al. 2002). Urban amenities provide job market opportunities to the local resident, and as employment grows the local economy is further stimulated. Public investments in amenities thus catalyze a chain of growth, and as the population density eventually increases when more and more jobs become available, the set of urban amenities is eventually also likely to expand with the provision of e.g. concert venues, museums, cinemas, and theatres. The local agglomeration’s market however only continues to function if the consumer is willing to expend on the urban amenities ofthe agglomeration. The presence of workers close to the market makes it likely that the urban amenities will always generate some revenues, but many local authorities are seeking alternative ways to increase the revenue ofthe amenities in their agglomeration. One such method is to attract visitors from close-by agglomerations, but also other regions and even other countries. Vacations and day-trip recreation are namely very popular ways to spend leisure time. For instance, in the Netherlands the mean per-person per-year number of day- trips is 55, and given the per-trip per-person expenditures that amount to an average of 12.80 euro there is much to win for the local economy if an agglomeration manages to attract substantial groups of recreationists (Statistics Netherlands 2012). 1
According to these concepts, there is a neat distinction between a mere passive objective nature as the original landscape and thecultural landscape, hence transformed and created by human culture. Subsequently, it was the human geographer Carl O. Sauer who nonetheless endorsing a dualistic viewofthe landscape, it was him that in a more dedicated and influential manner, will promote and develop the idea ofthecultural landscapes (James and Martin, 1981). Unlike the other authors cited, this human geographer went beyond in the analysis ofthecultural landscapes, whereas for him the physical environment was a medium through which human culture acts, and therefore fostering the development, changing and rejuvenation ofthe landscape throughout the time and the pass of cultures (Sauer, 1925). Consequently, according to his famous concept: “thecultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area the medium, thecultural landscape is the result” (Sauer, 1925). Nevertheless, some decades have passed since the ingenious and original concept coined by Sauer, it seems than even to date some international organizations such as UNESCO are still acknowledging willy ‑nilly the useful but nonetheless reductionist and dualistic viewof a such complex category as cultural landscapes. In short, according to a somewhat trivial culture ‑nature dichotomy, cultural landscapes are cultural properties and represent the “combined works of nature and of man” (World Heritage Centre, 2008). Be that as it may, in 1992 The World Heritage Convention became the first international legal instrument to recognise and protect cultural landscapes (UNESCO, 1996).
We therefore propose a more radical alternative: The major attractions ofthe most visited places are to be replicated in a suitable place easy to reach by tourists and having few negative effects on locals. In the case of Venice, for example, the Doge Palace, the Saint Marcus Church, the Tower on the Piazza San Marco as well as the square itself, and the Rialto Bridge would be exactly replicated and placed somewhere more suitable on the Italian or Balkan coast. These monuments are the major reason why most tourists want to visit Venice, and it is expected that many tourists would accept the offer, especially as the replicated sites are to be installed with the most modern technology, e.g. having Dodges, and other historical inhabitants, walking around by using holograms. At the same time the replicated sites would offer convenient restaurants and shopping opportunities which tourists value (Yüksel, 2007). The visitors are, of course, aware that they are not in “historical” Venice but this feeling is overcompensated by a more intense historical experience. The replicas suggested can also combine various cities and sites. An example would be “Historical North Italian City States” which could combine the major attractions of cities such as Siena, Pisa, Parma or Piacenza but strongly reducing transportation requirements for visitors engaging in cultural city tourism.
Transnational memory projects such as Europeana not only link platforms in technical terms, however; they are also programmed with a specific objective. The new cultural memory environments draw on the ideological and techno- logical foundation of new media in which creation and exchange of user gener- ated content, for instance through participatory indexing as mentioned by de Leeuw, is key. In many ways they thus act as continuations of existing memory politics with its inclusive and dynamic scope. They thus often build on already existing institutional ideals drawing on cultural memory theory that position people as individuals that increasingly seek to properly understand their own existence in the grand scheme of historical events by means of sharpening their own remembered experience and the testimonies of others against avail- able state-sanctioned versions – official documents, exhibits, text books etc. It also continues the agenda and methodological approach ofcultural memory theories that recognize – formally at least – that the primary institutional ob- jective is no longer to construct authoritative canons and official narratives, but rather to discover and construct different cultural indexes in the archives such as gender, race, class and sexuality among others. Thedigital continuation ofthe institutional turn to cultural memory is reflected, among other things, in the way digital platforms ofcultural memory increasingly include personal accounts, ‘small histories’ and other ego documents to reflect and refine the complexities of grand historical narratives. 8 Such weaving of ‘my story’ and
The decomposition ofthe Quality of Government index into its three basic components in Table 3 (Regressions 11-13) displays interesting differences in the link between specific institutional factors and the capacity to inscribe World Heritage Sites at the regional level. In all three cases, the main results obtained in previous specifications hold, with the coefficients for the three sub-indexes being positive and significantly different from zero. Interestingly, the component referring to the control of corruption exhibits the highest significance and largest coefficient value among the three sub-indexes, while government impartiality has the lowest significance and smallest effect. This finding is in line with previous research showing that the level of perceived corruption has the strongest and most significant effect on regional performance in various domains, such as innovation capacity (Rodriguez-Pose and Di Cataldo, 2015) and presence of small and medium-sized enterprises (Nistotskaya et al., 2014). Similarly, since the conservation ofculturalheritage strongly relies on the enforcement of regulations and investment in capital assets, the corruption dimension, rather than the quality and impartiality in the provision of public services, is possibly the one that better captures the capacity of regional governments in heritage policy-making and enforcement.
Thedigital presentation of reference libraries has, until now, of- ten been limited to the provision ofdigital catalogs that make li- brary metadata and digital copies available in a specific viewer and/or as a PDF download. While these forms of presentation do provide access to the material for research, they hardly convey the autographical patterns in the book collections, which are distinctly characterized by the reading traces that have been left in them. While current research practices are based on time-consuming ex- tensive individual book research and oftentimes require applica- tions to get access to the books, we aim to devise modes of access that provide synoptic perspectives on the whole material at once as well as detailed views on particular books and pages. This re- sembles what Wieland calls a diachronic-vertical way of reading the reference library in addition and distinction from the usual hor- izontal reading [ Wie15 ]. The goal ofthe project was not to provide a research tool for close-reading practices, e.g., by developing an integrated PDF viewer for annotation, but to create a tool that en- ables a completely new perspective on the material for exploration, serving as an entrance point to the formulation of tentative research questions.
Section 4.2 has discussed innovations related to the use of single-sided NMR sensors in theculturalheritagefield. Through measurements of porosity and pore-size distribution, consolidation treatments in stones could be non-invasively monitored and compared in order to choose the best consolidation method. These results suggested for the first time the possibility to perform in situ measurements in the Chinese Yungang Grottoes. Transverse relaxation measurements, together with multi-variate data analysis, proved to be able to predict ancient pottery’s elemental composition, mainly with regard to iron (very good correlation) and carbon (satisfactory correlation). The correlation was explained by the high paramagnetic character ofthe iron element; the carbon in ancient pottery has many free radicals (carbon black). Due to the huge acquisition number, the bi-dimensional RRCOSY (T 1 , T 2 ) pulse sequence applied to H 2 O and SO 2 damaged parchment revealed information until now unknown in the literature: the case of a relaxation peak attributed to the gelatinized collagen-water interaction that data fit or ILT of one-dimensional pulse sequences were not able to predict. Multi-variate data analysis proved to be very powerful, because it could detect the new peak variation in
Captions are text versions ofthe spoken word presented within multimedia. Though captioning is primarily intended for those who cannot hear the audio, it has also been found to help those that can hear audio content, those who may not be fluent in the language in which the audio is presented, those for whom the language spoken is not their primary language, etc. It is important that the captions are synchronized with the audio, and that they offer a true representation of spoken text and sounds. The captions must also be easily legible in terms of font size and colour contrast. Offering a selection of font sizes and colour/contrast for the captions is the best option, as this allows users to set the captions to suit their specific needs. Captions can be either closed or open. Closed captions can be turned on or off, whereas open captions are always visible. Open captions include the same text as closed captions, but are permanently embedded into the video picture, and cannot typically be turned off. Open captions give content creators more control over how the captions will appear (size, color, font, location, and timing), however, it can be more time consuming and expensive to produce than closed captions. Closed captions are most common, utilizing functionality within video players and browsers to display closed captions on top of or immediately below the video area. The most common web multimedia formats already support captioning.