On the way toward socially just and environ- mentally compatible mobility, the aim is to avoid conflicts between environmental or climate protection on the one hand and social objectives on the other as far as possible. There are concepts available for this that have been tested in practice. It is at least as important to examine and use synergies between the various objectives. There are numerous synergistic approaches for transitioning to sustain- able mobility which combine many advantages such as better health protection, greater safety on the roads, a higher quality of life in traffic-stricken cities, greater gender equality and a better supply of public transport to rural regions. Last but not least, the transition to sustainable mobility is the prerequisite of ensuring prosperity and high quality of life for future generations.
hydro and biomass are readily available from the results of developing these individual resource capacities. However, in the case of on-shore and off-shore wind, there is still more to do. For on-shore wind, development of the resource capacity scenario yields a list of wind turbine placements across the German countryside. By using historical wind speed data measured at 403 weather stations non-uniformly distributed across the country, power production values are calculated for each turbine according to the data of the closest weather station and the turbine’s power curve. Instead of using raw wind speed data for power calculations, however, the wind speed values are corrected for each wind turbine, such that the average of the wind speed data at that location corresponds to the expectation value of the associated Weibull distribution used during the capacity distribution process. Finally, all turbines production values contained within a municipality are aggregated for each. As before, the process for generating production values for offshore wind constitutes a simplified version of that for onshore wind. As with onshore, the development of the offshore capacity scenario provides suitable coordinates for individual wind turbines. There is not as much weather station data for offshore locations; however, there is also less expectation of variance between locations. As a result, the production values of all offshore wind turbines are conducted using a single wind speed dataset. The aggregation of individual offshore turbine production values is also performed; however, in this case, individual offshore turbine plants are treated as regions that are thought to have zero electricity demand.
Abstract: “Linking the power and transport sectors—Part 1” describes the general principle of “sector coupling” (SC), develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review that provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on this topic and conducts a rudimentary analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level. The aim of this follow-on paper is to outline an approach to the modelling of SC. Therefore, a study of Germany as a case study was conducted. This study assumes a high share of renewable energy sources (RES) contributing to the grid and significant proportion of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in the year 2050, along with a dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to meet hydrogen demand. To construct a model of this nature, the model environment “METIS” (models for energy transformation and integration systems) we developed will be described in more detail in this paper. Within this framework, a detailed model of the power and transportsector in Germany will be presented in this paper and the rationale behind its assumptions described. Furthermore, an intensive result analysis forthe power surplus, utilization of electrolysis, hydrogen pipeline and economic considerations has been conducted to show the potential outcomes of modelling SC. It is hoped that this will serve as a basis for researchers to apply this framework in future to models and analysis with an international focus.
Climate change is one of the big challenges humanity is facing. A transition of the global energy system towards sustainability with dramatically reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required in order to limit climate change. Especially after the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997, climate change policies have been increasingly introduced in industrialised and increasingly also in emerging countries, with the EU taking a leading role. The range of potential instruments for promoting GHG emission reductions includes performance standards, technology standards as well as market-based approaches like energy or emission (carbon) taxes and emission trading systems. Economic literature generally argues in favour of market-based instruments since they ensure compliance at the least cost to society by offering flexibility in the choice of abatement measures and their timing. Moreover, taxes and auctioned emission permits raise revenues that in turn can be used to subsidise other abatement measures and R&D activities or to mitigate the negative distributional effects.
113 People are the City
the development of the city, boosting local pride and creating new links in society. From the very beginning, the goal was to include as many stake- holders as possible in the bidding process, to inform them about the ECoC initiative, to make different stakeholders part of the project, and to inspire them into further action during and after the project. Public discussions about the concept of the bid and the challenges that it brings, as well as promotional and participatory activities, prompted massive and valuable feedback. Citizens’ suggestions were taken into consideration and included in both the City Cultural Strategy and in the framework of Rijeka’s bid. This input helped to redefine the candidacy slogan and provided some direction forthe programme design. During the three years of the bidding process, some 130,000 people were involved, by means of 16 public discussions in Rijeka and other cities in the Primorje and Gorski Kotar County, online consultations, and nine presentations for specific groups (economic sector, educational institution, and cultural operators). A number of promotional cultural activities were organised in collaboration with kindergartens and elementary schools, as well as a series of art workshops dealing with the three themes of the Port of Diversity. The student population was motivated via projects created in collaboration with the university and the Student Cultural Centre. Examples of other artistic projects hosted during the bid- ding process are a photo-contest in collaboration with a local photo-club, a DJ contest in cooperation with the Rijeka branch of the Croatian Musici- ans Union, a “New Carnival” project (a reinterpretation of the traditional Rijeka carnival), action with street artists, and the Ambassadors of Rije- ka programme, which included more than a hundred artists, intellectuals, politicians, sportspersons and others who expressed their support forthe bid in short videos. Particular attention was paid to online communication, both via the website and social media channels.
dal has only made timelier. International trends are also challenging the automotive sector. China’s announce- ment to have 10 % electric cars in new sales starting in 2019 forces German carmakers to take action. At the same time, it is clear that technological developments as digitalization – especially driverless cars – will funda- mentally change the mobility landscape. An innovative and sustainable transport policy is thus not only crucial in terms of environmental and climate policy, but also a central condition forthe future competitiveness of Ger- man industry. At the same time, the public has to accept change in an area that directly affects the daily lives of so many people. Politicians therefore have to plan the impending transformation of thetransportsector in a dialogue with all stakeholders – and then courageously implement it.
While the private sector has always been involved in the provision of shipping services, there are now even greater opportunities forthe private sector to engage in the development of shipping, and ports development and management. Fiscal constraints faced by the government have driven the privatization of ports. However, the greater motivation is the felt need of developing and promoting the competitiveness of firms and industry, which is substantially anchored on the availability of adequate infrastructure. The ports and shipping infrastructure are critical for competitiveness and regional integration and cohesion. Thus, the country’s main ports servicing international trade have to improve operational and management efficiencies. To achieve these goals, private sector effort and investment are necessary because without private participation it will be difficult to tackle the tough challenges posed by the lumpiness of port investments, and the complexity of ports and shipping development and management. Already the benchmark set by other successful regional ports, e.g., Port of Singapore, Port Klang in Malaysia in ports and shipping development and management present the Philippines with an important set of standards to emulate. These two regional ports are major destinations of foreign vessels and serve as critical trans-shipment hubs forthe ASEAN region.
In total, the four perspectives highlight that the present situation of the German rail freight sector and of DB Cargo in particular is subject to substantial institu- tional changes. On the one hand, intramodal competition has increased as a con- sequence of the railway reform, which can be described as a disruptive form of institutional change. New domestic and foreign competitors have entered the rail freight market with business models tailored to promising segments of the market and have rapidly gained market share. At the same time, the increasing pressure from intramodal competitors has triggered an attempt at a transformative organi- sational change initiative at DB Cargo, which is currently in the process of imple- mentation. Even though the success of this initiatives is highly uncertain, in total, these changes are likely to result in a higher competitiveness of thesector and a stronger orientation to customer needs. On the other hand, the road freight sector has increasingly come under political pressure due to its rising GHG emissions and rail transport is increasingly seen as a viable alternative. The recently pub- lished master plan for rail transport acts on many requirements of the railway sector and foresees a reduction of financial burdens, capacity extensions, and technological innovation in the railway sector. However, these political initiatives will probably not result in significant changes of the current modal split as long as the external costs of road freight are not taken into account.
Unfortunately, the level of consequence from undesired events often colours our impression of these events, and shapes our reactions. The greater the consequence, the more effort we expend, and the greater the political consequences in trying to understand what went wrong. Even more disturbing are the number of undetected events that cause no consequence whatsoever, but could have. In fact, most, if not all, “undetected” events present faint signals that are either not noticed, or noticed and not acted upon in a timely manner. And without consequence, we often ignore the signals. In any case, undesired events are really just “normal” outcomes allowed by system design or evolution (Perrow, 1984). There are two main reasons for undesired outcomes and surprise. The first is due to “bounded rationality” (Simon, 1957), and the second is the nature of complex, dynamic- adaptive socio-technical systems. Systems are designed with the best intentions for desired (expected) results; however, we are limited in our ability to understand every possible outcome of the designed system. And whether through “loose” or “tight” coupling (Perrow, 1984) in the form of feedback loops and delay (Forrester, 1961), or simply through system evolution/adaptation, crossing operational boundries, and meeting the Dragon are possible - though undesired and unexpected. Even if we could understand every possible outcome at any given point in time (good and bad), the system will continue to evolve, allowing unexpected outcomes that are also undesirable. That is the reason why we need to engineer resilience into systems at several levels. Resilience is the ability to absorb the degradation/evolution of a system drifting towards failure (Rasmussen, 1994; Dekker, 2006, 2011) in a proactive manner by allowing extra time to detect and adapt before crossing an operational boundry leading to failure, and returning to some new level of temporary equilibrium. This can be achieved through resilient structural design (robustness), and/or through engaging the adaptive capacity of the human element in socio-technical systems. This will be addressed further in the next section.
The purpose of this study is to identify the financial condition utilizing financial ratios ex ante and ex-post of the acquiring publicly traded maritime corporations quoted on capital markets based on historical accounting information. Using a database of all M&As involving marine transport corporations, on a global scale from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2009. As far as the authors are aware, such an analysis has never been undergone forthe maritime industry. The objectives of this paper are firstly to reveal the philosophy behind mergers and acquisitions and obtain relevant implications. Secondly, to critically assess the results and recommend further areas for empirically research. Finally our last objective is to assist financial decision makers in formulating their decisions.
volume resulted in a reduction of mortality rate by 22 % and is, up until now, the only strategy to decrease mortality in ARDS. Tremendous efforts have been undertaken to identify substances to treat the disease, however, none of them translated to a clinical benefit. Surfactant replacement therapy, for instance, has been shown to be beneficial in pediatric acute lung injury, which is associated with impaired surfactant production (Liechty et al. 1991). In adult ARDS surfactant therapy failed to improve mortality rate (Anzueto et al. 1996). In another trial, application of inhaled vasodilators that directly target pulmonary vasculature, such as nitric oxide (NO) (Pepke-Zaba et al. 1991) and prostacyclins (Walmrath et al. 1993) resulted in temporarily improved oxygenation but failed to decrease mortality (Troncy et al. 1998; Van Heerden et al. 1996). Moreover, glucocorticoids exhibit both, anti- inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties (Newton 2000) and therefore were proposed to be beneficial in ARDS. Mechanical ventilated patients were prophylactically treated with high- dose methylprednisolone (Weigelt et al. 1985) but the development of ARDS could not be prevented. The same strategy failed to improve mortality rate in established ARDS (Bernard et al. 1982). Glucocorticoid treatment in the late proliferative phase of lung injury did also fail to have a therapeutic effect (Meduri et al. 1998), even though bleomycin-induced fibrosis in rats was inhibited by application of dexamethasone (Dik 2003).
Energies 2017, 10, 956 11 of 22
cars and light trucks . Therefore, light-duty vehicles will play the most significant role if a transition towards low CO 2 emissions in the transportation sector is to be achieved.
The transportation sector is key to the mitigation of GHG emissions; thus, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggests a set of developments that would help reduce the sector’s CO 2 footprint . The major paths are avoidance, modal choice, energy intensity and fuel carbon intensity. Figure 5 shows the global GHG emissions by sector in 2013. With avoidance, a reduction in transport activity is sought by cutting or shortening journeys, for example, through internet shopping and the mixed-zoning of cities. Modal choice refers to traveler behavior, where a shift from private to public transportation and cycling is encouraged by corresponding measures in urban planning and the required infrastructure. Enhancing the performance efficiency of vehicles constitutes a means of reducing the fuel consumption and therefore, primary energy requirements and CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, reducing the carbon intensity of the energy carriers used will positively contribute to the independence between energy consumption and GHG emissions. Sustainable technologies such as biofuels, electricity and hydrogen are some of the options RESs can produce; however, they require additional investments in infrastructure.
The Fraunhofer ISE study [ 73 ], which is represented in Figure 4 in the second category with three different scenarios, points out the possibility of realizing all of Germany’s power and heat demand via renewable energies. In the study, electricity storage is taken into account by including pumped hydro storage and batteries, while thermal energy storage is considered through the inclusion of water as a storage medium. The scenarios refer to different degrees of refurbishment for buildings (heat demands of 64.9%, 50% and 40% in reference to the 2010 values for REMax, Medium and SanMax, respectively). A P2G path is integrated as follows: first, hydrogen that was produced by electrolysis during periods of excess electricity generation is transformed into methane; this methane is then stored in already existing caverns for natural gas; finally, during times of positive residual load, the methane is used to produce electricity and heat. Not modeled are thetransportsector and fuel-based industry processes. However, the study states that if transport was included (by assuming 50% BEVs and 50% FCVs), an additional yearly electricity demand of 290 TWh would be required.
such effects is still pending, but all definitions have in common that they do not directly stem from the economic performance of the air transportsector value chain but from the local, regional, national or global connectivity provided by thesector. For a good overview of air transport connectivity
Specifically, CGE models (FARM-EU, 13 GEM-E3, 14 and PACE) show the highest CO 2 prices in 2050, mainly due to the way technological mitigation possibilities enter these models. It is likely that structural breaks will be necessary for stringent mitigation scenarios to become feasible, i.e., new technologies will enter markets that have different input structures than the technologies available today. CGE models are calibrated against baseline data from a single point in time (in which only a limited set of technologies is available) and mostly model anomalies from this point onwards. The use of constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production functions to describe substitution possibilities between sectors, production inputs and technologies, and the use of supply elasticities of technologies for electricity generation, particularly limits the degree of flexibility. This flexibility is lower than that of energy system models with greater substitution possibilities. The WITCH model, which also characterizes production and substitution via CES functions, shows a relatively high CO 2 price, closer to that of CGE models. In contrast, some models (TIMES-VTT, PRIMES, EMILIE, and POLES) show a smoother increase of CO 2 prices in 80%DEF. These models include a wider range of technological options forthe energy sector as well as the mitigation of all GHG gases in energy production and end-use sectors, and/or cross-border commodity trading, which increases flexibility. In the following, we will discuss the costs of the EU’s decarbonization policies.
Finally, the region where the family lives has a great effect on the decision to participate in tourism at national and international level and the sign of its effect is different in the North and the South, indirectly showing that amenity and economic differences among the Italian regions could support or discourage participation in the tourism market. The probability of taking a holiday decreases for those families living in the South of Italy and its effect is higher forthe domestic market (2.76%) than the foreign one (1.66%); while families living in the North are more likely to travel than families living in the other regions of Italy, and in this case too the effect is stronger forthe national market (1.66%). This may be due to better economic conditions in the North – an area with a higher level of income per capita and a lower rate of unemployment than the South. Furthermore, it is simpler for people living in the North of Italy to travel because they have easy access to a transport system that is likely more efficient than in the South. On the other hand, the low propensity to travel of people living in the regions of the South may be connected to the high stock of ‘natural’ capital of these regions like sun, sea, cultural heritage, etc. All these natural ‘goods’ are territorial amenities that have a positive effect on people’s quality of life and act against the desire to travel. So, the different signs of the marginal effects related to the geographical variables highlight the fact that Italian families behave differently when it comes to tourism and this indirectly reflects economic and amenity disparities among the Italian regions.
ment 161.5 euros 285.0 euros 403.1 euros
In sum, these examples indicate that, first, households that employ heating oil for heating purposes tend to suffer from a higher burden due to carbon pricing than house- holds that use natural gas. It therefore bears noting that, according to the GRECS data, oil heating is more common among pensioner and poor households than for other household types. Second, larger households tend to benefit more from a per-capita reimbursement than households with less members, given that energy consumption and costs generally do not grow proportionately with the number of household members (Frondel, Kussel, Sommer 2019). Hence, the larger the number of household members, the lower is the net burden under a per-capita reimbursement scheme. In short, this scheme would turn out to be particularly beneficial for families with many children, which are likely to be better off from a carbon pricing with a per-capita reimbursement of the resulting revenues.
In particular, the reform mandate given to the CCSSP and the unique relationship that existed between its leadership and Sierra Leone’s executive illustrate how important the human factor is in development programmes – for better or for worse.
Sierra Leone’s ﬁrst post-war Inspector-General of Police, Keith Biddle, was a retired UK police oﬃcer appointed upon the request of then-President Kabbah. In Biddle, Kabbah got a police chief fully committed to him and to resurrection of the SLP, who did not carry the political and historical baggage that a Sierra Leonean might have brought to the position. Biddle’s appointment reﬂected the President’s interest in securing substantial police reforms; evidence of vastly improved SLP operations and morale today speak to Biddle’s success in turning around the SLP. While public perceptions of the SLP continue to reﬂect concerns about police corruption, citizens also recognise that as an organisation it has come a long way. At the same time, this does not mean, of course, that the SLP is now the only organisation providing internal security in the country at the local level.
Against the background of transforming energy systems in a sustainable manner, energy security plays a crucial role when designing energy systems in general and energy transportation systems in particular. Energy security can be understood as uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price and, thus, is influenced by technical, economic and political circumstances. Currently many national energy systems are switching from fossil and nuclear to renewable energy supply. Even though the focus often is on the electricity supply, this fuel switch effects the whole energy system including i.e. the heat and mobility sector, triggering even bigger changes. This work examines, using the example of natural gas in Germany, how the long- term transformation of energy systems influences energy security and why this should be considered in short- to mid-term transportation systems expansion planning.
Box 4. Political aspects of RIA
The political economy of regulatory impact analysis (RIA) in general and cost-benefit analysis (CBA) in particular has a long history, and the tools have been used in different ways.
On the one hand, economists as far back as Jules Dupuit have urged the use of something like CBA forthe thorough and dispassionate analysis of proposals for public-works projects put forward by politicians, ministers, and bureaucrats. In the US for example, the Federal Navigation Act of 1936 and the Flood Control Act of 1939 sought to rein in legislative proposals for projects to be carried out by the Army Corps of Engineers by mandating a formal analysis of the likely costs and benefits, direct and indirect, of such projects. More recently, proposed government-funded transport projects in the EU, UK, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and other jurisdictions have been required by legislation and/or regulation to be subject to cost-benefit analysis. These approaches, as recognized in this report, promote an analysis of welfare benefits that projects/policies yield to society as a whole.