Nach oben pdf The Solar System within arm's reach

The Solar System within arm's reach

The Solar System within arm's reach

Das virtuelle Sonnensystem CosmoScout VR ist universell ein- setzbar und nicht auf einzelne Planeten beschränkt. Neben zu- künftigen Missionen zu unserem Nachbarplaneten wie Mars 2020 bietet sich die Software auch für Expeditionen zu anderen Plane- ten an. Beispiele sind die für das Jahr 2020 geplante ESA-Mission JUICE zum Jupiter, die Sonde Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) der japanischen Raumfahrtbehörde JAXA, die Proben des Mars- monds Phobos zur Erde bringen soll, oder die Mission to the Moon der PTScientists GmbH. Auch Missionen im Erdorbit, wie zum Beispiel die Reparatur defekter Satelliten (On-Orbit-Servicing), lassen sich mit CosmoScout VR simulieren.
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Trading solar energy within the neighborhood: field implementation of a blockchain-based electricity market

Trading solar energy within the neighborhood: field implementation of a blockchain-based electricity market

Overall, both academic and industry research on decentralized energy exchange enabled by blockchain technology is still in its infancy. The academic articles identified in the literature review present a conceptual case study or a proof of concept without empirical data, mostly focusing of a few selected aspects of the system as a whole. While start-ups in particular were quick to publish whitepapers and conceptual ideas, the major- ity of those articles provide only vague explanations on the economic viability or the market design. The academic publications we identified give a more refined view of the economic implications of the created peer-to-peer markets; nevertheless, most of the research is still conceptual or based on small simulations. The actual implementation and design of a viable marketplace seems to be more difficult. The early stage of research on blockchain-based markets also becomes apparent when analyzing the arguments brought forward for the use of blockchain technology in the relevant articles identified. The omnipresent and important question of why a blockchain is needed remains mostly unan- swered, as many of the benefits of a blockchain system pointed out are of tautological nature such as “trustless” verification or “secure exchange” (Miller et al. 2017 ; Aitzhan and Svetinovic 2018 ) and are not put into context of the electricity use case. Many arti- cles merely reproduce generic, unspecific arguments commonly used in the promotion of blockchain technology (Avital et al. 2016 ). Empirical evidence on the created bene- fits or arising issues is simply still missing, as most of the identified literature presents conceptual ideas or proofs-of-concept which run in an isolated lab setting.
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Arm 

Arm 

The title compound 1 is an unprecedented exam ple of an 18-crown-6 com plex in which coronand rings preserve the conform ation o f the uncom plexed crystalline polyether. 1 is precipitated, independently o f the molar ratio em ployed, by mixing m ethanolic solutions of its components at room temperature. The com plex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P 2 j//t, with (at -1 3 0 °C) a = 1771.9(7), b = 833.3(3), c = 2024.2(6) pm, ß = 107.13(3)°, V = 2.856(2) nm3, Z = 4, D A = 1.325 Mg n r 3. The structure contains infinite chains o f alternating host and guest species, in which every H N ( S 0 2C H 3)2 guest is linked via C - H —O(crown) and C - H — O(sulfonyl) interactions with two D ?,r pseudosymmetric crown rings. Within the chain, each D 3(l ring acts as an acceptor in six C - H ••• O(crown) and as a donor in four C - H —O(sulfonyl) interactions. Equivalent m olecules in the chain are related by y-translation. Pairs of antiparallel chains are connected into ladder-like strands by a sec­ ond type o f 18-crown-6 m olecule that crystallographically preserves the centrosymmetric C \ conformation of the uncom plexed polyether. These rings accept, via their two symmetry- related pseudocorner oxygen atoms, an N - H —O hydrogen bond (H — O 210p m ) from one guest molecule in each chain and are also connected to the same guests by a C - H —O(sulfonyl) interaction. Parallel strands are linked through C - H - (crown) —O (sulfonyl) and C -H (cro w n ) — O(crown) interactions to form a three-dimensional network. The H — O distances of the strand-building and the strand-connecting C - H —O interactions lie in the range 2 3 0 -2 6 0 pm. For comparison, two m odifications of the pure guest compound, crystallized from CC14 (m odification 2 a) or CH 2C12 (m odification 2 b), were structurally characterized. The crystallographic data (at - 9 5 °C) are for 2 a: monoclinic, space group P2j/c, a = 767.5(2), b = 974.5(2), c = 915.0(3) pm, ß = 105.80(2)°, V = 0.6585(3) nm3, Z = 4, D,. = 1.747 Mg m 3; for 2b: monoclinic, space group P 2 t/c, a = 776.2(3), b - 997.1(3), c = 923.0(4) pm, ß = 111.10(3)°, V = 0.6665(4) nm3. Z = 4, D x = 1.726 Mg ir r 3. In both modifications, the m olecules are connected by an N - H —O hydrogen bond (H — O 234 pm in 2 a, 220 pm in 2 b) into chains in the z-direction, the principal difference between 2 a
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Outcome of Collisions in the Early Outer Solar System

Outcome of Collisions in the Early Outer Solar System

The processes leading to the formation of planetary systems leave behind a significant mass of small bodies - up to 35 Earth masses depending on the model [1] - orbiting at large heliocentric distance, and observed around 20% of Sun-like stars [2]. It is established that those bodies play an important role in the migration of gas giants away from their stars and may be necessary for life to develop on the smaller planets. Yet, the conditions within these primitive populations are not well understood, especially their collisional environment.

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Solar Thermal Energy Storage System

Solar Thermal Energy Storage System

Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. He holds a PhD degree in Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering from University of Kassel, Germany. His main focused research areas are solar thermal and photovoltaic systems, bioenergy, energy conservation and auditing meas- ures, energy storage. He has launched new B.Sc. and M.Sc. degree programs on Energy Systems Engineering accredited from Higher Education Commission (HEC) and Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC). Dr. Munir is engaged in teaching and research related to the subjects of energy resources and utilization, engineering thermodynamics, boiler engineering and power plants, I.C. engines, solar energy, HVAC, among others. He has published more than 60 scientific publications. He has also developed eight solar based technologies for value addition of agricultural product. Dr. Munir is an approved PhD supervisor from Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan and has supervised three PhDs students and 45 MS students as major supervisor and 39 as member of supervisory committee during his teaching tenure. He has successfully completed more than 20 need based research projects on solar and bioenergy. He has provided consultancy services as a team leader to the Government of Punjab and has installed more 2300 solar drip irrigation systems in the whole Punjab Province of Pakistan for energy and water conservation. Dr. Munir has submitted four patents on innovative solar based technologies. He has won four consecutive times “Research Productivity Awards” from the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of Pakistan and is included in top ranked list of “Productive Scientists of the country” within the discipline of Engineering and Technology.
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Our Solar System: A Short Introduction to the Bodies of our Solar System and their Exploration

Our Solar System: A Short Introduction to the Bodies of our Solar System and their Exploration

than 330,000 Earths would be needed to make up its weight. The gravity field that emanates from this gigantic central mass shapes the orbits of all planets, asteroids and comets in the So- lar System. During a solar eclipse, we can even observe that the Sun does indeed bend space in its environment in the way pre- dicted by Albert Einstein in 1916. However, the Sun‘s chemical composition is just as important as its mass. It is composed of 73 percent hydrogen, 25 percent helium and two percent heavier elements, as can be demonstrated very well in a spectroscope. Like that of any other star, the course of the Sun‘s life crucially depends on its total mass and its chemical composition. The surface of the Sun, the photosphere, has been under close investigation ever since the telescope was invented. Its most conspicuous features are dark spots which migrate from one edge of the Sun to the other within two weeks. This led observ- ers to conclude very early on that the Sun must have a rota- tional period of around one month. Today, we know that the gaseous surface of our central luminary rotates at velocities that vary with heliographic latitude: a revolution takes 25 days at the equator and more than 30 days at the poles of the Sun. At about two kilometers per hour, the Sun rotates
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Our Solar System : A Short Introduction to the Bodies of our Solar System and their Exploration

Our Solar System : A Short Introduction to the Bodies of our Solar System and their Exploration

In the period that followed, the face of the moon was scarred by frequent and violent impacts of meteorites and asteroids. the big- gest impacts penetrated the crust deeply enough to enable basaltic lava flows to rise to the top and be released to the surface. Over several hundred million years, the huge impact craters filled with basalt, making them appear darker in color than the surround- ing highland rock. Seen from earth, these darker areas appeared like water oceans, an assumption that led to the basalt-filled impact craters being named ‘seas’ (or, in latin, ‘mare’) to this very date: mare Imbrium, mare Serenitatis or the Oceanus Procellarum. the volcanic evolution largely came to its end about three million years ago, and only sporadically, until about 1 – 1.5 million years ago, did any magma flows reach he surface of the moon. Since then, the moon is geologically almost completely inactive, a celes- tial body which is too small to keep an atmosphere of volatile gas molecules and has no major water resources. However, data from the lunar probe lunar Prospector which orbited the moon between 1997 and 1999 has nurtured the assumption that the deep craters at the north and south poles which are permanently shaded con- tain a considerable amount of water ice. A detailed study of these presumed water ice deposits was the objective of a number of recent international lunar missions. Data from a u.S.-built spec- trometer installed on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission not only confirmed that ice deposits do, in fact, exist in the deep polar cra- ters, but water was found to be present in the minerals and the regolith everywhere on the moon’s surface, albeit in very low concentrations.
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Transforming the European Energy System: Member States’ Prospects Within the EU Framework

Transforming the European Energy System: Member States’ Prospects Within the EU Framework

The analysis of the national policies and roadmaps that are currently implemented in the five selected countries revealed that they differ considerably in terms of ambition, scope and preference concerning specific technology choices. Relating the model results to these national policies and to the NREAPs, which provide the short-term visions of the different Member States on the deployment of renewables, shows that the models are indeed able to capture national differences. With some exceptions, for example the deployment of CCS in Germany at high levels that is currently unlikely to be realized, there is generally sufficient agreement with national policies to credit the model results as being conceivable scenarios for the different Member States. However, an important discrepancy concerning solar PV is revealed. The contribution from PV is considerably lower in the models compared to current and projected deployment levels. Despite the fact that the models do not take into account supporting schemes for renewables and therefore underestimate the current development of solar PV, this discrepancy might also indicate that the model objective of reducing GHG emissions might not be the only reason for selecting a particular technology. In reality there are other factors and assumed co-benefits, such as local employment effects, local value added, additional environmental benefits and industrial policy which are taken into consideration. Therefore, although the models seem to capture national differences reasonably well, it would be important to acknowledge the existence of multi-objectives in the models. On the other hand, policy makers should carefully consider whether renewable deployment is the most cost-efficient way of achieving the other policy objectives that are associated with renewables.
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Kinematically Optimal Catching a Flying Ball with a Hand-Arm-System

Kinematically Optimal Catching a Flying Ball with a Hand-Arm-System

Catching a thrown ball with a hand is not easy – neither for humans nor for robots . It demands for a tight interplay of skills in mechanics, control, planning and visual sensing to reach the necessary precision in space and time. Because of this, ball catching has been used for almost 20 years now as a challenging benchmark system to develop and test robotics key technologies [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. In all the works the general setup is in principle the same: a stereo vision system tracks the ball and predicts the balls trajectory, then the point and time, where and in which orientation the robot should intercept the ball on its trajectory, is determined. Next, the robot configuration to reach the catch point is computed and finally a path is generated, which brings the robot from its start configuration to the desired catch configuration. A. Related Work
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Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm

Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm

At the time of this study, S3 was a 58-year-old woman with tetraplegia caused by brainstem stroke that occurred nearly 15 years earlier. As previously reported 7,31 , she is unable to speak (anarthria) and has no functional use of her limbs. She has occasional bilateral or asymmetric flexor spasm movements of the arms that are intermittently initiated by any imagined or actual attempt to move. S3’s sensory pathways remain intact. She also retains some head movement and facial expression, has intact eye movement, and breathes spontaneously. On November 30, 2005, a 96-channel intracortical silicon microelectrode array (1.5mm electrode length, produced by Cyberkinetics Neurotechnology Systems, Inc, and now by its successor, Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT) was implanted in the arm area of motor cortex as previously described 6,7 . One month later, S3 began regularly participating in ~1–2 research sessions per week during which neural signals were recorded and tasks were performed toward the development, assessment, and improvement of the neural interface system. The data reported here are from S3’s trial days 1952 to 1975, more than 5 years after implant of the array. Participant S3 has provided permission for photographs, videos and portions of her protected health information to be published for scientific and educational purposes.
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Differentiation of asteroids in the early solar system from Hf-W systematics

Differentiation of asteroids in the early solar system from Hf-W systematics

parent body heating causing differentiation. On the other hand, internal isochrones for silicates of the two IAB-iron meteorites El Taco and Lueders yield ages 11.3 ± 2.3 Myr and ~12 Myr after CAI formation, reflecting impact induced heating and redistribution of radiogenic W. Additional later metal-silicate equilibration on the IAB parent body is also found in Mundrabilla (-2.6 ± 0.5 ε- units). Therefore, a prolonged epoch of most likely impact-controlled W re- equilibration on the IAB parent body can be inferred. In contrast to the combined IAB silicate isochron, most of the analyzed Winonaites define a combined isochron with an age that postdates CAI formation by 14.5 ± 2.8 Myr. This age is apparently too young for heating and melting of the parent body by an internal heat-source and indistinguishable within uncertainty from the internal El Taco and Lueders isochrones. Assuming a common origin for IABs and winonaites these ages could be related to a single impact-controlled W re-equilibration on the Winonaite/IAB parent body. A combined isochron defined by different Acapulcoite separates yields an age of 4.6 ± 1.3 Myr after CAI formation. This is within the range of Hf-W ages of ordinary chondrites, although Acapulcoites were heated to significantly higher temperatures than ordinary chondrites, implying a higher level of 26 Al. Other chronometers indicate fast cooling of acapulcoites, which is difficult to reconcile with similar cooling rates as those of ordinary chondrites.
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Improved Solar Operation Control for a Solar Cooling System of an IT Center

Improved Solar Operation Control for a Solar Cooling System of an IT Center

time. This new strategy utilizes an improved and more precise method of characteristic equations [ 12 ]. The computer code of the method is available in [ 13 ]. The same characteristic equation method is used to control the absorption chiller itself, irrespective of whether it is operated in a solar or conventional cooling system [ 14 ]. Since the chiller control is based on characteristic equations, it is called a CE controller. Nevertheless, the focus of this contribution is not on the absorption chiller control (which is done by the CE controller and is described, e.g., in [ 14 , 15 ]), but on the control of the switchover between solar and backup heat operation of the chiller in a solar cooling system. Hence, following a short description of the SAC system at the Federal Environment Agency in Dessau, Germany (which was used to test the switchover strategy), the improved characteristic equation method is explained only briefly. Afterwards, the model predictive control algorithm for the switchover strategy is derived. It combines the absorption chiller model with a simple dry-cooler model. Finally, the measured results of the strategy are shown and discussed.
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Researching Gangs: How to Reach Hard-to-Reach Populations and Negotiate Tricky Issues in the Field

Researching Gangs: How to Reach Hard-to-Reach Populations and Negotiate Tricky Issues in the Field

experiences, however, the success rate is very high. The snowball sampling technique is theoretically a linear expansion from one point to another, including an exponentially increasing population. The successive approach starts with a larger population of periphery persons but does not increase exponentially. Usually, one periphery person comes up with one person of the hard-to-reach population. In my case this meant that I never asked a gang member to introduce me to another gang member. The successive approach is useful for researchers whose field research is limited to a short period of time, because it is based on parallel processes—that is, a high number of periphery persons are contacted at the same time and asked to facilitate contact with the target population. In this two-step approach periphery persons are at the center of two relationships of trust: with members of the populations of interest and with researchers, who trust that the periphery persons will not put their lives in danger by setting up dubious meetings. The bond of trust established between a researcher and a periphery person can enhance the researcher's security, as the periphery person develops a kind of responsibility to ensure the researcher's safety. A relationship between the researcher and the periphery person based on trust can enhance security based on the assumption that the periphery person will not place the researcher in harm's way by making bad decisions (e.g., arranging dubious meetings at night). More specifically, I noticed that the periphery persons felt responsible for my well-being and advised me when a situation was safe ("don't worry"), when to pay attention ("be careful"), when not to go to a meeting or leave a scene ("it's time to go"). In this vein, the successive approach creates a network in which a researcher can work with a certain level of personal safety.
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The Philosopher"s Garden:
Scepticism within (and from without) Wittgenstein

The Philosopher"s Garden: Scepticism within (and from without) Wittgenstein

If philosophy is disease, the sceptic must surely have a terminal case. There seems to be no relief for one so ill. However, in On Certainty Wittgenstein offers us a new way to examine the problem, a new treatment, as it were. As Wittgenstein’s methodology is so uniquely multi-faceted, so too is his attack on the sceptic, and as it has been said before, Wittgenstein has a marvelous capacity, not for solving problems, but dissolving them. We should not therefore be surprised that the die-hard sceptic remains unconvinced by Wittgenstein’s attack; it is not the sort of maneuver the sceptic is used to. Indeed, at times it does not seem like an attack at all. The sceptic must beware however; behind Wittgenstein’s oblique style there lies an assault of such subtlety and caliber that only a master of could deliver it. But really, for all his mastery, for all his philosophical poignancy, how effective is Wittgenstein’s criticism? It is certainly of a very different order than those we have seen in the past, but can Wittgenstein ultimately avoid the charge of “question begging” that have plagued so many before him? The question is somewhat compli- cated in the case of Wittgenstein, not only by his philoso- phical position, but also by his methodology.
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Human motion range data optimizes anthropomorphic robotic hand-arm system design

Human motion range data optimizes anthropomorphic robotic hand-arm system design

There have been different approaches towards obtaining nonlinear springs in the literature. Morita and Sugano [5] used a spring leaf with varying length in order to induce nonlinearities on the spring. The construction, however, was difficult and error-prone, and lead to a complex nonlinear transfer function. Migliore et al. [4] used a special spring device inducing a force-length relationship which can be de- termined by the curvature of a bar extending two springs. The construction is rela- tively large and may suffer from nonlinear friction and wear-and-tear. Tonietti et al. [6] introduced a variable stiffness actuator, a rather complex and large structure ac- tuating three springs with tendons over rollers. English and Russell [2] construct an antagonistic elbow joint using similar approaches as presented in this paper. How- ever, in our approach the elbow actuators cannot be placed in the lower arm, since that space is needed for the hand actuators. Also, they assume that arm stiffness is independent of joint position, but that would lead to linear springs and remove the requirement of robustness against collisions, since the stiffness near the joint limit would not increase, as it does in our case.
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Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System Bodies

Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System Bodies

Europa and Callisto, and the Europa Clipper (funded by NASA), which will perform detailed investigations of Europa. Due to their potential as habitable environments a major consideration is planetary protection, which has, to date, focused on the need for effective microbial reduction techniques to prevent contamination. These bioburden constraints? are not only limited to landers, as current concepts for orbital missions call for disposal onto the

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Solving the system of radiation magnetohydrodynamics for solar physical simulations in 3d

Solving the system of radiation magnetohydrodynamics for solar physical simulations in 3d

DRW99, PRL + 99, Wes02b]. Many other approaches developed for systems of bal- ance laws have also been applied to the system of magnetohydrodynamics. These include finite–difference schemes; finite–element schemes such as the Discontinuous Galerkin method of Cockburn [CKS00, DKR + 03]; central schemes following the ideas of Nessyahu and Tatmoor [NT90] can be easily applied to the real gas MHD system. Schemes specially derived for multidimensional systems include, e.g., the evolution Galerkin method [LMMW00] and the method of transport, which has been applied to the perfect gas MHD system [FNT01]. Furthermore, many methods have been presented that are specially designed for the approximation of the MHD equations in higher space dimensions on structured grids, an overview can be found in [T´ ot00]. In addition to their good numerical properties, which have been shown through many examples, the analytical properties of finite–volume schemes also justify their use for approximating systems of balance laws such as the system of radiation magnetohydro- dynamics (1.19). For a scalar balance law the convergence of finite–volume schemes even in higher space dimensions has been shown, requiring only very few restrictions on the non–linearities and under realistic assumptions on the regularity of the solution (e.g. [EGH00]). This is discussed in Chapter 4, where we extend the convergence re- sult for finite–volume schemes to include a class of scalar model problems derived from our coupled system (1.19) of radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Also for special sys- tems convergence of general finite–volume schemes in higher space dimension has been shown, e.g. for weakly coupled systems in [Roh98] and for linear systems of Friedrich’s type in [JR02]. For special schemes, convergence proofs are available even for more general non–linear systems in one space dimension (e.g. [Gli65, BJ00]).
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Developing an online collaborative system within the domain of financial auditing

Developing an online collaborative system within the domain of financial auditing

From a technical point of view, the literature provides details about the steps to configure external content types, operations, filters or external lists in SharePoint (Reza Alirezaei, 2011; Wright, 2011; Rizzo, 2012; Coventry, 2012). Nevertheless, any of the bibliographic references do not offer a complete case study which should provide the detailed steps to build an online database. The article will cover the gap within the current literature regarding a case study which should illustrate the process of online collaborative auditing. There are several studies which analyse from a theoretical and/or practical perspective the use of online auditing (Tung-Jung Sung, 2007; van der Aalst et al., 2011). Moreover, teleworking could play an important role within audit work as highlighted by several researchers (Năstase and Cretu, 2011). Nevertheless, we have little evidence that researchers have focused their attention on interorganizational online systems for auditing while there is clear evidence from a practice point of view that companies have implemented these software solutions (Swiss Auditor, 2013). Therefore, it is clear that we need to improve our understanding of these digital networks for auditing.
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Prosumage of solar electricity: Pros, cons, and the system perspective

Prosumage of solar electricity: Pros, cons, and the system perspective

Distribution grid relief Increased prosumage may allow to defer distribution grid investments and reduce grid losses. This can be achieved by lower peak PV feed-in levels, which are a major determinant for grid dimensioning. As illustrated in the right panel of Figure 1, system-oriented battery charging can reduce maximum feed- in compared to other charging strategies (left panel). What is more, gradients of PV feed-in can also be reduced. Yet such system-oriented battery operation requires respective incentives, regulatory conditions, or centrally controlled battery charging. The latter, in turn, would require appropriate communication infrastructure and the willingness of owners to allow third parties access to their systems. Weniger et al. (2015) discuss different strategies for decentral load and PV forecasts which would help realizing such charging strategies without remote control, and argue for establishing a dynamic instead of a static feed-in reduction based on daily forecasts. Moshövel et al. (2015) also illustrate how prosumagers’ batteries could reduce peak PV feed-in by using a simple forecast strategy.
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The possibilities of day surgery system development within the health policy in Slovakia

The possibilities of day surgery system development within the health policy in Slovakia

to get a financial profit for HCP (the provided shorter waiting time, on the expense of higher, or total financial payments by patient for procedure). Workplace motiv- ation, indication experience and operational skills of a surgeon, qualification, technical and pharmacological possibilities of anesthesiologist, quality of home nursing and patient’s motivation are important for the develop- ment of DS without any regard to procedure realized by classic hospital, newly-created specialized clinic or out- patients clinic. However, the reality is different. Besides competition among DS workplaces, regulation of com- petition is also inevitable among the DS workplaces and standard bed departments of hospitals. At present, more than half of all surgical procedures are possible to realize in the DS mode, while augmentation of procedure num- ber suitable to DS does not indicate any threat for hospi- tals, as there are wide spectrum of a difficult operation that will always belong to standard bed facility. It is con- nected with a level of patients’ risk that is influenced by co - morbidities. These patients have to be admitted to bed facility immediately after realization of a simple op- erational procedure in order to make available a surgical healthcare for them in the intensive care units. Also, the complications after DS procedure are possible to solve only in a standard bed facility with all corresponding background. Therefore, it is inevitable to provide a sim- ultaneous influence among the departments – DS, as well as the standard bed ones. In this aspect, there is im- portant a formation of such conditions that will provide
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