Nach oben pdf The Lancet Commission on pollution and health

The Lancet Commission on pollution and health

The Lancet Commission on pollution and health

and contributors to this report have initiated a series of activities within different sectors and countries that will extend beyond the life of this Commission and are intended to prevent pollution and save lives. At a global level, several authors of this Commission are in early stages of designing a Global Pollution Observatory, to be housed within the Global Alliance for Health and Pollution. This new observatory will be an international, multidisciplinary collaboration that is focused on coordinating information regarding all forms of pollution in countries around the world and developing solutions based on successes already achieved in other countries. We intend that this observatory will operate in close partnership with the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, UN agencies, Future Earth, the Planetary Health Alliance, and major non-governmental organ- isations concerned with the wellbeing of the Earth’s environment. A major function will be to provide data that assist countries in prioritising pollution initiatives, tracking pollution, and using pollution control metrics, including investments against pollution in countries around the world and to make these data publicly and easily available. The precise metrics to be followed are under consideration, but possibilities include monitor ing country-by-country data on the status of regulations against each type of pollution; measuring exposures to key pollutants, country-by-country and regionally; reporting detailed country-by-country statistics on disease and premature death by pollution risk factor, to track performance towards the goals suggested in this report; tracking national and international investment into expanded research on disease and death due to pollution (especially soil pollution caused by heavy metals and toxic chemicals), including studies to discover new and previously unrecognised health effects of pollutants; tracking investments related to interventions against pollution, country-by-country (which can be broken down by source of investment and whether the investment is national or international and public or private); and developing a database to report the cost-efficacy of interventions against pollution, measured in terms of health outcomes.
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An administrative compensation system for pollution-related health damages

An administrative compensation system for pollution-related health damages

The SOg levy to be paid by each polluting firm is determined by the quantity of SOg it had emitted in the previous year. The rates of the SOg levy are determined each year on the basis of the compensation expenses for the year in question and the classification of areas, which is based on the degree of a ir pollution. The firms themselves make the calcu­ lations, based on preprinted forms. The documents that the firms are to submit with the figures on emission levels include information on such things as the type of fuel used and the level of consumption, the sulfur content of the fuel, and the continuously operating emission monitoring devices that are installed at many large sources of emission. It is gen­ erally reported that this information allows for adequate supervision. Furthermore, incorrect information means that the charges to the firms automatically increase because the required compensation sum remains the same. A firm that submits false reports would thereby call interindustrial cooperation into question and could expect corresponding sanctions. Ac­ cording to the Pollution-Related Health Damage Compensation Association, faulty reporting is very rare. (8) Paying the levies on installment is possible if the total amount is more than 300,000 Yen a year. Respite can also be granted (when economic difficulties arise, for example), but the levy is not waived even if a firm files for bankruptcy.
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The short-term population health effects of weather and pollution: Implications of climate change

The short-term population health effects of weather and pollution: Implications of climate change

To keep the analysis tractable, the empirical portion focuses on two main approaches. Hence- forth, Approach I is defined as the “Unconditional Approach.” This means that the underlying models only consider one single weather or pollution measure as the variable of interest (in addi- tion to a rich set of time and spatial fixed effects). The identified effect of this single indicator on population health yields the “overall” effect on health. For example, consider the effect of a Hot Day. In Approach I, we do not net out any contemporaneous weather and pollution conditions that typically prevail on a Hot Day, e.g., high ozone levels or sunshine. In contrast, Approach II —the “Conditional Approach”—always controls for a full set of simultaneous weather and pol- lution conditions as well as their own and cross-interactions in order to estimate the net effect of a Hot Day, i.e., the pure heat effect net of higher pollution levels, less rain, and more sunshine. We show that this distinction makes a crucial difference: When comprehensively considering contem- poraneous weather and pollution conditions, the impact of extreme temperature on health shrinks significantly, by at least a factor of two. The highly significant effect of high ambient concentra- tions of single pollutants also decreases strongly and even vanishes entirely in some specifications when fully considering other pollutants and weather conditions that prevail simultaneously. This
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The Short-Term Population Health Effects of Weather and Pollution: Implications of Climate Change

The Short-Term Population Health Effects of Weather and Pollution: Implications of Climate Change

As a final contribution, we provide a first step to better assess and understand the health costs associated with extreme climatic conditions that are very likely to increase in the future due to climate change. Systematically and comprehensively monetizing different subcategories of climate change-related costs is a necessary first step towards cost-benefit analyses. Solid cost- benefit analyses are crucial for a welfare increasing evidence-based climate change management. The most concrete and reliable climate change prediction of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2007) is an increase in the number of extreme heat events. Thus, we attempt to monetize the health loss associated with one additional Hot Day for an entire nation. One main conclusion from this exercise is that two factors crucially drive the estimates: (i) the choice between the Unconditional and the Conditional Approach, and (ii) whether one considers “harvesting” or not. In line with the literature, we find strong evidence in line with the harvesting hypothesis, according to which heat mostly adversely affects humans in bad health who, in the absence of heat, would have likely died shortly after. Empirical tests demonstrate that heat does not lead to a permanent increase in hospitalizations and deaths. Depending on the underlying assumptions, the last part of the paper estimates that one additional Hot Day triggers a monetized health loss of between e 6m and e 43m for Germany or between e 0.07 ($0.10) and e 0.52 ($0.68) per German resident.
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Atmospheric Pollution and Child Health in Late Nineteenth Century Britain

Atmospheric Pollution and Child Health in Late Nineteenth Century Britain

17 district of birth of the head of household, normally the individual’s father. 20 Among all the household heads, 59 percent were living in a registration district different from that in which they were born and 36 percent were living in a different county. Column (1) of Table 7 shows that a dummy variable taking the value 1 for inter-district in-migrant household heads takes a positive coefficient, which is significant at the 10 percent level. A dummy restricted to inter- county migrants takes a larger and more significant positive coefficient in column (2). This is consistent with what is sometimes known as the ‘healthy migrant effect’, but in this case for the second generation. Not surprisingly, the positive selection is stronger for longer distance moves. However, including this variable has a little effect on the coefficient on coal intensity. Although the children of migrants were taller as adults than the children of non-migrants, that alone does not identify selection into districts by coal intensity. In order to assess this we attach the 1901 coal intensity to the district of birth of the head of household. This is only possible for the 94 percent of household heads that were born in England and Wales, for whom we can measure coal intensity in the district of birth. On average, migrant household heads moved to districts where coal intensity was just 8 percent higher than in the districts where they were born. Column (3) of Table 7 includes the difference in log coal intensity between the district of residence and the district of birth. The coefficient is positive and significant at the 10 percent level, which suggests that the children of migrant household heads that moved into districts with greater coal intensity tended to be taller than the average for the district. Column (4) shows, however, that there is no equivalent effect for the children of heads that moved into districts where heavy coal use was higher than in the district of birth. As shown in columns (3) and (4) the coefficient on coal intensity in the district of residence is not much affected by the selective migration of households into districts with greater atmospheric pollution from coal. So the effect that we estimate seems to be despite, rather than because of, selective in- migration.
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Light Pollution, Sleep Deprivation, and Infant Health at Birth

Light Pollution, Sleep Deprivation, and Infant Health at Birth

to fewer crimes. To assess the direction of the bias in estimating the impact of skyglow on preterm birth, we control for possible correlates of urbanicity and skyglow that could be related to maternal stress. In particular, we focus on crime and noise. From New Jersey’s annual Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) between 2011 and 2015, we obtained two crime variables measured at the city level: the yearly number of violent crimes (murder, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) per 1,000 residents and the yearly number of non-violent crimes (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) per 1,000 residents in the eight New Jersey cities included in our study. We use these two annual city-level crime variables as proxy variables for maternal stress caused by higher levels of crime. In addition to crime, noise pollution is also likely to be positively correlated with skyglow due to urbanicity, and may lead to an over-estimate of the impact of skyglow on the probability of having a preterm birth, since noise pollution is found to be associated with adverse birth outcomes (Gehring et al., 2014). To deal with this confounding factor, we obtain data on aviation and road noise from the U.S. Department of Transportation, where the noise data are available for year 2014 and vary by zip code. 35
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Let's transform work! Recommendations and proposals from the Commission on the Work of the Future

Let's transform work! Recommendations and proposals from the Commission on the Work of the Future

ily life to support coordination, e. g. for household-related services. DIGITALISATION CAN ALSO MEAN PRESSURE AND STRESS. Human- machine interactions may also replace previous human-human col- laboration, which is likely to challenge workers’ occupational ethos, particularly in service work. Cooperation or ‘peer learning’ may dis- appear as a result of automation and standardisation. This in turn may lead to a new form of psychological stress caused by technology- induced deskilling and hence to the devaluing of skills and a nar- rowed scope for human action (PFeIFFer 2016 ). Overall, work pro- cesses will be intensified and accelerated. Performance can be more extensively monitored, personal data can be systematically evaluated and work tasks specified right down to the tiniest steps. In the case of mobile working, it still has to be ascertained how occupational health and safety regulations can be applied and how company agreements are to ensure that health protection standards are observed when companies are no longer a spatial but simply a functional and organ- isational reference point. As far as crowd workers are concerned, the debate is only just getting under way.
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When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

– Robert S. Huff, California State Senate Republican Leader (January 13, 2014) 1. Introduction In 1951, the International Labour Organization (ILO) set up the Committee on Freedom of As- sociation (CFA). Shortly after its inception, the CFA declared strike action to be a fundamental right of organized labor (Gernigon et al., 1998; Gross, 1999). Yet, where workers providing essential public services are concerned, the right to strike is often limited or even denied by national laws or regulations. The most common restriction is a ban on strikes by armed forces, policemen and firefighters, for the legitimate reason that those walkouts would endanger the life, personal safety or health of the whole or parts of the population. 1 But is that true of strikes by public transit workers? Two extreme positions shape answers to this question. According to the ILO, public transportation does not constitute an essential public service (ILO, 2006, para. 587). Thus, some commentators argue that strikes by transit workers mainly pose an eco- nomic threat, which—being the very essence of industrial action—does not justify a strike ban (Swearengen, 2010). Policy-makers, by contrast, commonly regard mass transit as an essential public service, which segues into the wider concern that major cities and their inhabitants are highly vulnerable to transit strikes. 2 This is exemplified by attempts in numerous countries to also exclude transit workers from the right to strike.
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Exposure to ambient air pollution and noise in relation to adverse health effect in children

Exposure to ambient air pollution and noise in relation to adverse health effect in children

At the 10‑year follow‑up, blood pressure, height, weight, and age (in months) were collected during a physical examination. Resting blood pressure measurements, including SBP and DBP, were carried out twice following standardized guidelines: Blood pressure was measured on the right arm, except in the case of injuries or other obstacles (e.g., gypsum) when it was measured on the left arm. The measurement was performed with the child in a sitting position after 5 min rest. The elbow was relaxed, at heart level, and slightly bent, and the upper arm was bare during testing. A second measurement was taken after sitting for a further 2 min. An automatic blood pressure monitor (Omron M5 Professional) was used for the blood pressure measurements. The cuff size was selected according to the length and circumference of the upper arm of each child: the width was at least 2/3 the length and the pressure bladder covered at least half of the circumference of the upper arm. All the blood pressure measurements were conducted between 7:00 a.m. and 8:30 p.m. by the same physician. The average of the two measurements was used throughout this analysis, regardless of the difference between the two records (we excluded 11 subjects who had only one measurement).
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Framework Directive on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides European Commission

Framework Directive on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides European Commission

Member States will have to establish National Action Plans in which they set targets, measures and timetables in order to reduce risks from the use of pesticides and to define timetables and targets for use reduction. Professional users, advisers and distributors must have access to appropriate training. Pesticide application equipment used by professionals will have to be regularly inspected to check compliance of the equipment with requirements of the Directive. Aerial spraying will be banned, however Member States may grant derogations under strict conditions in cases and areas where there are no viable alternatives. Measures to improve the protection of the aquatic environment and drinking water will be taken: giving preference to products which are not dangerous for the aquatic environment and to low drift equipment and establishing buffer strips along water courses. The use of pesticides will be prohibited or minimised in specific areas, which are areas used by the general public and sensitive populations. Safe conditions for the storage, handling and waste of pesticides have to be established. Member States will have to promote low-pesticide input techniques for pest management. Integrated pest management is a sustainable approach for pest management which relies on preventive measures, observation and pest monitoring and targeted interventions using techniques with the lowest impact on the environment and human health. The general principles of IPM listed in the Directive become mandatory for all professional pesticides users as of 2014. Risk indicators will monitor progress made and check whether the objective of risk reduction is reached.
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Air pollution, air temperature and the influence on cause-specific mortality and morbidity

Air pollution, air temperature and the influence on cause-specific mortality and morbidity

The impact of air pollution and air temperature on mortality and morbidity was studied in several single as well as multi-city studies (4, 6, 7). There is strong evidence for an association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM 10 ) or 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and cardio-respiratory mortality and morbidity (7, 8). Only a few studies have investigated the association between ultrafine particles (UFP) with a diameter <100 nm (0.1 µm) and (cause-specific) mortality and morbidity worldwide. Moreover, European research activities on the health effects of UFP were primarily conducted in Western European countries and studies from Eastern Europe are needed to get an overall picture (9). The deposition and clearance in the respiratory tract differ between UFP and larger particles such as PM 10 and PM 2.5 . While larger particles deposit mainly in the upper and lower respiratory tract, UFP can penetrate deeply into the pulmonary alveoli and can be translocated with the blood stream to other organs (9, 10). Therefore, it is assumed that UFP might have at least partly independent health effects compared to larger particles (8, 9, 11, 12).
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Exposure to Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from Colombia

Exposure to Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from Colombia

As mentioned, for Colombia, academic literature addressing these problems is almost non- existent. Llorente and Wilkinson (2009) and Uribe-Botero (2004) focus on studying exposure to air pollution by using risk assessment tools and analyzing air pollution data: they find that higher concentrations of air pollution in Bogot´ a and Medell´ın produce a great risk for human health. These methodologies seek to document and highlight how high levels of air pollution put health at risk for different population groups in Bogot´ a and Medell´ın. Franco et al. (2009) use four schools in Bogot´ a, close to heavy traffic streets, as a treatment group, and four schools in rural areas near Bogot´ a, where levels of air pollution are low. Their results focus on comparing levels of pollution among schools (treatment and control), but besides this, they do not make conclusions about the effects of exposure to air pollution on health or educational outcomes. Within Colombia, other studies have associated levels of air pollution with the incidence of respiratory infections in children under five years old for Bogot´ a (Hern´ andez et al., 2013a,b; ?), as well as levels of air pollution and their effects on vulnerable people in high polluted areas of Downtown Medell´ın (Gaviria et al., 2012).
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When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

When Labor Disputes Bring Cities to a Standstill: The Impact of Public Transit Strikes on Traffic, Accidents, Air Pollution, and Health

– Robert S. Huff, California State Senate Republican Leader (January 13, 2014) 1. Introduction In 1951, the International Labour Organization (ILO) set up the Committee on Freedom of As- sociation (CFA). Shortly after its inception, the CFA declared strike action to be a fundamental right of organized labor (Gernigon et al., 1998; Gross, 1999). Yet, where workers providing essential public services are concerned, the right to strike is often limited or even denied by national laws or regulations. The most common restriction is a ban on strikes by armed forces, policemen and firefighters, for the legitimate reason that those walkouts would endanger the life, personal safety or health of the whole or parts of the population. 1 But is that true of strikes by public transit workers? Two extreme positions shape answers to this question. According to the ILO, public transportation does not constitute an essential public service (ILO, 2006, para. 587). Thus, some commentators argue that strikes by transit workers mainly pose an eco- nomic threat, which—being the very essence of industrial action—does not justify a strike ban (Swearengen, 2010). Policy-makers, by contrast, commonly regard mass transit as an essential public service, which segues into the wider concern that major cities and their inhabitants are highly vulnerable to transit strikes. 2 This is exemplified by attempts in numerous countries to also exclude transit workers from the right to strike.
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The EU Commission consultation regime

The EU Commission consultation regime

While Commission funding of CSOs is neither exclusive to these networks and/or CSOs, nor new, the just mentioned organisations are the only ones listed on the DG Employment’s homepage. However, they are not systematically more often involved in DG Employment and Social Affairs consultations. From the DemoCiv database, which includes in the case of DG Employment 31 consultations, we know that only the Social Platform (14), the European Disability Forum (11) and the European Older People’s Platform AGE (5) show a rather high participation record. The other CSOs listed on the DG Employment’s homepage participated only twice (Autisme- Europe and Mental Health Europe), once (European Network Against Racism, International Lesbian and Gay Association – Europe, European Blind Union, Inclusion Europe) or not at all (the European Union of the Deaf) in the DG’s consultation instruments.
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Can Pollution Cause Poverty? The Effects of Pollution on Educational, Health and Economic Outcomes

Can Pollution Cause Poverty? The Effects of Pollution on Educational, Health and Economic Outcomes

One might also be concerned that the closing of a TRI site might make a neighborhood more attractive to live in – and this neighborhood improvement, not the TRI site closing per se, was the cause of the better long-run outcomes. For example, if a TRI site’s closure causes more educated and affluent people to enter a neighborhood, later born children might do better in school than their earlier born siblings because the composition of children in neighborhoods changed, leading to positive peer effects. While I do not have data on the schools children born to NLSY recipients attended, I can compare neighborhood characteristics between births. Using data from the 1980, 1990 and 2000 Censuses, I compare median home values, median income, percent of dwellings that are rented, the percent Black and percent Hispanic 24 at the zip code or census tract level for children prenatally exposed to TRI pollution, relative to their siblings who were not exposed in the same neighborhood. The results, presented in Table 8, show that siblings experienced roughly similar neighborhoods, with the exception that children who gestated when a TRI site was operating experienced neighborhoods where homes were 1 percentage point more likely to be owned, rather than rented. However, overall there are no economically meaningful differences in neighborhood characteristics between the neighborhoods siblings experienced. This makes sense since the average gap between siblings is roughly 3 years. In addition, Persico and Venator (2019) find that there is no differential sorting based on observable characteristics into or out of schools after the openings or closings of TRI sites.
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The impact of car pollution on infant and child health: Evidence from emissions cheating

The impact of car pollution on infant and child health: Evidence from emissions cheating

ozone) as 150 equivalent gasoline cars. 3 Hereafter, we refer to cars with “clean diesel” technology as cheating diesel cars. We exploit the dispersion of these cheating diesel cars across the United States as a natural ex- periment to measure the effect of car pollution on infant and child health. This natural experiment provides several unique features. First, it is typically difficult to infer causal effects from observed correlations of health and car pollution, as wealthier individuals tend to sort into less-polluted ar- eas and drive newer, less-polluting cars. The fast roll-out of cheating diesel cars provides us with plausibly exogenous variation in car pollution exposure across the entire socio-economic spectrum of the United States. Second, it is well established that people avoid known pollution, which can mute estimated impacts of air pollution on health (Neidell, 2009). Moderate pollution increases stemming from cheating diesel cars, a source unknown to the population, are less likely to induce avoidance behaviors, allowing us to cleanly estimate the full impact of pollution. Third, air pol- lution comes from a multitude of sources, making it difficult to identify contributions from cars, and it is measured coarsely with pollution monitors stationed only in a minority of U.S. counties. This implies low statistical power and potential attenuation bias for correlational studies of pollu- tion (Lleras-Muney, 2010). We use the universe of car registrations to track how cheating diesel
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The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

emergency department (ED) visits among young children for each additional cheating diesel car per 1,000 cars in a subsample of five states. A potential concern is that our estimates may be confounded by changes in county or maternal characteristics that are correlated with increasing cheating diesel shares. We address this concern by analyzing the impact of gasoline versions of cheating diesel cars (hereafter “cheating” gas) that were marketed to and purchased by a similar population, but which did not pollute above emissions standards (that is, they did not cheat). We find that neither pollution nor birth outcomes are affected by a county’s share of “cheating” gas cars, even though mothers giving birth in counties with high “cheating” gas shares have similar socioeconomic characteristics as mothers in counties with high cheating diesel shares. We further show that maternal characteristics do not change systematically over time in counties with increasing cheating diesel shares. These results suggest that our estimates are not driven by compositional changes in the type of mothers giving birth, nor by unobserved characteristics correlated with preferences for new car types or particular brands.
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Ozone Pollution, Health and Well-Being

Ozone Pollution, Health and Well-Being

realized in the short to medium term if individuals feel less healthy due to ozone exposure. In such cases they may be expected to use health services, decrease their labor supply and/or suffer losses in productivity, even if the impact on objective health is limited. Conversely, a moderate deterioration in objective health may not lead to economic cost in the short to medium term, if the individual generally feels well. Evaluating the effect of ozone on subjective well-being is also of interest, as it allows us to evaluate indirect effects of pollution: While pollution may not significantly affect a generally healthy adult directly, it may affect the individual indirectly through others sharing the same household, e.g. children affected by ozone. Such indirect effects may affect the subjective well-being of the individual. Such changes in well-being may also have economic consequences, such as absences from work to care for affected relatives or losses in productivity due to well-being effects, even if the person’s own health is not directly affected by ozone concentrations.
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«The Lancet Series on Midwifery» : ein neuer Qualitätsrahmen weltweit

«The Lancet Series on Midwifery» : ein neuer Qualitätsrahmen weltweit

Für die Planung von Versorgungssystemen für Mutter und Kind kann dieser Qualitätsrahmen nützlich sein, ins- besondere bei der Planung der benötigten Arbeitskräfte und Ressourcen. Dabei ist an die UN post-2015 Develop- ment Agenda (Secretary General UN, 2010), an die Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health (WHO, 2013) und an den Every Newborn Action Plan (Unicef, WHO; 2013) zu denken. Der Qualitätsrahmen kann aber auch auf Gruppen mit speziellen Bedürfnissen oder für die Versorgung in spezifischen kulturellen und sozialen Kon- texten angewendet werden. Im Artikel von Renfrew et al. (2014) diente er dazu, die Bandbreite und die einzel- nen Bereiche von Midwifery strukturiert aufzuzeigen. Der zweite Artikel der Serie (Homer et al., 2014) befasst sich mit den Massnahmen, die Hebammenarbeit ausma- chen. Der dritte Beitrag (Van Lerberghe et al., 2014) nutzt den Qualitätsrahmen, um die Faktoren zu identifizieren, die gestärkt werden müssten, um die Qualität der Be- treuung zu verbessern.
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Health effects of air pollution and meteorology

Health effects of air pollution and meteorology

Our study showed effects of increasing temperature on respiratory mortality even during cold season. This is con- trary to our initial hypothesis, although the same situation has been observed by Kunst et al. [34] in The Netherlands. We therefore investigated the exposure-response functions between 2-day or 15-day average temperature and mortal- ity due to influenza and pneumonia (J10-J18) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47) (data not shown). Interestingly, we observed different effects regarding the two mortality categories. Whereas a decrease in tempera- ture was associated with an increase in mortality due to influenza and pneumonia (as expected), we found opposite effects for mortality due to chronic lower respiratory dis- eases. In a previous study, Hampel et al. [35] have reported differences in the associations between a temperature decrease and several blood markers of inflammation and coagulation in patients with coronary diseases and patients with pulmonary diseases. They hypothesized that there might be different disease patterns as well as patient char- acteristics and medication responsible for the observed dif- ferences in the effects. Nevertheless, although we have no hint of a higher misdiagnosis for respiratory deaths than for deaths due to other causes, we cannot rule out this possibility.
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