The examples show competence measurement for the commercial apprenticeship of industrial clerks. The problem arises of how to measure competence in the field of entrepreneurship. Central is hereby the generation of new situations for an enter- prise. Shall such an assessment follow a Collegiate Learning Assessment approach how it seems to be adequate for business planning or an IRT approach which seems to function for business processes? Or is it worthwhile to combine IRT and CLA ap- proaches trying also to convert CLA information into IRT models? The questions are related to those of the structure of curriculum and instruction. Accepting the hypoth- esis that we are coping with varying, complex situations with differing challenges in the occupational fields, one answer seems to be clear: We need the view on the whole curriculum-instruction-assessmenttriad and should foster its interconnection by the construction of complex teaching-learning environments which lead theinstruction and are also adequate for the measurement of competencies to master such arrange- ments. By that, the thesis of linearity and hierarchy of goals and content does not play the decisive role as the environments combine pieces of knowledge which can be used separately for assessment purposes but be also embedded into more over- arching structures. Decisive is the consequent use of relating casuistic and systema- tization for each piece and the whole to each other. This is the necessary prerequisite for the functioning of thecurriculum-instruction-assessmenttriad. But we have also to promote experts who oversee and master the entire goal and content structure from thecurriculum over theinstruction to assessment and the way back. These are the two central messages of coping with thecurriculum-instruction-assessmenttriad. References
The answers in Table 3 show that only a low number of students has already filed an employee assessment (Category 2.1 in Table 3). Still most of the students have already work experience. Most students have not yet any experience with this task (Category 2.2 in Table 3). One reason is that their parents handle this task for them as shown in the example quote in Category 2.2 in the table below. The quote strongly suggests that the student does not take responsibility for tax-related issues, despite the fact that the student attends a business college. Still, some students say that they were going to file an employee assessment in the future (2.3 in Table 3). There are, however, many insecurities on why this is done. Only four students offer an, not always correct, explanation. These answers include working only for one month (see example quote Category 2.4 in Table 3), not having a regular income and having paid too much taxes. They can be seen as correct conceptions, although not detailed ones. A misconception is the answer that being a student brings tax advantages. This misconception can be explained by the fact that the students do not see themselves as taxpayers but rather as students, who do not yet participate in the real economy (Cechovsky, 2018b) 3 .
A group of four general study supervisors was present at all times to answer any organisational questions.
A variety of established test procedures was used to compare the different study branches. The individual progress of students was measured before and after their respective learning modules. These tests were based on a 24-item multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of seven knowledge questions of low, medium and high dif- ficulty respectively. Each question included five possible answers, of which only one was correct. An answer of ‘ uncertain’ was offered to minimise the influence of ran- dom answers. Then, five questions were asked concern- ing the individual’s assessment of learning progress and
A group of four general study supervisors was present at all times to answer any organisational questions.
A variety of established test procedures was used to compare the different study branches. The individual progress of students was measured before and after their respective learning modules. These tests were based on a 24-item multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of seven knowledge questions of low, medium and high dif- ficulty respectively. Each question included five possible answers, of which only one was correct. An answer of ‘uncertain’ was offered to minimise the influence of ran- dom answers. Then, five questions were asked concern- ing the individual’s assessment of learning progress and
Two recent technological advances have highlighted the need for formal specification of the processor behaviour. The first is proliferation of multiprocessor computers. It is difficult to write correct concurrent programs when the programmer does not know how exactly the memory accesses from one processor are observed by another proces- sor. Testing cannot catch subtle concurrency bugs which are triggered by a specific interleaving of memory accesses. This interleaving might occur once in every million executions of the program because the highly-optimized processors reorder memory ac- cesses in practically unpredictable way. This means that the programmer has to prove the correctness of a concurrent program for all possible interleavings. Such proofs cannot exists without precise description of how a processor issues and reorders the memory accesses.
The described block takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes. We are able to discuss three to four concepts during the 45-minute lesson. Therefore, it is obvious that in order to achieve the same amount of curriculum in the classic classwork design, we have to place some work on the students. For example, we can do this by submitting preparatory self-study materials before the lessons. After the lessons, the students will have the necessary knowledge to master them (0). In his book, Eric Mazur (1997) recommends a Just-in-Time Teaching strategy. Just-in-time Teaching is a feedback strategy based on a feedback loop between the online preparation environment and follow-up in the classroom. In short, the instructor provides preparatory materials to the students via the Internet. Preparatory materials are accompanied by tasks and questions that students must work on and submit before the beginning of the next lesson. Based on the feedback provided by the students' answers, the instructor will appropriately adjust the content of the next lesson. The instructor will also adjust the content of the preparatory materials that have been adapted to the events of the previous lesson (Novak, 1999).
whether the schools themselves affected beliefs, or whether young people in the time of the Third Reich were differentially affected by the environment around them, their parents, the media, and what they observed in their daily lives.
Recently, scholars have begun making progress in identifying the causal effect of education on attitudes and ideology. Friedman et al. (2011) exploit experimental variation in access to ad- ditional schooling on Kenyan women’s political and social views. Their work identifies an effect of schooling on attitudes, but does not identify the effects of particular content on attitudes. Fis- man et al. (2009) do study variation in educational content, examining the effects of exposure to economics-oriented faculty at Yale Law School on students’ behavior in an incentivized game. Their work exploits random assignment to Law School instructors; one drawback, though, is the small size of the sample, especially when considering the possibility of correlated errors within classes. In a fascinating study of the impact of Catalan education on political attitudes, Clots- Figueras and Masella (2013) exploit variation that is similar to ours—cohort-varying exposure to new educational content—but they lack the sharp variation in educational content across cohorts that we can exploit, and they also lack credible cross-sectional variation with which to address concerns about unobservable cross-cohort differences (their work also studies the combined effect of changes in the language of instruction with changes in content, in a context of broad political change).
chologie angesehen. Diese werden voraussichthch mehr als die Konzepte „Lernen" und „Verhalten" zum Verstehen der Lernprozesse beitragen. Da Interpretation nicht einfach getestet werden kann, wird sich die Forschung voraussichtlich weiterhin mit dem Curriculum beschäftigen, wenn Interpretation und nicht Lernen das Hauptthema der Analysen sein soU. Diese Perspektive impliziert weiterhin, daß, um erfolgreich durch das Curriculum zu kommen, immense grundlegende, theoretische Arbeit beim Umformulieren von Kategorien, Verstehen von Vorschlägen und Umformulieren von
However, for the underprivileged schools and children coming from the unfor- tunate, rural, and remote districts, thecurriculum and its components might lead them to difficult situations as their characteristics, values and perspec- tives are excluded from thecurriculum (Muazza, Mukminin, Habibi, Hidayat, & Abidin, 2018). In other words, the exclusive curriculum might not develop and provide underprivileged schools and children with understanding, values, perspectives, attitudes, knowledge, skills, and behaviours facilitating them to participate ‘within their ethnic cultures, within the mainstream cultures, and within and across other ethnic cultures’ (Banks, 2002, p. 40). This kind of cur- riculum might exclude underprivileged students physically (suspension and expulsion), academically (excluded from learning processes) and socially (their characteristics are excluded). Therefore, the exclusive curriculum should be re- formed to create an inclusive curriculum consisting of six components includ- ing developing various historical perspectives, developing cultural awareness, developing intercultural competence, combating racism, sexism, and all forms of prejudice and discrimination, increasing awareness of the state of the planet and global dynamics, and building social action skills. To guide the reform from an exclusive and inclusive curriculum, one promising type of school lead- ership is the ASPIRE model (assessment, synthesis, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation). The ASPIRE model facilitates school leaders to include all school actors (school staff, family, community, guardians, and students) to develop an inclusive curriculum serving numerous demands of students from diverse backgrounds so that they succeed academically and socially inside and outside school.
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Eine entwicklungsspezifische Leitlinie müßte der lebensweltliche Ansatz in der Struktur von Kognition, Sozialisation und Moralität sein, so daß ein sinnhafter Aufbau von historischen Vorstellungen ermöglicht wird. Die gültige Präsentation der Fachwissenschaft könnte man sich im Bild von Jahresringen vorstellen, so daß ein kumulatives Fortschreiten zu größerer Komplexität und Vielschichtigkeit der Lerngegenstände erreicht wird. Es wäre eine Spiral- Curriculum.
Nevertheless, no attention has been directed at the relationship between the unethical traits of the company’s leader and his or her perception of social responsibility. More- over, media reports of company managers ’ delinquencies raise interest in the relation- ship between a leader ’s negative trait and the perception of CSR. In South Korea, the mass media widely covered big news stories about Namyang Dairy Product Co., Ltd. 1 , Korean Air, 2 POSCO Energy 3 , Samsung semiconductor factory 4 , and the Scandal 5 between President and Chaebols since 2010. These stories were related to ethical, social and leadership issues, and highlighted a need to consider the relationship. In this study, the dark triad (Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism) was used as the representative negative trait. Those with this trait tend to deal with others uneth- ically or manipulatively (Furtner et al. 2011). Other studies, however, have reported that their superficial attractions such as cool-headed or cold-blooded behavior help them to climb the corporate ladder (Babiak et al. 2010). Therefore, it is necessary to identify the relationship between the dark triad of an organization’s leader and his or her perception of ethics and social responsibility.
However, some multimedia applications do not feature predictable data sets and access patterns. This is the case, for example, in Motion Compensation (MC), Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Texture Mapping, and Com- puted Tomography Processing. These applications present two significant prob- lems for scratchpad memory based processors. The first problem is that the data transfer cannot be overlapped with the computation. The process has to wait for the data to be transferred to the scratchpad memory. The second problem is that data locality cannot easily be exploited. It is difficult to keep track of the memory area present in the scratchpad memory and new data must be requested for each access. An alternative is the implementation of a software cache (SC). SCs are software structures that offer the same functionality as hardware caches, i.e., they store data that can be retrieved later upon requests . Differently from hardware caches, SCs can be easily customized to the characteristics of the ap- plication. Implementing a software cache for the Cell processor is a current topic of research in the community . However, a software cache still has high overhead, representing up to approximately 50% of the application execution time . Such overhead can harm the application performance when compared with hand programmed DMA transfers. Such evaluations are not presented in the cited works. In fact in  it was shown that for H.264 Motion Compensation the software cache access time is higher than the actual memory transfer time.
Such courses also allow for exploring how a whole range of social actors, for individuals view law both within and across national boundaries. Within my own jurisdiction, that of Scotland, this has involved empirical work over the years, such as that carried out by Hazel Genn and Alan Paterson on the extent to which people resort to law to settle contentious issues in Paths to Justice Scotland (2001). This
ausgedrückt werden können The world behind the picture: Escape to Scotland. Filmanalyse: Effekte, die sich mit split screen und Musik erzielen lassen Selbständiges und kooperatives
Sprachenlernen jigsaw reading
Vorgegebene Wörter zu diesem Themenfeld für sich sinnvoll strukturieren (Tabelle, Mindmap, Bild)