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Sea Environment Induced Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Infrastructure

Sea Environment Induced Climate Change Impacts on Coastal Infrastructure

The design life of structures associated with coastal infrastructure is nearly 50 years or more, whereas the present structure is 43 years old at the time of inspection. From the observations and analysis of the quantitative NDT tests, the structure is found to be severely damaged and may not be able to take the design loads since the characteristic strength of supporting columns is reduced. Although the berthing structure is designed considering the sea environment, the present observed conditions indicate that the life of the structure has fallen below the designed life. The corrosion is one of the major causes which weaken the structure due to cracks and spalling of concrete cover and, thus exposure of rebars to the severe sea environment. The chloride concentration is found to be higher than the threshold limit which acts as a major factor in accelerating the corrosion of rebars. Other externalities like the effects of climate change make the sea environment more aggressive which accelerates the deterioration process of structural elements. In order to strengthen the structure and increase the life, standard rehabilitation methods like micro-concreting using polymer modified mortar, applying anticorrosive coating to the exposed rebars, anchoring shear connectors into the existing concrete in order to harden core concrete of the existing RC elements can be carried out. However, the aggressive nature of the sea environment cannot be reduced due to the continuous change in climate. Hence, it is a pre-requisite that protective measures should be taken for coastal infrastructures. Also considering the effects of climate change and projecting the future harsher conditions of the sea environment, the design codes need to be revised accordingly.
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Infrastructure and climate change: Impacts and adaptations for the Zambezi River Valley

Infrastructure and climate change: Impacts and adaptations for the Zambezi River Valley

2 Background The existing literature related to climate change adaptation in the infrastructure sector is primarily qualitative in nature with an emphasis on broad recommendations and warnings. These studies are primarily based on general weather studies, or focus on qualitative predictions. Research completed by the Transportation Research Board in the United States, the Scottish Executives, and Austroads in Australia are notable efforts in this regard (TRB 2008; Galbraith et al. 2005; AUSTROADS 2004). Within these reports, the authors compare weather-related disasters and their perceived severity with predicted climate change impacts. Further studies have advocated determining specific impacts of temperature, rain, snow and ice, wind, fog, and coastal flooding on roads (CCSP 2006). Additional studies have been undertaken in areas where specific climate change concerns threaten infrastructure that is unique to that locale. For example, ice and winter roads in Canada appear to be particularly vulnerable to rising temperatures (Industrial Economics 2010). Similarly, northern climates have the potential of increased infrastructure degradation due to increased freeze-thaw cycles (Jackson and Puccinelli 2006).
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Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Finland was the first EU country to develop a national adaptation strategy. Following the national climate strategy of 2001, the adaptation strategy was adopted in 2005. An important contribution in the development process was provided by the research project FINADAPT by the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, which examined Finland's ability to adapt to climate change. The aim of the Adaptation Strategy is to reduce the negative consequences of climate change and to make use of potential opportunities. The Strategy therefore highlights vulnerability to climate change, the potential impacts on various sectors and it also proposes measures to improve the adaptability of those sectors. The responsibility for the implementation of the national Adaptation Strategy lies with the respective sectoral ministries. Some of them have already begun to develop assessments and plans of action to integrate adaptation into other policy areas.
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Impact of Sea Level Change on Inner Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

Impact of Sea Level Change on Inner Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

ABSTRACT: As a consequence of global warming a rise of the mean sea level (MSL) is expected in the Western Baltic Sea. This fact may have practical consequences to long term planning and use of infra- structure and coastal protection measures. Especially sensitive to an MSL rise are inner coastal waters like the Schlei estuary and the Bodden coast. The intention of this study was to give a qualitative and quantitative view of the changes of water level variability due to a given MSL change for these regions. Nested model simulations with a Baltic Sea model and a high resolution estuary model were performed to estimate the effect of a given constant rise of sea level at the Skagerak on short term water level variabil- ity. The results show significant rise of variability range in conjunction with the rising of MSL, induced by a volume change of the water body of the inner waters and its relation to the size of inflow section ar- ea. The numerical effect of too coarse grid resolution leads to an overestimation of the impact of MSL rise and approves the use of high resolution models for quantitative predictions. Nevertheless, the pre- sented model results show a significant change in water level variability of the Schlei area in addition to MSL rise. Therefor practical impacts on infrastructure management can result.
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Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Coastal Disasters. A Review of Modeling Practices

Climate Change, Sea Level Rise, and Coastal Disasters. A Review of Modeling Practices

19 For instance, CGE models have been also used to evaluate ex post the economic impact of a particular extreme event. Farinosi et al. (2012) combine a detailed spatial analysis of flood exposure and vulnerability with a CGE model for Italy. GIS techniques are used to estimate the direct costs of floods which are also the input to the CGE model that computes the indirect or general equilibrium costs. This specific study considers land loss for agriculture, capital loss in industry, commercial, residential services and infrastructure damages, and labor productivity loss due to suspension from work. Sue Wing et al. (2013) use a regional CGE model and scenarios for the ARkstorm model (Porter et al. 2010) to study flood effects in California. That study introduces impacts as changes in total factor productivity (loss in agricultural output rather than in land) and accounts for the lifeline losses by imposing an adverse neutral productivity shock on the Armington supplies of utility services in each county. An interesting result is that as long as markets can adjust immediately and completely with no frictions, the shocks imposed on capital are absorbed quickly, through price-induced substitution among production factors and consumed goods (Lanzi and Sue Wing 2013). Also growth models have been applied. Hallegatte et al. (2007) use a single-region Solow-type model to compare the economic consequences of an extreme event on two similar economies, but with different economic dynamics. One of the two economies is on the balanced-growth path, while the other experiences a transient disequilibrium. They also explore the implications of constraints on the financial resources that can be mobilized for reconstruction every year. The paper shows that both assumptions significantly increase the economic costs of extreme events. Moreover, the
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KLIWAS: Impacts of Climate Change on Waterways and Navigation in Germany

KLIWAS: Impacts of Climate Change on Waterways and Navigation in Germany

Whereas structure plays a major role in estuaries and coastal waters, in regard to the open sea, the focus of attention must be on the atmosphere and water bodies, and their physical changes in the course of a change in climate. The weather events of the winter 2006/2007, in which the physical condition variables lay above the hitherto known range of fluctuation are already being seen as the harbingers of conditions that we may have to reckon with. On 1st November 2006, the estuary of the River Ems experienced the highest storm tide in 100 years. Only because the wind direction changed not long before high tide, was the North Frisian coast spared an exceedingly severe storm tide. Unusually high temperatures of atmosphere and sea, as well as the highest wave observed to date in the North Sea (pre- sumably higher than 18 metres) are understood as an indication of coming changes. The high temperatures of the water in the Baltic Sea in winter have created conditions favouring the immigration of species which, it is suspected, are capable of causing economic damage to the fishing industry. The extreme build-up of heat in summer means that the North Sea no longer cools to below the long-term mean value, even during the colder winters. This means that not only in the oceans, but also in German coastal waters, climatic change can lead to hitherto unknown risks for navigation and the use of oceans. Consequently, it is of vast importance that
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Road infrastructure and climate change in Vietnam

Road infrastructure and climate change in Vietnam

The stressors considered in this study include SLR, precipitation, temperature and flooding, while the infrastructure response elements are paved, gravel and dirt roads. For example, we will estimate how an increase in precipitation affects the lifespan of unpaved roads depending on the magnitude of the increase in precipitation. In this manner, our study diverges from qualitative summaries and emphasizes quantitative damage estimates. Flooding, precipitation and temperature are analysed on a time-series basis with cost adjustments calculated each year through 2050. Elevation and spatial infrastructure data for Vietnam is limited and so our analysis of sea levels is restricted to a uniform one meter SLR, and projections assume that all road stocks in an inundated area are completely destroyed. Therefore, costing for the impacts of SLR are equal to the replacement cost for inundated road stocks. The data required for our analysis includes future climate projection scenarios from general circulation models (GCMs), stressor response parameters, spatial data on elevation and infrastructure locations, SLR estimates and country-specific infrastructure cost estimates.
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Impacts of climate change on water resources - adaption strategies for Europe

Impacts of climate change on water resources - adaption strategies for Europe

In anticipation of rising sea levels, higher levels of water discharge, and more precipitation, the Netherlands has developed a National Spatial Strategy to ensure its waterways will be able to cope with increased river flows due to these climate change effects. In this strategy, co-operation with local and regional authorities is heavily emphasised as well as the principle of “going with and anticipating the flow”. 12 Regional plans must now include the “water test”, which makes sure that spatial plans take water management into consideration from the outset. With respect to river water management, a main concern is flooding, prompted by the 1993 and 1995 floods. Although the main driver is public safety, potential increased risks due to climate change are also considered. The Space for the Rivers policy programme is currently being redesigned to include the creation of extra space for rivers in order to adapt to higher levels of river discharge, thus lowering the chance for flooding. Furthermore, land surrounding major rivers is to be zoned in such a way as to reduce groundwater and surface water pollution. Flooding in coastal zones is also a major concern in the Netherlands. Restrictions on development near and inside dykes include an expansion ban within 100 metres inside the dykes and 175 meters outside the dykes, excluding wind turbines. 13 Furthermore, eight sites along coastal foundations have been designated high-priority for maintenance and improvements in order to strengthen these sea defences.
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KLIWAS: Impacts of Climate Change on Waterways and Navigation in Germany 2011

KLIWAS: Impacts of Climate Change on Waterways and Navigation in Germany 2011

In this context, however, reference should also be made to another interaction which does not result from the climate-induced rise of the sea level but is human- induced by the construction of a cascade of weirs in the Mekong River. Numerous weirs are currently being planned or already under construction in the upper and middle reaches of the Mekong River. Every one of these weirs is designed in such a way that the backwater of the structure extends into the tailwater of the next weir upstream. The weirs are constructed for the purpose of generating energy, using the water in agriculture and industry as well as for ensuring water supply. The deriv- able future change in the discharge regime of the Me- kong River with regard to changes in discharge hydro- graphs as well as sediment transport will dramatically impact on the entire Mekong Delta. For example, the discharge in the lower and middle reaches of the Me- kong River will be reduced due to the water abstraction, and flood events will undoubtedly be exacerbated as the discharge will then be artificially regulated by means of the control structures. What is more, the restriction of sediment transport will, among others, reduce the amount of sediment deposited in the Mekong Delta and thus accelerate erosion processes in the entire area. It can, therefore, also be concluded that if the mean sea level continues to increase, large areas of the Mekong Delta will disappear under the surface of the water. In all this, it must be borne in mind that the Mekong Delta is the main rice-growing area in Vietnam and the reces- sion of the delta might also mean that Vietnam loses an essential means of existence.
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Climate change adaptation strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Climate change adaptation strategies in the Baltic Sea Region

Finland was the first EU country to develop a national adaptation strategy. Following the national climate strategy of 2001, the adaptation strategy was adopted in 2005. An important contribution in the development process was provided by the research project FINADAPT by the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, which examined Finland's ability to adapt to climate change. The aim of the Adaptation Strategy is to reduce the negative consequences of climate change and to make use of potential opportunities. The Strategy therefore highlights vulnerability to climate change, the potential impacts on various sectors and it also proposes measures to improve the adaptability of those sectors. The responsibility for the implementation of the national Adaptation Strategy lies with the respective sectoral ministries. Some of them have already begun to develop assessments and plans of action to integrate adaptation into other policy areas.
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Investigating Impacts of Climate Change on the Weser Estuary

Investigating Impacts of Climate Change on the Weser Estuary

To put the results into perspective and derive meaningful information for practition- ers and decision makers, it is crucial to shortly discuss the uncertainties of the investigated scenario and comment on the confidence of the results. According to the IPCC (2013) it is ”virtually certain” that the rate of global mean sea level rise (GMSLR) has accelerated during the last centuries and future rise rates are „very likely“ to exceed those observed in the last years. Projections for the GMSLR until 2100 are presented for different repre- sentative concentration pathways (RCPs), all providing a likely range and an average. This project focuses on RCP8.5, assuming a continued rise in greenhouse gas emissions. From the range of likely GMSLR values given for this scenario, the most likely one is chosen. On the global scale, this value can be assigned a “medium confidence” for RCP8.5 (IPCC 2013), but it should be mentioned that the confidence decreases drastically when the GMSLR is projected directly to the boundary condition of the Weser due to two reasons: To begin with, there is evidence that the GMSLR will not be distributed evenly on the globe. However, adapting the global projection is not possible due to limited knowledge on these processes. Secondly, there is evidence that the tidal dynamics (TDs) in the North Sea will change which might lead to higher or lower tidal range in the German Bight. The impact of MSLR on the North Sea TDs has recently been investigated in some studies but the most reliable results are still provided by P LÜß (2004) due to better resolution of the Wadden Sea area. However, P ELLING et al. (2013) have shown with a simplified experimental design that TD changes mainly depend on the energy dissipation induced by the flat Wadden Sea areas of the German Bight. This indicates that changes in sedimenta- tion patterns and possibly coastline changes will play an important role for the future changes in TDs under a MSLR. Therefore, it can be argued that not deforming the tidal signal at the German Bight inherits the same amount of boundary condition uncertainty as deforming it without further investigating TD changes in the North Sea. Furthermore, as mentioned in Section 4.2, changes in sedimentation patterns can be expected to occur within the Weser just as they will within the North Sea. As bathymetry and roughness can be considered boundary conditions in this respect, this leads to further boundary condi- tion uncertainty which will be investigated in further research within this project.
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Economic impacts of climate change on two Mexican coastal fisheries: Implications to food security

Economic impacts of climate change on two Mexican coastal fisheries: Implications to food security

AR(2) (0.254) (0.409) * Capital refers to number of boats. All variables are statistically significant and they all confirm that CC will have a meaningful influence on fish catch. Such effects will be differentiated according to the fishery and will vary among provinces. Such result is coherent with former evidence and has been observed on a larger scale (e.g. Cheung et al. 2010, Hanna 2010). Hence, shrimp production will be negatively affected in about 1.1% in decreasing catch for every 1% of temperature increase (Table 1). In fact, shrimp fisheries are highly dependent on mangroves and wetlands, which are ecosystems among the most vulnerable to both CC and other threats such as land use, pollution, salinity changes and sea level rise (Martinez-Arroyo et al. 2011). Due to ocean acidification, organisms with calcium carbonate skeletons, such as shrimp, will be negatively affected (Perry 2011). Furthermore, according to Guzman-Amaya et al. (2010), shrimp fisheries will suffer not only biological impacts, but also consequences on facilities concerning storage and distribution will be observed.
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Evaluation of Coastal Protection Strategies in Respect of Climate Change Impacts

Evaluation of Coastal Protection Strategies in Respect of Climate Change Impacts

almost equal number in neighbouring states being indirectly dependent on the Lower Saxon coastal protection system. Furthermore, the cultural heritage of the lowlands like e.g. medieval churches or prehistoric stone graves would be lost forever. Comparing the cost saving aspects due to a total withdrawal from coastal protection with the implicit enormous economic and cultural losses, this alternative is regarded as highly unfavoura- ble. The effect of Retreat in respect of corresponding losses is sufficiently highlighted by the coastal flood prone areas as designated by the Lower Saxon Dyke Act. The impacts of future climate change simply evaluated by adding anticipated higher sea levels of 0.5 m and 1.0 m above present design water level (Fig. 6).
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Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge- uncertainty, shortcomings, and
the way forward?

Climate change impacts on groundwater recharge- uncertainty, shortcomings, and the way forward?

Coasts Climate change may have profound implications for coastal areas and river valleys in East Anglia. Without adaptation (or existing allowances for future sea-level rise in flood defence guidance), the interaction of sea-level rise, increased river floods and land subsidence (due to regional isostatic adjustment and local peat oxidation) could lead to severe flood impacts in the Fens of East Anglia, leading to large-scale abandonment and salinization (Fig. 3). Large areas of the river valleys in east Norfolk would also experience regular sea water inundation. It took up to five years for grazing marshes in east Norfolk to fully recover from the 1938 floods, so it is probable that a frequency of coastal flooding of even 1 in 10 years would lead to major land use change. Unlike the Fens which are underlain by Jurassic clays, the river valleys in east Norfolk overlie the Crag aquifer, a locally important unconsolidated aquifer (Holman et al., 1999). Regular inundation by seawater would lead to the probable
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Infrastructure and climate change: Impacts and adaptations for South Africa

Infrastructure and climate change: Impacts and adaptations for South Africa

The materials methodology is based on the premise that roads should be constructed to a level that anticipates the future changes in climate conditions and the accompanying changes in material requirements. Following this concept, this methodology determines if new structures such as paved roads will be subject to material changes if it is anticipated that a significant climate change stressor will occur during their projected lifespan. Similarly, the second option for adaptation for new construction is to alter the type of infrastructure being constructed to one that has the capacity to handle the anticipated climate change. For example, if climate change is anticipated for dirt roads, then a consideration has to be made for either increasing maintenance costs as described below or altering these roads to be gravel roads. For the gravel road option, the cost of adaptation is based on the need to strengthen the road with a crushed gravel mix. The benefit with this approach is that basic maintenance as well as climate induced maintenance is eliminated on the road during the design life span of the road.
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Economic impacts of climate change on two Mexican coastal fisheries: Implications for food security

Economic impacts of climate change on two Mexican coastal fisheries: Implications for food security

4.2 Adaptation Actions and Food Security Applying the conceptual framework developed by Eisenack and Stecker (2012) to our analysis, the catch landings value and food security would both be exposure units affected by climate stimuli (in our case: temperature). Government agencies that have the intention of directing adaptation actions are the main operators concerned with targeting the impacts of CC. The two most relevant agencies are the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (SAGARPA) and the Ministry of the Environment (SEMARNAT). On the one hand, SAGARPA cooperates with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the Strategic Project for Food Security (PESA, its acronym in Spanish), which focuses chiefly on poor rural communities. However, PESA does not directly address CC issues. Furthermore, the Commission on Fisheries (CONAPESCA), which is within the SAGARPA structure, has the function of establishing fisheries regulations. To date, no specific actions or programs have been aimed at adapting the fishery sector to CC. On the other hand, SEMARNAT has recently been leading actions and proposals in response to CC. One example is the Program on CC (PECC), which gives guidelines for mitigation and adaptation to CC. However, to date, adaptation actions have been rather neglected, as most of the attention has been placed on measuring vulnerability and promoting mitigation, mostly in the energy sector. The receptors of actions by SAGARPA and SEMARNAT are, in our case, both the fisheries sector and the consumers of seafood products. However, specific adaptation actions for the fisheries sector are still lacking. This could be, in part, a consequence of the lack of coordination among the Mexican ministries.
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Teasing out the impacts of climate change on agricultural development

Teasing out the impacts of climate change on agricultural development

Over the last decade, climate change and its potential to impact on our lives has produced a plethora of articles, books and academic papers. Not least among these have been the detailed and extensive publications of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In its Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), the IPCC sets out the scientific, technical and socioeconomic information relevant to an understanding of the risks posed by

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Storm Surges in German North Sea Estuaries and Climate Change – Investigating Impacts and Developing Adaptation Strategies

Storm Surges in German North Sea Estuaries and Climate Change – Investigating Impacts and Developing Adaptation Strategies

This concept will be presented by looking into storm surges in the estuaries along the German Bight. Climate change is expected to cause a global sea-level rise as well as a local sea-level rise in the North Sea, an increase in winter precipitation over Europe that can induce higher river run off in the storm surge season, and an increase in wind speed. These possible consequences of climate change can influence the height of storm surges in the estuaries along the German Bight.

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Summer School “Climate Change Impacts on the MED-Agro-Food Chain”

Summer School “Climate Change Impacts on the MED-Agro-Food Chain”

Im Rahmen des DAAD-Partnerschafts-Pro- gramms (“The Mediterranean Hot-Spot: Challenges and Answers in a Changing Env- ironmen”) zwischen der Justus-Liebig-Uni- versität Gießen (JLU) und der Aristoteles-Uni- versität Thessaloniki (AUTh) leitete Dr. Elena Xoplaki vom Institut für Geographie vom 9. bis 14. September 2019 die Sommerschule zum Thema “Climate Change Impacts on the MED-Agro-Food Chain”. Ziel der Sommer- schule war es, die exzellente Forschung in den Bereichen Klimatologie, Ökologie, Land- schafts- und Ressourcenmanagement, Er- nährung, Soziologie, Agrarpolitik und Öko- nomie im Mittelmeerraum zusammenzufüh- ren. Sie diente als Plattform für die Bildung und den Wissenstransfer, der Interaktion zwischen den Disziplinen, Kommunikation und der engen Zusammenarbeit zwischen Studenten und renommierten Wissenschaft- lern der beiden Universitäten sowie externen internationalen Experten. 30 junge Wissen- schaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler mit un- terschiedlichem wissenschaftlichen Backg- round aus 12 Ländern und aus 4 Kontinenten hatten die Gelegenheit, durch interessante Keynote-Vorträge, Workshops, Exkursionen und einer Projektarbeit mit Spitzenforschern Kontakte zu knüpfen, ihr Wissen zu erwei- tern und ihre interdisziplinäre Denkweise weiterzuentwickeln.
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Contested Values and Practices in Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change

Contested Values and Practices in Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change

REPORT CONTESTED VALUES AND PRACTICES IN COASTAL ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE THE ROLE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION IN DECISION MAKING FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE AND SEA LEVEL RI[r]

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