Research into L2 production of speech acts in general and refusals in particular has been increasingly rigorous (Al-Kahtani, 2005; Allami & Naeimi, 2011; Beebe et al., 1990; Farnia & Wu, 2012; Ghazanfari, Bonyadi, & Malekzadeh, 2013; Hassani, Mardani, & Dastjerdi, 2011; Lingli & Wannaruk, 2010; Martínez- Flor & Usó-Juan, 2011; Silva, 2003; Umale, 2011; Yang, 2008). This research has been mainly motivated by the fact that refusing a suggestion, invitation or of- fer by nature leads to disruption in harmony in relationships and, asa conse- quence, performing this speech act has to be carried out very carefully. The line of research has focused on various issues surrounding this speech act, such asa comparison ofnativeandnon-native speakers’ refusalstrategies (Umale, 2011), the effect of instruction on the languagelearners’ refusals (Lingli & Wannaruk, 2010), and so forth. Umale (2011) carried out astudy to investigate the simi- larities and differences between ten British speakers and ten Omanis who re- sponded to situations in a Discourse Completion Task (DCT) that consisted of various interlocutor statuses (low, high and equal). Umale’s findings suggested that both the Omanis and the British speakers tended to use indirect refusalstrategies, mainly statement of regret, care for the interlocutor’s feeling, giving reasons and promise for future acceptance, to refuse requests from their supe- riors. Umale concluded that while Omanis tried to sound polite when refusing, their overly long answers often led to pragmalinguistic failure.
China and Taiwan, more than 50 percent oflearners belong to higher educational institutions. In Brazil, nearly 80 percent oflearnersstudy Japanese in non-school institutions (Japan Foundation 2003a). The differ- ences reflect the educational structures, language policies, and linguistic backgrounds of the respective countries. Australia and New Zealand have enjoyed large-scale promotion of Japanese asa major foreign lan- guage at school anduniversity levels over the last couple of decades, for example, after the National Policy on Languages was introduced in 1987 in Australia. Japanese is now one of the most popular foreign languages in both countries. The 2003 Japan Foundation survey recorded 369,157 pupils at primary and secondary school level learning Japanese in Aus- tralia, and 26,012 in New Zealand (Japan Foundation 2003a). Japanese takes far longer for native speakers ofEnglish to acquire than European languages, so it is more effective for it to be introduced early in the education system. In Korea, Japanese is the first foreignlanguage, rela- tively easy to learn because of similarities in grammar (Kurokawa 1992: 98). China has chosen to make English the main foreignlanguage at school level, because of its role as the international languageof com- merce; in other words, promoting English is part of economic policy. The dominance ofnon-school institutions in Brazil is almost certainly a reflec- tion of the Japanese government’s policy of allowing immigration by the large numbers of nikkeijin [people of Japanese descent] from that country, as discussed later in this paper.
In line with other studies (Holmes & Brown, 1987), the findings of this study also indicated the highly formulaic nature of compliment responses. In practical terms, this might imply that languagelearners’ lexical and syntactic repertoire be enhanced and their formulaic expressions that can come in handy in various situations be increased. This last issue has been documented by some scholars to be of significance in language teaching (Ellis, 2012). Holmes and Brown (1987) also emphasized the pivotal role of exposing learners to formulaic expressions in an L2 as exercises in complimenting and responding to compli- ments. Therefore, as Yu (2004) aptly pointed out, it is suggested that the cur- rent findings be taken into account by textbook writers, materials developers, language teachers andlanguagelearners. What is more, the findings might be of interest to both nativeEnglish speakers and speakers of other different lin- guistic and cultural backgrounds who might be keen on finding out about the way Iranian speakers ofEnglish respond to compliments in English. A deep understating of pragmatic cross-cultural norms, differences and similarities is certainly a prerequisite for successful communication for both native speaker- non-native speaker interactions, for instance in cases involving nativeEnglish speakers and Iranians, andnon-native speaker-non-native speaker interac- tions, for example, Chinese speakers interacting with Persian native speakers. Such an understanding will certainly reduce the potential pragmatic failure witnessed in a plethora of cases (see, e.g. Yu, 2004).
EFL teachers’ classroom activities and assessment practices Although the teachers used a wide variety of classroom practices, which depended on the activities and intended purposes of the tasks carried out in the class, many of the assessment practices were mandatory. These practices included oral questioning; whole-class, individual, or pair discussions; infor- mal observation and commenting on learners’ performance; and student in- teraction with the teacher or peers. A variety of writing, reading, speaking, and listening exercises related to grammar and vocabulary was also included. The activities comprised exercises from the workbook, the textbook, and maga- zines; audio recordings; text-embedded tasks; and teacher-made tests. These activities were guided by their monthly curriculum. Most of the EFL teachers started their class with a test followed by a discussion of the tests, exercises, and workbook tasks. The small initial test was generally a gap-fill test related to vocabulary and grammar. Questioning and testing were common practices used by these EFL teachers to check students’ understanding of the lesson. A few teachers were also found to use questioning asa strategy to guide classroom discussion on reading-based writing. These teachers provided a set of critical and analytical questions to assist students’ reading-based writing task. The fol- lowing statements by the teacher confirm this:
Besides, in later or other CLIL lessons, where further languages are used asa working language, English can function asa medium of compensatory strategies along with the students’ L1. If Biology is taught in French, for instance, and certain language problems appear, as have been presented in the preceding chapter, it is not only the mother tongue that can be used to build a bridge. As shown in Chapter 4 and 5, English can be successfully used here too. Looking back at the studyof Melo-Pfeifer in the context of Galanet, the results she discussed seem to have relevance for CLIL lessons as well. The main goal of Galanet was to “develop collaborative projects between teams ofuniversity students from different countries, who work together towards the production ofa press report on an intercultural topic previously chosen by the participants” (Melo-Pfeifer 2014: 125). This situation could easily be transferred to the context of CLIL, where one of the main elements should be different pair and group works while communicating in and using as successfully as possible aforeignlanguageasa working tool. It is conceivable that, in a lesson where a Romance language or another is used asa vehicular languageand specific problems of communication occur, English could be a great solution to overcome these obstacles. Hence, students should not be prohibited from using other languages such asEnglish or their L1 in any case. This is crucial as, considering languages in CLIL, it should be remembered that the main goal would not be the ‘perfect’ language competence, but “the simultaneous improvement of partial skills, in many languages.” This leads to the new goal of “build[ing] up a broad communicative competence and cognitive linguistic flexibility […]” (Melo-Pfeifer 2014: 121).
5.3 Changes in Classroom Practices
Changes in teacher allocation of time in the classroom are explored for two reasons. First, observing changes in the classroom illuminates student outcomes by deter- mining what teachers changed and how students reacted to these changes. Second, observing classroom changes enables changes to be identified that may lead to an effect on student learning in the long run and explain possible improvements in spoken English. This section includes an analysis of class features in three areas: class structure, instructional practices and its effects on students’ behavior in and out of the classroom. Regarding class structure, trained teachers provide students with a more active role in learning by speaking English an additional 14 percent of class time, and by reducing activities that focus on reading and writing 14 per- cent substituting for activities that focus on listening and conversation. Regarding instructional practices, trained teachers spend 9 percent less time in class monitor- ing activities that students carry out while seated and increase dynamic activities. Teachers speak English an additional 14 percent of class time. Teachers decrease the class time where students work with textbooks by 7 percent and increase the amount of time spent using didactic materials. Trained teachers show more confidence.
This study adopted a survey design. Data required for the study were analyzed in three steps. First, invalid responses were discarded and the total number of valid responses was determined. In the second step, for identifying the utterances of disagreement from the responses, Muntigl and Turnbulls’ (1998) taxonomy, which recognizes five types of disagreement, was used. Muntigl and Turnbull (1995, pp. 39-45) identify four types: Irrelevancy Claims (IC), Challenges (CH), Contradictions (CT) and Counterclaims (CC). In this taxonomy they rank the disagreement types from the most to the least face “aggravating”. They define them as follows. Irrelevancy claim (IC) is the most face-threatening disagreement in which a speaker questions the relevancy of previous claim to the discussion at hand. The second disagreement type in this taxonomy is challenge (CH) in which the speaker demands that addressee provide supporting evidence for his and her claim. Contradiction (C) is the next type of disagreement in which a speaker explicitly contradicts with the previous claim, but it is less face-threatening than IC and CH in that it does not decline the capability of other interlocutor. Another type of disagreement is counterclaim that is the least face-threatening act. In this case the speaker does not contradict directly. By bringing reason for disagreement and using positive markers, CC mitigates threat and damage to the others’ positive face (Peter Muntigl 1995).
The instructions specify that the written composition is limited to ap- proximately 200 words. If a 10% deviation is permitted, any composition be- tween 180 and 220 words is defined as acceptable. The analysis shows that 12 compositions were of suitable length, 5 were too long and 19 too short. The shortest composition consisted of only 59 words, while most other composi- tions that were too short ranged from 130 and 150 words. The longest com- position numbered 264 words. Evidence shows that the majority of composi- tions were essentially shorter, so it is possible that the task was too difficult for the target group. The shorter compositions reflect the problem touched upon above: once pupils had used all of the information from the instructions given, transforming this material into a letter, they ran out of vocabulary items and linguistic structures with which they could expand the letter. They neverthe- less tried to fulfil the word count criterion, as it was evident from many of the compositions that the pupils themselves had also counted the number of words.
(中庸之道, or in pinyin, zhōng yōng zhī dào), they do not want to ‘show off’ too much in front of their friends or classmates, since they always bear the old Chinese proverbs ‘树大招风 (shù dà zhāo fēng) – a tall tree catches much wind’ and ‘枪打出头鸟 (qiāng dă chū tóu niăo) – the shot hits the bird that pokes its head out’ in mind. They believe that their ‘showing off’ will make them the focus of others’ discussion, complaint and even isolation. Thus, in order to avoid such situations,
A concrete idea would be the following: Students are separated into several small groups (e.g. 5 groups of four). Each group but one is assigned to a station, where students are confronted with a physical challenge (e.g. juggling, basketball lay-up, own body weight exercises, sprint exercise). The one group that is left pauses the first round, then each round one group meets with the teacher to report and discuss what they did in order to practice the grammar element. Students, who are familiar with the concept, can be dealt with some more responsibility to create their own challenges on one of the stations for instance. The purpose of conducting something in reality first and talking about what happened afterwards is of course to create a deeper code for memorization through visual, auditive and kinesthetic input at the same time or after one another. As K LIMESCH ’ S theory suggests, the deeper a code has
(2) Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan / Ritsumeikan University, Japan, email@example.com
It is considered that listening and understanding English speech ofnative speakers are hard tasks for many Japanese. Therefore, we carry out a research on converting the English speech spoken by native speakers based on emphasis of the feature which is familiar to listening to Japanese. We believe the converted speech could be understood more easily by Japanese listeners for English education. We called the research English speech acclimatization. In this paper, we proposed an accent conversion method as an English speech acclimatization method. Specifically, we convert the accent ofnative speakers into that of Japanese speakers. The acoustic features are time stretched to match the same phoneme duration with the English speech of Japanese speaker. Then the pitch change in English speech ofnative speaker is replaced with the that in English speech of Japanese speaker. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of proposed method based on the English speech before and after conversion. To confirm the effectiveness on words recognition and comprehension of the sentence, subjective evaluation experiments are conducted respectively. As the result of the evaluation experiments, the effectiveness of proposed method was confirmed.
Other scholars have also studied ideological aspects of ELT in other parts of the area that Feng (2011) referred to as greater China, including Taiwan, Singapore, and Thailand. In Taiwan, Chang (2004) conducted a critical discourse studyoflanguage school promotional materials that may convey ideological views of ELT and argued that ELT caused different types of social and economic inequalities in her country. With regard to Singapore, Rubdy, et al., (2008) debated the problem of the ownership of the Englishlanguage based on the attitudes of Singaporean Indians, and, more recently, Leimgruber (2012) adopted an indexical approach in understanding the boundaries of various Singapore English varieties of Singlish and Standard Englishand how their boundaries might be seen as blurred. As for Thailand, Hugo Lee (2011), investigated issues of social inequalities raised about ELT developed at expense of teaching Thai for refugee
The consequences for Englishas world language are yet not clear; we are in a transition period and according to David Crystal (2006) “we are experiencing a linguistic revolution in which old models are being replaced by new ones anda transitional period is inevitably one of great uncertainty”. Graddol suggests that we should try to help our students to become “fluent bilingual speakers who retain a national identity in terms of accent, and who also have the special skills required to negotiate understanding with another non-native speaker” (2006: 87). Andy Kirkpatrick, professor at Hong Kong Institute of Education, asks for a new type oflanguage teacher to meet the challenges brought up by teaching global English. “ In today’s complex and globalising world, well-trained, multilingual and culturally sophisticated teachers are needed to teach learnersofEnglish … It is time for those involved in the ELT profession to resist employment of untrained native speaker teachers.” (In: Graddol 2006: 121). It seems very logical to me, if we want to train our students to become bilingual and culturally sensitive towards other speakers we need to foster the fifth skill – and only culturally sensitive teachers can do that.
conversation between L2 speakers andnative speakers ofEnglish. However, I could not help but wonder whether they are similarly to be expected in the interaction ofnon-native speakers ofEnglish (NNSE). If misunderstandings occur, what would explain their occurrence? How would the speakers respond to overcome those misunderstandings? Would there be a complete breakdown in communication or would speakers use strategies in order to overcome the misunderstanding? If the latter, what strategies would they employ? These potential strategies baffled me until I was able to trace them in the speech and behaviour of Erasmus students in Graz, but I similarly came to recognise them in my usage ofEnglish. In this way, I witnessed the full potential of ELF. Asa teacher ofEnglish, it also helped me evaluate the differences between EFL and ELF; how a learner ofEnglish is different from a user; whether the classroom setting plays a significant role. My experience talking to other ELF speakers has driven this research. Throughout these conversations, I paid closer attention to the pragmatics of ELF. Discovering more about this area ofstudy leads me to conclude that there is much yet to be explored. This thesis aims to reveal some of the contextual influences of ELF speakers and the strategies they use to secure understanding. Asa member of the Erasmus network and an ELF speaker, I intended to investigate the usefulness and purpose ofstrategies in the Erasmus community, i.e. how and to what extent Erasmus students exploit ELF in order to achieve their desired aims.
their prescribed books. Since in England there has never existed the issue of „politically progressive“ authors being censored by central government, the debate was from the beginning a radical re-examination of the canon. A dynamic minority ofEnglish teachers (the ones who identify themselves with the National Association for the Teaching ofEnglishand the ones who work in Inner-city schools) have exercised in their classrooms a policy of cultural tolerance and, even more, an appreciation of the different cultures that were present along the lines ofa multicultural education. The latest educational changes have not left these notions unchallenged. Sometimes they are openly attacked (Marenbon 1987); other times they are re-framed so as to improve and guarantee educational standards that, according to the conservative politicians, have fallen dramatically.
Furthermore, there are recent studies that have to a certain extent investigated the interplay of typological proximity and structural complexity as it affects transfer onto L2/L3, albeit not for demonstratives. Most notably, in a large-scale research project Schepens et al. (2016) have investigated L1 and L2 distance effects in the acquisition of an additional languageand have concluded that the learnability of an additional language is dependent on the distance of the L3 to the L1 and the L2 in particular, and that transfer effects or the absence thereof in specific domains do not provide evidence against global L1 and L2 distance effects (Schepens et al. 2016). It is of particular note that this study takes into account not only measures of morphological distance but also increasing morphological complexity, arguing that these measures can jointly account for variation across L1 learnersof Dutch (Schepens et al. 2016: 239). However, Schepens et al. (2016) have not studied the effect of structural complexity asa measure separate from language distance and the individual effects of either measure. They have also not examined the interplay between hierarchies of complexity as
By applying the cognitive framework of information processing in order to examine lexical search strategies employed by Danish translators when translating a Danish commercial article into English, Mondahl (1995) divides strategies used by translators into three categories: (1) achievement strategy, (2) reduction strategy and (3) evaluation strategy. An achievement strategy is characterized by the translator’s attempt to remain as close to the source text as possible. Four subcategories ofstrategies are included in the class of achievement strategies. The first one is spontaneous association, which resembles brainstorming. This strategy shows that the translator is aware of the problem he or she is facing and operates on the basis of associations which come to him or her spontaneously. Thus, several possibilities exist which may help to solve the problem. The second one is situational search strategy, which means that the translator tries to solve the problem by referring to previous experience so as to reach an acceptable solution. The third type of achievement strategy is the reformulation of the source text in either the translator’s L1 or L2. When this type of achievement strategy is used in the process of translation, the translator feels that it is not necessary to change the overall meaning of the element but the need for deliberation increases. Hence, the translator has to consciously consider the degree of equivalence obtained. The fourth type of achievement strategy suggested by Mondahl (1995) is problem analysis. It refers the linguistic knowledge resorted to.