By scrutinizing cross-sectional data, aerial photos and flow discharge records, this study shed some new light on the causes ofthemorphological changes in thelowerreachoftheTenryuRiver. The attention was placed on in-channel vegetation that is considered as a second order effect of dam construction. As a result, a vegetation-related erosion mechanism along theriver course was identified.
period. In the period from July to August the water stored at the reservoir is used and the reservoir water stages gradually come back to the minimum level. The main purpose ofthe reservoir performance is the flood protection during wet season. The reservoir is also the source of water for the big cities in Great-Poland province: Poznan, Kolo, Srem and Konin. The water stored is also used for irrigation purposes and to preserve biological life below the dam. The Patnow-Konin and Adamow power plants used the water from the reservoir for cooling. Other goal ofthe Jeziorsko performance is production of hydro-power, though, this is not significant due to the small difference between upper and lower water levels in the dam (about 10 m). The reservoir is also used for recreation and inland fishery.
Model limitations for the LYR cover lots of as- pects. Based on the comparison between the simu- lated results and observed levels, it can be con- cluded that the bed roughness coefficient should be variable both in space and time. Therefore, the first improvement in the models is to develop a bed roughness predictor with relatively high accu- racy. The accuracy ofthe sediment transport ca- pacity formulas used in the models directly influ- ences themorphological changes, and has an indirect effect on the flood routing and water le- vels along thereach. Ofthe three formulas of se- diment transport capacity used, the accuracy of Eqs. (7) and (9) is relatively low. Therefore, the second improvement is to enhance the accuracy ofthe current formulas. Bank erosion plays an im- portant role in the channel adjustment ofthe LYR, which is related to the riverbank soil composition and mechanical characteristics. Therefore, the third improvement is to develop a bank erosion module, which is based on near-bank hydrody- namics and soil mechanics, and can account for the temporal variations in shear strength and water content of riverbank soil.
Two earthquakes that occurred earlier than 878 AD in the study area are the 624 AD earthquake and the 814 AD earthquake ( Lou, 1996 ). The former triggered landslides, resulting in river damming, whereas the latter was mainly characterized by ground compression (Table 4). Seismically induced permanent ground deformation is deﬁned as any earthquake-generated process that leads to deformations within a soil medium, which, in turn, results in permanent horizontal or vertical displacements ofthe ground surface ( Stewart and Wren, 2005 ). It includes the following modes: Surface fault rupture, liquefaction, seismically induced land sliding, and seismic compression. The requisite conditions for land sliding are the presence of sloping ground and the presence of combined static and dynamic shear stresses that exceed material strengths, whereas seismic compression needs relatively strong shaking and unsaturated soil of a ﬂat site. These two modes correspond to the effects ofthe 624 AD earthquake and the 814 AD earthquake respectively, according to their descriptions. This means that the 814 AD earthquake probably occurred in a ﬂat area such as Xichang Basin, while the 624 AD earthquake was more likely to have occurred in valley areas between Xichang and Qiaojia. And as mentioned before ( Nikonov, 1988 ), large landslides, which are triggered by earthquakes of magnitude
12 Hyam Place, Jamberoo NSW 2533 AUSTRALIA
Abstract: The results of a field survey of Prostanthera tallowa (family Lamiaceae), a rare and only recently described shrub from thelower Shoalhaven River valley, on the NSW South Coast, are described. The extent and size of populations in the vicinity ofthe type locality at Tallowa Dam are greatly expanded and several new and distant populations are described. Information is provided on all known populations and their habitat. The species is regarded as adequately reserved, as almost all known populations occur in protected areas though the actual area of occupancy is small. The species recruits after fire with most sites having been burnt about 10 years ago; the total known population size is currently over 3,300 plants.
even further. As signatory to Convention 169 ofthe International Labor Organization (ILO), Brazil is supposed to guarantee traditional and Indigenous Peoples the right to free, prior and informed consultation. In other words: before deciding on any initiative that affects indigenous lands and their way of life, the government has to hear from those involved. But this is not what happened in the case of São Luiz do Tapajós. In addition to the Munduruku never being consulted, the government allowed the impact studies on their lands to be carried out by force, by sending soldiers from the National Guard to accompany researchers. In a letter addressed to the government in 2013, the Munduruku state: “at no time were we consulted, but the studies are already being done on our lands.” And they requested: “that our complaints be considered immediately; that the armed forces leave their land; that they halt research studies; that they stop the construction of hydroelectric dams; and that they explain everything that will happen on our lands and listen to us and respect our decision.” At the end of 2014, the Indigenous People created a protocol defining how they wanted to be consulted regarding the construction ofthe hydroelectric dams. Among the various guidelines, the document requests that the process occur in all ofthe villages and that everyone be heard, not only the leaders. In addition, they determined that the consultation can only occur after the Sawré Muybu is approved. In February 2015, the protocol was delivered to general secretary ofthe presidency, Miguel Rossetto, and they never got a response. The good news is that, in June of this year, the federal courts prohibited the government from licensing the dam before holding the free, prior and informed consultation.
This analysis of properties is usually done using the axiomatic approach (see e.g. Thomson, 2001, for an overview), a method within cooperative game theory. In line with the above description of studying fairness in the context of social welfare, recent axiomatic studies (cf. Ambec and Sprumont, 2002; Ambec and Ehlers, 2008b; Khmelnitskaya, 2010; Van den Brink et al., 2012; Béal et al., 2012) model river sharing as a cooperative game, where the axioms are imposed on the distribution of welfare to the agents. Recently, Van den Brink et al. (2014) argued that, instead, the axioms should be imposed directly on the allocation of welfare derived from water use, which allows a closer link between the axioms and actual water allocation. In response, Ansink and Weikard (2013) took this argument one step further and imposed axioms directly on the allocation of water. This last approach has the consequence that countries’ benefit functions are ignored. This has the advantage of avoiding some difficulties in implementing cooperative solutions for water allocation, identified by Dinar et al. (1992). A disadvantage is obviously that efficiency is ignored, since, by ignoring benefit functions, we end up in theriver claims problem. Whether the axioms are imposed on welfare distribution in a cooperative game, on the allocation of benefits of water use, or on water allocation itself may depend on the characteristics of specific river sharing problems. In some river basins, countries may prefer to allocate physical units of water (cf. Dinar and Nigatu, 2013), while in other basins countries may prefer to allocate the welfare derived from water use (i.e. ‘benefit sharing’), although essentially there is not much difference between the two. Note that in the vast majority of reported negotiations on river water, the subject of negotiation is actual physical units of water, rather than the benefits derived from water use (Beach et al., 2000). In line with this observation Wolf (1999) argues that
ABSTRACT: The design and construction of new hydroelectric power plants has been a much discussed issue with respect to the necessity for increased use of renewable energy on one hand and sensitive eco- logical requirements on the other. The recently developed concept of a novel river hydro power plant is currently being investigated at the hydraulic laboratory ofthe University of Innsbruck, Austria. The ongo- ing feasibility study regarding hydro power use at thelower Salzach River between Austria and Germany should resolve, whether a sustainable use of hydro power is achievable under the given local circum- stances. The main challenges are posed by the low water head available (approx. three meters), the eco- logical requirements mainly relating to fish passability and river ecology, as well as by the complex issue of sediment and bed load transport and its interaction with the structure. Several ideas and concepts re- garding effective bed load transport through and around the power plant have been collected and re- viewed. This was followed by the optimisation ofthe arrangement ofthe structure. The physical model test shall show the feasibility of all proposed measures.
Fig. 8. Composition of suspended sediment at Chilu Bridge
3.4 Simulation results
The bed elevation was interpolated onto the computational mesh using the topographic data of Oct. 2004 and Jan. 2007, respectively. Fig. 9 shows the comparisons ofthe bed elevation change in this period (from 2004 to 2007). A large erosion area (A) was observed on the delta where deposition usually occurs, which was caused by extensive dredging in the simulation period. The delta with fine sediment extended further downstream toward the Weir site and formed two large depositions (B and C) which stopped a few hundred meters from the Weir. A scour hole (D) appeared immediately behind the Weir, which could be caused by three dimensionality ofthe flow and associated sediment transport.
The crucial role ofthe ERRγ in cell proliferation of different tissues has been demonstrated in various publications so far (for review see 55). However, what remains undetermined is the exact function ofthe receptor, since existing data support both the role of a tissue-specific promoter or suppressor of proliferation. On one hand it has been demonstrated for all ERRs that their interaction with the hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF) leads to transcriptional activation of hypoxic genes promoting solid-tumor growth such as gastric cancer (56-58). On the other hand, it has been shown that the presence of ERRγ in prostatic cancer cells significantly suppresses tumorigenicity and could be a novel therapeutic target for prostate cancer treatment (59). Similarly, this favorable anti-proliferative role ofthe ERRγ was also shown for the ovaries (60), where ovarian cancer was suppressed. Concerning breast tissue the receptor plays an enigmatic role, which remains yet to be unraveled, since data support both a beneficial as well as an adverse effect on cell-proliferation (61, 62).
Here, such a model was used to confirm the critical impact ofthe spanning field properties on the identity ofthe LPTCs. The applied, previously proposed branching rule ( Cuntz et al. , 2007a ) is based on a minimum spanning tree algorithm that is grown into the spanning fields of cell reconstructions. The algorithm requires three constraints: First, realistic target points have to be defined, that the algorithm then connects in an iterative fashion. These target points are derived from original branch and termination points in the cell reconstruction. To introduce branching variability but conserve local features ofthe cells, random point seeds are generated based on local densities of branch and termination points. As a second constraint the origin ofthe synthetic dendrite has to be defined. Diﬀerent starting points for the algorithm can lead to diﬀerent morphologies. The third parameter, the so called ’balancing factor’, defines the behavior ofthe minimum spanning tree algorithm. The branching rule tries to optimize the overall length and the path length to the root of each point. A balancing factor sets the weights of these two costs when connecting points. Results show that the algorithm is capable to faithfully reproduce LPTCs visually and statistically. Initial attempts to synthesize LPTCs with branching rules that do not consider the spanning field extension and target points did not produce visually acceptable results ( Forstner ,
Wortwarte data represents its own kind of chal- lenge.
6 Related Work
Moilanen and Pulman (2008) carried out a study on English that explored how well it was possi- ble to classify unknown English words into one of three polarity classes based on morphological analysis that mainly considered affixation and zero conversion. Our work is different in several re- spects. First, we focus exclusively on morphol- ogy, whereas Moilanen and Pulman (2008) also used information about the syllable structure of words. Second, Moilanen and Pulman (2008) evaluated on a combination of infrequent words from the BNC and what they called ’junk’ en- tries from a web-corpus. We did not use entries ofthe latter sort as we did not want to mix the issue of normalization into our setup. While we did test on low-frequency words, we purposefully also used high-frequency words to investigate the differences in compositionality in between words of different frequency bands. Because we used a polarity lexicon, we only have citation forms, whereas Moilanen and Pulman (2008) used in- flected word forms. Finally, because the division of labor between morphology and syntax differs between German and English, our data included many cases that in English would be encountered as multi-word expressions.
Particularly, I would like to thank to the Chinese community in Gatersleben, especially my former roommate Wei Ma who helped me a lot and made my life easier. Should old acquaintance be forgot and never brought to mind? For auld lang syne. I hope that many years later, Wei Ma and Rongfan Wang can still remember how they helped me to measure barley roots, to grind barley samples in the late evenings and take these as bitter but interesting memories shared between us. To “噶村吃货团” members Ying Liu, Yinjun Sheng, Wenjie Xu and Fanghua Ye for sharing the nice food and spending a lot of free time together. You brought the taste of China in this little village.
The aviation industry, which has a high level of reliability in all its systems, is a good example. A very important measure used to achieve this reliability is the careful investigation and analysis of accidents (failures) and immediate feedback to design and operation. The use of well-matured technology also contributes to keeping the reliability level [Sakugawa et al., 2005]. Aviation industry also has universal regula- tions for the use of software in airborne systems. One part of these regulations is the guideline DO-178B [RTCA, 1992]. It lists objectives (for different levels of criticality) that a piece of software must satisfy in order to be certified for airborne use. With the increasing level of criticality, the total number of objectives increases, as well as the number of objectives that have to be satisfied “with independence”, i.e., the validation activity has to be performed by a person other than the original developer. The main activity used to validate avionics software is rigorous testing. Reasoning-based formal methods are permitted but neither required nor sufficient by themselves. In general, DO-178B states that “formal methods are complementary to testing”.
based on visualization ofthe soleus (Sol) and the whole ofthe gastrocnemius muscle, as did Szaro et al. (2009). Van Gils et al. (1996) were the ﬁrst to aim to quantify the torsion, which they reported to be between 11; Theobald et al., 2005 and 65 . Yet, their method was based solely on the measurement ofthe super ﬁcial ﬁbers ofthe gastrocnemius muscle. Other authors have reported the torsion to be up to 90 (Schepsis et al., 2002) and even between 30; Theo- bald et al., 2005 and 150 (Robert, 2008), without describing their methods. Recently, very elaborate studies by Edema et al. (2015a, 2015b. 2016) inves- tigated the torsion by meticulously separating the fas- cicles from all three components ofthe triceps surae muscle and classifying their twist close to or at the site of insertion. They were able to describe three broad classes of torsion (Type I “least”, Type II “moderate,” and Type III “extreme” twist) with the advantage of large sample sizes. However, they admit that their approach, while providing consistent results, does not provide quantitative data ofthe angle of torsion ofthe AT or, even better, the individ- ual angels ofthe medial gastrocnemius (MG), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and the Sol muscles.
Cryogenic detectors have been among the first detectors to be employed in direct dark matter search. These detectors are based on crystalline targets cooled down to temperatures below 50 mK and coupled with mainly two different kind of sen- sors: Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors . These sensors detect the heat signal induced by par- ticle interactions inside the crystals, see Figure 2.10, and are able to detect tiny energy depositions with high energy resolutions. To ensure an effective background rejection, experiments of this kind also detect a second signal coming from particle interactions inside the target. Depending on the experiment, in fact, the ioniza- tion or the scintillation produced by particle interactions within the crystals are measured in coincidence with the heat signal: from the ratio of these signals it is possible, in most cases, to distinguish electronic recoils events from nuclear recoil events which are generally associated with dark matter interactions in the target. The most prominent experiments of this kind are currently SuperCDMS , EDELWEISS-II , and CRESST-III .
Cohesive sediment was modelled with two different set of boundary and initial conditions. First based on the measured concentrations and then using the Van Rijn equilibrium concertation. Both ofthe simulations resulted in very high concentrations on the steep sections and heavy deposition elsewhere. We assume that the bed armouring and the interaction of cohesive and non-cohesive sediments have a significant role on the concentration of particles below 63 microns. These particles might get trapped by coarse particles thus not causing significant erosion and deposition. A severe concentration deficit is assumed during the simulated flow conditions originating from upstream parts ofthe Drava River. Setting the Krone-Partheniades constant to zero would lead to zero erosion in the Exner equation. This approach gives relatively constant simulated concentration profile along the model domain in the range of measured values, however is a theoretic setup with unacceptably strong simplifications. Therefore the results of these simulations are not discussed in the Results section. The proper approach in case of Drava River would be the modelling of mixed sediment with several classes in both the non-cohesive and the cohesive size range.
pulse of high frequency electromagnetic energy, usually in the 10 to 1,000 MHz range, is transmitted into the ground. Some ofthe energy is reflected back to the surface from the boundary between different subsurface lithologies, including such changes as sediment grain size, mineralogy, density, and water content (Fig. 2). This effect enables the subsurface stratigraphy and ground moisture conditions to be inferred from the character ofthe radar return signals. A Noggin plus 250 radar system was used in this study. The frequency of transmitting pulse is 250MHz. Traces at each surface location (0.05m intervals) were digitized at a sampling time interval of 0.4 nanoseconds and vertically stacked 442 times. Profiles were processed and plotted using Reflex2D-Quick (version 1.0) software. A radar profile of a cross shore section was collected (Fig. 1). A topographic survey was performed with a GNSS GPS survey system along the section after the GPR survey. The topographic data were referenced to the elevation datum of Tokyo Peil (T.P.) and used for static correction ofthe radar profiles. Processing ofthe GPR data included Dewow filtering, zero-time corrections, gain control, time-depth conversion and static corrections. The radar wave velocities were calculated from reflection hyperbola, and the velocity data were used for time-depth conversion ofthe radar profile. The calculated velocities were different between saturated sediments under groundwater level (+0.4m T.P.) and unsaturated ones above the level. These were 0.05 and 0.10 m/ns, in respectively. These are concordant with velocity data of saturated sand and unsaturated sand summarized by van Heteren (1998).
While states across Europe and the world continue to draft and enact new legal frameworks and policies relating to governmental surveillance, it remains highly questionable whether society moves in the right direction. (Online) privacy seemingly is more endangered than ever before. Traditional safeguards such as judicial oversight of