Nach oben pdf Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling

Abstract: The usage of renewable energy sources (RESs) to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals requires a holistic transformation across all sectors. Due to the fluctuating nature of RESs, it is necessary to install more wind and photovoltaics (PVs) generation in terms of nominal power than would otherwise be required in order to ensure that the power demand can always be met. In a near fully RES-based energy system, there will be times when there is an inadequate conventional load to meet the overcapacity of RESs, which will lead to demand regularly being exceeded and thereby a surplus. One approach to making productive use of this surplus, which would lead to a holistic transformation of all sectors, is “sector coupling” (SC). This paper describes the general principles behind this concept and develops a working definition intended to be of utility to the international scientific community. Furthermore, a literature review provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on the topic. Due to the challenge of distinguishing between papers with or without SC, the approach adopted here takes the German context as a case study that can be applied to future reviews with an international focus. Finally, to evaluate the potential of SC, an analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level has been conducted and is outlined here.
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Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 1: The Principle of Sector Coupling

* Correspondence: m.robinius@fz-juelich.de Received: 29 March 2017; Accepted: 6 July 2017; Published: 21 July 2017 Abstract: The usage of renewable energy sources (RESs) to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction goals requires a holistic transformation across all sectors. Due to the fluctuating nature of RESs, it is necessary to install more wind and photovoltaics (PVs) generation in terms of nominal power than would otherwise be required in order to ensure that the power demand can always be met. In a near fully RES-based energy system, there will be times when there is an inadequate conventional load to meet the overcapacity of RESs, which will lead to demand regularly being exceeded and thereby a surplus. One approach to making productive use of this surplus, which would lead to a holistic transformation of all sectors, is “sector coupling” (SC). This paper describes the general principles behind this concept and develops a working definition intended to be of utility to the international scientific community. Furthermore, a literature review provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on the topic. Due to the challenge of distinguishing between papers with or without SC, the approach adopted here takes the German context as a case study that can be applied to future reviews with an international focus. Finally, to evaluate the potential of SC, an analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level has been conducted and is outlined here.
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Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

In summary, the results analysis demonstrates the importance of the spatial resolution of the model for a surplus analysis. Because RES are highly spatially distributed, the surplus differs highly depending on the accuracy of the model. The results for Germany showed that considering the installed capacities of the RES in the scenario, even with the physically impossible consideration of a “copper plate” and no storage losses or limitations, a surplus of 165 TWh will be produced and therefore a possibility of power-to-X applications is apparent (see Section 3.1 ). In order to fulfil the peak demand of hydrogen of 2.93 million tons in the year 2052, an electrolysis capacity of 28 GW in 15 districts in Germany must be achieved. Without considering minimal full load hours of the electrolysis, there is even a possibility of producing 6.6 million tons of hydrogen in Germany (see Section 3.2 ). Depending on the respective scenarios, the transmission network’s—to connect the 28 GW of electrolysis capacity to the hubs—costs vary between 5.4 and 8.3 billion € (2015), while the pipeline length is 12,104 km. When it comes to the distribution network—to connect the hubs with the 9968 total hydrogen fuelling stations—the costs vary between 10.2 and 14.7 billion € (2015) and the pipeline length is 29,671 km (see Section 3.3 ). A pre-tax hydrogen cost analysis showed that the resulting costs of a “best”, “middle” and “worst case” scenario with 8.9, 16.5 and 19.1 ct per kWh are below the target costs of FCVs with a consumption of 0.7 kg per 100 km. Within the “best case”, the pre-tax hydrogen costs are even below the target costs of FCVs with a consumption of 1 kg per 100 km (see Section 3.4 ).
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The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 2: Aviation

The global impact of the transport sectors on atmospheric aerosol in 2030 – Part 2: Aviation

Abstract. We use the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmo- spheric Chemistry) global climate–chemistry model coupled to the aerosol module MADE (Modal Aerosol Dynamics model for Europe, adapted for global applications) to sim- ulate the impact of aviation emissions on global atmospheric aerosol and climate in 2030. Emissions of short-lived gas and aerosol species follow the four Representative Concen- tration Pathways (RCPs) designed in support of the Fifth As- sessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compare our findings with the results of a pre- vious study with the same model configuration focusing on year 2000 emissions. We also characterize the aviation re- sults in the context of the other transport sectors presented in a companion paper. In spite of a relevant increase in avia- tion traffic volume and resulting emissions of aerosol (black carbon) and aerosol precursor species (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), the aviation effect on particle mass concen- tration in 2030 remains quite negligible (on the order of a few ng m − 3 ), about 1 order of magnitude less than the increase in concentration due to other emission sources. Due to the rel- atively small size of the aviation-induced aerosol, however, the increase in particle number concentration is significant in all scenarios (about 1000 cm − 3 ), mostly affecting the north- ern mid-latitudes at typical flight altitudes (7–12 km). This largely contributes to the overall change in particle number concentration between 2000 and 2030, which also results in significant climate effects due to aerosol–cloud interactions. Aviation is the only transport sector for which a larger impact on the Earth’s radiation budget is simulated in the future: the aviation-induced radiative forcing in 2030 is more than dou- bled with respect to the year 2000 value of −15 mW m − 2 in all scenarios, with a maximum value of −63 mW m − 2 simu- lated for RCP2.6.
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Energy integration across electricity, heating & cooling and the transport sector - Sector coupling

Energy integration across electricity, heating & cooling and the transport sector - Sector coupling

With the beginning of investigations in the integration of large-scale, variable wind power in future renewable energy systems, a first mention of the term sector cou- pling or integrated energy in peer reviewed literature can be found (see Schaber et al. (2013), Schaber (2013), Richts et al. (2015)). Moving deeper into the actions towards the energy transition, in 2017 several German ministries and interna- tional energy agencies developed thorough guidelines and information on sector coubling (see BMWi (2016), BMUB 2016, BDEW (2017), IRENA et al. (2018)). In 2020 the European Commission presented a comprehensive EU Strategy for en- ergy system integration (European Commission (2020)). Despite the growing re- search on sector coupling applications in all end-consumption sectors, the mean- ing and scope of the concept still has to be clarified consistently.
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Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

Abstract: “Linking the power and transport sectorsPart 1” describes the general principle ofsector coupling” (SC), develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review that provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on this topic and conducts a rudimentary analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level. The aim of this follow-on paper is to outline an approach to the modelling of SC. Therefore, a study of Germany as a case study was conducted. This study assumes a high share of renewable energy sources (RES) contributing to the grid and significant proportion of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) in the year 2050, along with a dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to meet hydrogen demand. To construct a model of this nature, the model environment “METIS” (models for energy transformation and integration systems) we developed will be described in more detail in this paper. Within this framework, a detailed model of the power and transport sector in Germany will be presented in this paper and the rationale behind its assumptions described. Furthermore, an intensive result analysis for the power surplus, utilization of electrolysis, hydrogen pipeline and economic considerations has been conducted to show the potential outcomes of modelling SC. It is hoped that this will serve as a basis for researchers to apply this framework in future to models and analysis with an international focus.
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Linking Transport and Land Use Planning. The Microscopic Dynamic Simulation Model ILUMASS

Linking Transport and Land Use Planning. The Microscopic Dynamic Simulation Model ILUMASS

The innovation of this approach is a continuous microscopic transformation of land use, activity and transport demand, and environmental impacts. First, a synthetic population is generated (Moeckel, Spiekermann and Wegener, 2003). The design of the land-use model takes into account that the collection of individual micro data (i.e. data which because of their micro location can be associated with individual buildings or small groups of buildings) or the retrieval of individual micro data from administrative registers for planning purposes is neither possible nor, for privacy reasons, desirable. The land-use model therefore works with synthetic micro data, which can be retrieved from generally accessible public data. The synthetic population consists of households and persons that make activities, firms that provide workplaces and that offer goods or services, and buildings for residential, commercial, or public use. Since the synthetic micro data are statistically equivalent to real data a microsimulation model can run with synthetic data.
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Inducing the international diffusion of carbon capture and storage technologies in the power sector

Inducing the international diffusion of carbon capture and storage technologies in the power sector

Figure 5-4 Estimated Geographic Diffusion of CCS at Different Power Plant Types in B1-450 Source: Author Concerning the geographic distribution of cumulative CO 2 storage, the B1-450 scenario describes a dissemination which is even more centred in industrialised countries than in the B2-450 future (op. cit.: 356). Contrary to B2-450, the strong concentration of CCS in OECD countries is not necessarily due to financial constraints since the B1 future sketches a convergent world. The scenario storyline describes a fast-changing world with massive income redistribution towards developing countries which increasingly catch up in terms of technological standards and sustainable development (IPCC 2000: 206). Hence, power sectors in the developing world evolve along a low carbon-path, supported by technology transfer projects which mainly focus on regenerative energy technologies, especially biomass, and nuclear power (IPCC 2001: 158). CCS in combi- nation with advanced coal- or gas-fired power plants is most relevant in fossil fuel- constrained developing nations, such as China or countries in the Middle East, but even their energy supply becomes increasingly penetrated by regenerative energy sources. The analysis leads to the insight that the impact of policy instruments is strongly af- fected by scenario-specific technology preferences. Favouring a transition towards a regenerative, decentralised energy system, carbon capture and storage technologies con- stitute a temporary and complementary solution which diminishes pollution from the remaining share of fossil-fired power plants. Since CCS is considered as a ‘necessary evil’, its deployment strongly depends on the cost development of renewable energy technologies and possible interactions with those technologies. Hence, carbon removal at biomass-fuelled power plants might be a relevant long-term option in the B1-450 energy world. However, the important role of technology preferences indicates that in a sustainable B1 future, CCS technologies only deploy when a low carbon dioxide stabili-
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The historical workstation project: part 1

The historical workstation project: part 1

1) T h e basic decision to i m p l e m e n t a n e w system of data base software reflects t h e o p i n i o n , that the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d in historical sour- ces h a s a n u m b e r of properties, w h i c h are not so c o m m o n - a n d t h e - refore u n s u p p o r t e d - in c o m m e r c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . S o m e of t h e m are fairly obvious: historical data bases do not h a v e fields of fixed length; fields are frequently missing; fields contain m o r e t h a n o n e value. S o m e of t h e m are very specific for historical research: to cope with t h e variation in historical spelling or with t h e intricacies of fluctua- ting n o n - d e c i m a l c u r r e n c y systems, h a s simply n o r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p r o b l e m s c o m m e r c i a l software is dedicated to. A third class of p r o - b l e m s , finally, b o r d e r s upon questions, which are c u r r e n t l y b e i n g r e - searched in i n f o r m a t i o n science, b u t n o t i m p l e m e n t e d in readily avai- lable software. T h i n k of the classical p r o b l e m of p r o s o p o g r a p h y h o w to decide if a Henricus erfurtensis is a certain H e n r y o r i g i n a t i n g from
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On the Causative/Anti-Causative Alternation as Principle of Affix Ordering in the Light of the Mirror Principle, the Lexical Integrity Principle and the Distributed Morphology

On the Causative/Anti-Causative Alternation as Principle of Affix Ordering in the Light of the Mirror Principle, the Lexical Integrity Principle and the Distributed Morphology

Verbal Passive can suppress only an external argument, but to derive (82’), an internal argument (the Theme) would have to be suppressed instead. Thus frigh- tened cannot be a verbal passive. The prediction is then, that all passive forms like frightened here must be adjectival passives, and the evidence supports this prediction. They constantly pass all the tests for adjectivehood with flying colors. They allow negative un-prefixation, they occur as complements to the verbs that select Aps (e.g. remain, etc.) and they are relatively unfussy about prepositions: frightened can occur with about, by, or at. Unlike Pesetsky (1987) I do not assume that a by phrase indicates a verbal passive, since it can co-occur with unambigu- ously adjectival properties:
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Assessing regulatory changes in the transport sector: An introduction

Assessing regulatory changes in the transport sector: An introduction

In most OECD countries, transport statistics are collected regularly by dedicated departments. In addition, international, national and regional transport models have been developed to analyse and forecast both passenger and freight flows. Consistent statistics and detailed modelling are relied upon to assess the impacts that transport investment projects are likely to have. One typical impact category used in these assessments is direct travel time savings for transport users. In most OECD countries, and particularly in northern Europe and Australasia, time savings are monetised and included in CBA together with other quantitative and qualitative impacts. Crucially some of the additional impacts that are typically quantified are not limited to the transport sphere, and provide an estimate of how transport impacts are transmitted through the economy into changes in employment and economic outputs (Mackie and Worsley, 2013). A well-developed evidence base in the transport sector helps the RIA process at different stages. Some important differences between quantitative assessments of transport investment and impact assessment are present, as summarised in Table 1 below
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Institutional and organisational change in the German rail transport sector

Institutional and organisational change in the German rail transport sector

Institutional Design Perspective The analysis highlights that DB Cargo, the market leader in rail transport, is cur- rently undergoing a process of large scale transformational change, which has been designed in response to the ongoing financial crisis, a lack of competitive- ness, and low customer satisfaction. Before the ongoing change management initiative ‘Zukunft Bahn’ started, prior activities directed at organisational change were not sufficient to overcome organisational inertia. At this point in time, it is difficult to assess, whether the envisaged changes can be successfully imple- mented and result in profitable growth of DB Cargo’s business. However, the ac- ademic literature on change management has stressed that implementation is the most difficult and challenging part of organisational change processes. More- over, opposition from trade unions and employees at DB Cargo is likely and might result in deviations from the original design and time delays. A conceptual weak- ness of ‘Zukunft Bahn’ might be the strong orientation on operational efficiency and the lack of creative and visionary elements with regard to the future of DB Cargo. The plans adopted all seem to emphasize efficiency of supply-side oper- ational, with the objective of reducing costs. While long distance freight transport is highly cost competitive, there might also be possibilities in new information systems and services to logistics customers and an increased use of e-markets. Thus, the impact of these institutional changes on the overall competitiveness of DB Cargo and rail transport as a whole is highly uncertain.
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FROM THE GUEST EDITORS (PART 1)

FROM THE GUEST EDITORS (PART 1)

The first part of this Joint Issue of Statistics in Transition and Survey Methodology includes eight articles. These two issues have been split according to which guest editors have been looking after the articles. They are not necessarily sequenced according to the themes that appeared in the original conference programme.

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Diagnostic Report on the Bus Transport Sector

Diagnostic Report on the Bus Transport Sector

Limiting the route range served the study well as traffic congestion on EDSA’s super corridor is reflective of the overall bus transit situation in Metro Manila. It accounts for the largest number of passenger flows generated by business districts (Makati and Ortigas) as well as several malls (Ayala Center, Megamall, SM City, Araneta Center). Previous studies also point to the suboptimal situation with EDSA: JICA (2014) estimated that a 50% bus reduction in EDSA is possible without substantial decrease in service level; while, PLANNADES (2007) found that bus occupancy rate within EDSA was as low as 52%. The welfare situation is further highlighted when considering that the poor spends around 20% of their income on transportation (Figure 7).
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Benefits of energy efficiency on the German power sector

Benefits of energy efficiency on the German power sector

Electricity generation is responsible for the largest cost changes in the overall system in all scenarios. The further expansion of renewable energy and its increasing share in electricity generation (which is similar in all scenarios) re- sult in increased total costs. In 2050, renewable electricity generation will account for 56 percent of total system costs under the WWF scenario, and for 61 percent of costs under the BAU scenario. Due to a decline in costs for conventional electricity, absolute costs decline, despite an assumed rise in fuel and CO 2 prices as well as the need to maintain a larger conventional power plant fleet. Today, fossil-thermal gener- ation accounts for costs equal to some 19 billion euros 2012 . By 2050 the costs for conventional electricity generation will fall to 10 billion euros 2012 (under the BAU scenario) or even to less than 5 billion euros 2012 (under the WWF scenario).
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Power-to-gas for the mobility sector

Power-to-gas for the mobility sector

Economic feasibility of P2G  The profitability of P2G suffers from large installation costs and low efficiency  Capacity utilization should be high and electricity cheap (no grid fees etc.)  Conversion of synthetic gas back to electricity reduces efficiency to ≈30%  Substitution of fossil gas leads to CO2 reduction (if SNG is "renewable")  Use gas for applications in mobility and heat sector

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Energy transition in the power sector in Europe: state of affairs in ...:

Energy transition in the power sector in Europe: state of affairs in ...:

The daily data, which is used for the quarterly net produc- tion in the first part of this analysis, is based on ENTSO-E hourly values, which is partially incomplete. Reporting of these values started on 5 January 2015. Some countries re- ported before this date but the overall picture is not com- plete. Some countries have still not yet reported their data for the end of 2015. This means that the first week and the last two months of 2015 display incomplete data. Croatia, Luxembourg and Malta did not report any data. Because, however, these countries have a relatively small energy sec- tor, no adjustments were implemented.
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Understanding the adoption of solar power technologies in the UK domestic  sector

Understanding the adoption of solar power technologies in the UK domestic sector

(2001) that improved rates of adoption would be achieved through such routes. These recommendations fit with those of Geroski (2000) who suggested that the processes which influence consumer choice need to be the target of policy intervention. The early adopters that were interviewed as part of the process to develop the heuristics shared a similar position in that they were all of retirement age, with money available to purchase technologies that would lower their future levels of financial risk; in other words, by installing solar power, they were able to reduce their energy bills in the future, when they may have less disposable income. These people were engaged in their ‘energy’ behaviour and were using innovative solutions to improve their situations; at the same time as being ‘environmentally’ minded, they could be ‘financially astute’. This behaviour fits with Hansen (2005) who posited that early adopters might be described as being influenced by the ‘emotional’ perspective; they engage with the products and justify their beliefs by acting on them.
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The Connection Principle and the Classificatory Scheme of Reality

The Connection Principle and the Classificatory Scheme of Reality

Certainly, we need to meet all these requirements, but, at the same time, we should try to rule out this bizarre extension of his theory: a seed is an un- conscious tree because it has the dispositional capacity to generate a tree, al- though some circumstances (a severe drought, a poor soil, etc.) could hinder its full development. One could defend that this extension is always possible, because there is nothing that obliges us to call certain brain states that cause conscious mental states “unconscious”. If we choose to do this, then we need to give some compelling reasons for it. In the absence of such reasons — and Searle does not give any — , if we decide to call these brain states “uncons- cious”, then we could also call all the intervening causes of a given effect “un- conscious”. However, this use of the term “unconscious” would be completely metaphorical and useless for Searle’s purposes. He does not want to talk of unconscious mental states in a metaphorical way. This is what the content of step 2 of the Connection Principle expresses. There is nothing metaphorical or as-if about the attributions of shallow unconscious mental states to a person [Searle (1992), p. 156].
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Energetic and exergetic analysis of combined cycle power plant: Part-1 operation and performance

Energetic and exergetic analysis of combined cycle power plant: Part-1 operation and performance

* Correspondence: a.s.almutairi@cranfield.ac.uk; Tel.: +44-123-475-2171; Fax: +44-123-475-8230 Abstract: Energetic and exergetic analyses are conducted using operating data for Sabiya, a combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with an advanced triple pressure reheat heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the HRSG using a recent approach to differentiate between the sources of irreversibility. The proposed system was modelled using the IPSEpro software and further validated by the manufacturer’s data. The performance of the Sabiya CCPP was examined for different climatic conditions, pressure ratios, pinch point temperatures, high-pressure steam, and condenser pressure values. The results confirmed that 60.9% of the total exergy destruction occurs in the combustion chamber, which constitutes the main source of irreversibilities within a system. The exergy destruction was significantly affected by both the pressure ratio and the high-pressure steam, where the relation between them was seen to be inversely proportional. The high-pressure stage contributes about 50% of the exergy destruction within the HRSG compared to other stages and the reheat system, due to the high temperature difference between the streams and the large number of components, which leads to high energy loss to the surroundings. Numerous possibilities for improving the CCPP’s performance are introduced, based on the obtained results.
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