Nach oben pdf The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

The Impact of Car Pollution on Infant and Child Health: Evidence from Emissions Cheating

ozone) as 150 equivalent gasoline cars. 3 Hereafter, we refer to cars with “clean diesel” technology as cheating diesel cars. We exploit the dispersion of these cheating diesel cars across the United States as a natural ex- periment to measure the effect of car pollution on infant and child health. This natural experiment provides several unique features. First, it is typically difficult to infer causal effects from observed correlations of health and car pollution, as wealthier individuals tend to sort into less-polluted ar- eas and drive newer, less-polluting cars. The fast roll-out of cheating diesel cars provides us with plausibly exogenous variation in car pollution exposure across the entire socio-economic spectrum of the United States. Second, it is well established that people avoid known pollution, which can mute estimated impacts of air pollution on health (Neidell, 2009). Moderate pollution increases stemming from cheating diesel cars, a source unknown to the population, are less likely to induce avoidance behaviors, allowing us to cleanly estimate the full impact of pollution. Third, air pol- lution comes from a multitude of sources, making it difficult to identify contributions from cars, and it is measured coarsely with pollution monitors stationed only in a minority of U.S. counties. This implies low statistical power and potential attenuation bias for correlational studies of pollu- tion (Lleras-Muney, 2010). We use the universe of car registrations to track how cheating diesel
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The impact of car pollution on infant and child health: Evidence from emissions cheating

The impact of car pollution on infant and child health: Evidence from emissions cheating

ozone) as 150 equivalent gasoline cars. 3 Hereafter, we refer to cars with “clean diesel” technology as cheating diesel cars. We exploit the dispersion of these cheating diesel cars across the United States as a natural ex- periment to measure the effect of car pollution on infant and child health. This natural experiment provides several unique features. First, it is typically difficult to infer causal effects from observed correlations of health and car pollution, as wealthier individuals tend to sort into less-polluted ar- eas and drive newer, less-polluting cars. The fast roll-out of cheating diesel cars provides us with plausibly exogenous variation in car pollution exposure across the entire socio-economic spectrum of the United States. Second, it is well established that people avoid known pollution, which can mute estimated impacts of air pollution on health (Neidell, 2009). Moderate pollution increases stemming from cheating diesel cars, a source unknown to the population, are less likely to induce avoidance behaviors, allowing us to cleanly estimate the full impact of pollution. Third, air pol- lution comes from a multitude of sources, making it difficult to identify contributions from cars, and it is measured coarsely with pollution monitors stationed only in a minority of U.S. counties. This implies low statistical power and potential attenuation bias for correlational studies of pollu- tion (Lleras-Muney, 2010). We use the universe of car registrations to track how cheating diesel
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Impact of development aid on infant mortality: Micro-level evidence from Côte d'Ivoire

Impact of development aid on infant mortality: Micro-level evidence from Côte d'Ivoire

5. Conclusion This study sought to examine the impact of development aid on infant mortality in Côte d’Ivoire by merging local level aid and three rounds of DHS surveys. Using geographical information available in the datasets and the difference-in-difference estimation method, we found that proximity to aid projects is associated with significantly reduced infant mortality. The results are robust to different estimation techniques, control for mother-fixed effects, as well as possible endogenous migration. The findings corroborate those of Kotsadam et al. (2018) for the case of Nigeria. However, the results show no heterogeneity of the effect of aid on child health by gender or rural-versus urban residency. The study also suggests that aid-funded water and sanitation projects may reduce the likelihood of a child dying before his/her first birthday. Furthermore, access to prenatal care and immunization are possible transmission channels through which aid improves child welfare.
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Seasonal effects of water quality on infant and child health in India

Seasonal effects of water quality on infant and child health in India

This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health in India. We study agro-contaminants in water as it is considered to be a reliable measure of human exposure, and use data on water quality from monitoring stations run by India’s Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) combined with data on the health outcomes of infants and children from the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of India. We focus on fertilizers because they have relatively clear application times unlike pesticides which may be used (based on need) throughout the crop cycle. 1 Because fertilizers are applied early in the growing season and residues may subsequently seep into water through soil run-off, the concentrations of agrichemicals in water vary seasonally; water contamination also varies regionally by cropped area in India because states in northern India plant predominantly winter crops while southern Indian states plant mainly summer crops. Our identification strategy exploits the increase in fertilizer use over time in India, the differing timing of the crop planting seasons across India’s states, and the differing seasonal prenatal
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Infant health and longevity: Evidence from a historical trial in Sweden

Infant health and longevity: Evidence from a historical trial in Sweden

this group but, at the same time, identify significantly larger chances of surviving to age 75. There is no statistically significant difference in program impact by child sex, neither for survival to age five when we might expect larger impacts for boys as they have higher baseline risks (Waldron, 1983), nor for survival to age 40 when we may have expected larger gains for girls if treated girls were less likely to suffer death during childbirth. We examined heterogeneity in impact by the infant mortality rate in the mothers birth year and parish, on the premise that this proxies disease conditions in her birth year (Bozzoli et al., 2007) and so reflects the stock of her health which is relevant to the survival of her births (Bhalotra and Rawlings, 2011). We find no evidence that this matters for program impacts or even for baseline survival chances. Finally, as the trial years coincided with the Great Depression, we created an indicator for parishes disproportionately affected by the Great Depression, defined as the drop in local taxable earnings being larger than median. We find no difference in impact in these as opposed to less affected parishes.
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The impact of regional health care coverage on infant mortality and disease incidence

The impact of regional health care coverage on infant mortality and disease incidence

There is a large literature investigating policies to reduce child and infant mortality rates in both economics and medical science (see Andrews et al. 2008, Kuruvilla et al. 2014). However, evidence regarding the importance of physicians is mixed. Papers focusing on the relationship between physician density and infant mortality mostly rely on cross-country comparisons, often focusing on single cross-sections (e.g. Kim and Moody 1992, Hertz et al. 1994, Anand and Bärnighausen 2004). Some papers use a panel data approach (e.g. Farahani et al. 2009, Bhargava et al. 2011, Chauvet et al. 2013) to control for the influence of time-invariant unobservable factors. The results from these studies vary. Some find a negative relationship between physician density and mortality, but many results are inconclusive. Micro data evidence is limited. Frankenberg (1995) examines the impact of access to health facilities and personnel on infant and child mortality in Indonesia using village-level data and a fixed effects approach and finds that a maternity clinic reduces the odds of infant mortality by 15% and an additional doctor by 1.7%. Lavy et al. (1996) provide evidence that increased supply of health staff and drugs can improve child health in rural areas in Ghana. They also evaluate the impact of health infrastructure on child outcomes, but are unable to find conclusive evidence. Aakvik and Holmås (2006) use a dynamic panel approach to estimate the effect of general practitioner density on mortality in Norwegian municipalities from 1986 to 2001, but do not find a significant relationship.
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Air pollution and infant mortality: Evidence from the expansion of natural gas infrastructure

Air pollution and infant mortality: Evidence from the expansion of natural gas infrastructure

Evidence from the Expansion of Natural Gas Infrastructure * One of the consequences of rapid economic growth and industrialization in the developing world has been deterioration in environmental conditions and air quality. While air pollution is a serious threat to health in most developing countries, environmental regulations are rare and the determination to address the problem is weak due to ongoing pressures to sustain robust economic growth. Under these constraints, natural gas, as a clean, abundant, and highly-efficient source of energy, has emerged as an increasingly attractive source of fuel, which could address some of the environmental and health challenges faced by these countries without undermining their economies. In this paper, we examine the impact of air pollution on infant mortality in Turkey using variation across provinces and over time in the adoption of natural gas as a cleaner fuel. Our results indicate that the expansion of natural gas infrastructure has caused a significant decrease in the rate of infant mortality in Turkey. In particular, a one-percentage point increase in the rate of subscriptions to natural gas services would cause the infant mortality rate to decline by 4 percent, which could result in 348 infant lives saved in 2011 alone. These results are robust to a large number of specifications. Finally, we use supplemental data on total particulate matter and sulfur dioxide to produce direct estimates of the effects of these pollutants on infant mortality using natural gas expansion as an instrument. Our elasticity estimates from the instrumental variable analysis are 1.25 for particulate matter and 0.63 for sulfur dioxide.
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Impact of Pollution from Coal on the Anemic Status of Children and Women: Evidence from India

Impact of Pollution from Coal on the Anemic Status of Children and Women: Evidence from India

Evidence from India * Economic growth in emerging market economies has come hand-in-hand with growing demand for energy, with many of them meeting this higher demand by increased use of coal to fuel electricity generation. This paper examines the impact of pollution generated by coal fueled power units on the anemic status of children and women in India. We show that among very young children (aged 0–5 years), the number of coal units in the district in the month and year of birth significantly increases the likelihood of being anemic net of a comprehensive set of child, mother, household and district level controls. Exposure in utero matters as well for child anemia, while the number of coal plants in the district also induce greater anemia among adult women. Impacts on anemic status are driven by the growth of PM 2.5 pollution attributable to emissions from coal-powered units. We undertake a series of falsification and specification checks to underline the robustness of our results. Our research adds anemia to the list of significant health costs of relying on coal-fired power generation in meeting the increasing demand for energy that emerging market economies like India face.
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Infant Health and Longevity: Evidence from a Historical Trial in Sweden

Infant Health and Longevity: Evidence from a Historical Trial in Sweden

this group but, at the same time, identify significantly larger chances of surviving to age 75. There is no statistically significant difference in program impact by child sex, neither for survival to age five when we might expect larger impacts for boys as they have higher baseline risks (Waldron, 1983), nor for survival to age 40 when we may have expected larger gains for girls if treated girls were less likely to suffer death during childbirth. We examined heterogeneity in impact by the infant mortality rate in the mothers birth year and parish, on the premise that this proxies disease conditions in her birth year (Bozzoli et al., 2007) and so reflects the stock of her health which is relevant to the survival of her births (Bhalotra and Rawlings, 2011). We find no evidence that this matters for program impacts or even for baseline survival chances. Finally, as the trial years coincided with the Great Depression, we created an indicator for parishes disproportionately affected by the Great Depression, defined as the drop in local taxable earnings being larger than median. We find no difference in impact in these as opposed to less affected parishes.
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The Impact of Eliminating a Child Benefit on Birth Timing and Infant Health

The Impact of Eliminating a Child Benefit on Birth Timing and Infant Health

We study the effects of the cancellation of a sizeable child benefit in Spain on birth timing and neonatal health. In May 2010, the government announced that a 2,500-euro universal “baby bonus” would stop being paid to babies born on or after January 1st, 2011. We use detailed micro data from birth certificates from 2000 to 2011, and find that more than 2,000 families were able to anticipate the date of birth of their babies from (early) January 2011 to (late) December 2010 (for a total of about 9,000 births a week nationally). This shifting of deliveries led to a significant increase in the number of low birth weight babies, as well as a peak in neonatal mortality. These results suggest that announcement effects are important in shaping economic decisions and outcomes. They also provide new, credible evidence highlighting the negative health consequences of scheduling births for non-medical reasons.
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Exposure to Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from Colombia

Exposure to Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from Colombia

For instance, Currie and Neidell (2005) examine the impact of air pollution (CO, O3, and Pm10 4 ) on low birth weight. 5 To address this, they used fixed effects models at the individual level, controlling for zip code-month fixed effects. To associate exposure to air pollution with low birth weight, they impute prenatal pollution exposure in each trimester using a radius of 10 kilometers (km) (6.2 miles) around the meter device. Results show no significant effect on low birth weight when the mother is exposed to air pollution during pregnancy. Similarly, using fixed effects at the individual level, Currie et al. (2009b) examine the effects of pollution (CO, O3, and Pm10) on birth weight and prematurity. For birth weight, they utilize a panel with a pollution monitor and mother locations fixed effects, in which averages of exposure to pollution are imputed for the three trimesters of pregnancy. Results show that a one-unit increase in CO during the third trimester leads to an average birth weight reduction of 16.65 grams. Currie et al. (2009b) regress levels of pollution during the three trimesters of pregnancy to different birth outcomes (including a model for child mortality). These authors use a rich set of controls as well as fixed effects for the closest air pollution monitor, an interaction between the monitor effect and each quarter of the year (to capture seasonal differences), and mother-specific fixed effects to control for time-invariant characteristics of neighborhoods and mothers. Results show that a one-unit increase in CO during the third trimester reduces birth weight on average by 16.65 grams (results were found at lower levels of CO). Currie and Walker (2011) exploit a policy that reduced traffic congestion in the U.S., in which electronic toll collector technology was implemented to look at the effects of traffic congestion on newborn health. This policy allowed them to implement a difference-in-differences design, in which the treatment group is made up of mothers living within two km of a toll plaza, while the control group is made up of those who live close to a highway, but between two km and 10 km of a toll plaza. Results suggest that implementing the E-ZPass 6 is associated with significant reductions in prematurity, by 8.6%, and in low birth weight, by 9.3%. Finally, Coneus and Spiess (2010) present a study using mother fixed effects and year/zip code effects together with an ample set
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Impact of the Clean Air Act on Air Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from South Korea

Impact of the Clean Air Act on Air Pollution and Infant Health: Evidence from South Korea

pollutants. Thus, we separately collect weather data measurements from the Korea Meteorological Administration. 1 The mortality information is based on the restricted-use microdata of death and birth records, provided by South Korea’s Statistics Bureau. We classify deaths based on their causes since certain causes are more likely to be affected than others (e.g., Arceo et al., 2016; Chay and Greenstone, 2003). For example, air pollution may be more likely to increase risk of internal deaths (e.g., due to respiratory diseases) than that of external deaths (e.g., due to car accidents). Similarly, among internal deaths, air pollution may be more likely to increase risk of death due to
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Wars and child health: Evidence from the Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict

Wars and child health: Evidence from the Eritrean-Ethiopian conflict

5. Empirical Results 5.1 Baseline Difference-in-Differences Estimation Table 2 presents baseline regressions for the difference-in-differences estimation of the war’s impact on height-for-age Z-scores as outlined in Equations 1 to 3. All regressions include region and year of birth cohort fixed effects and control for child gender. 13 The first three columns show results for Eritrea; the last three columns show results for Ethiopia. Results in Columns 1 and 4 show a negative impact of the conflict on children born during the war in the war regions of Eritrea and Ethiopia. Children born during the war in a war region have Z-scores 0.24 and 0.59 standard deviations lower than non-war exposed children in Eritrea and Ethiopia, respectively. This reduction is statistically significant in both countries. The impact of the war represents, respectively in Eritrea and Ethiopia, a decline of 13 and 44 percent compared to the average height-for-age Z-score of children born during the war in a non-war region. Results in Column 1 show no significant conflict impact on children born before the war started in the Eritrea war regions. However, children born before the war in Ethiopia have Z-scores 0.48 standard deviations lower than children born after the war. This impact is statistically significant and represents a decline of 22 percent compared to the average height-for-age Z-score of children born before the war in the non-war regions of Ethiopia. In Columns 2 and 5, we estimate the regression described in Equation 2 using the discrete measure indicating villages close to any of the three conflict sites, which can be considered a more accurate measure of a child’s war exposure. Results are consistent with those in Columns 1 and 4, indicating that geographic misclassification errors of war exposure are not severe in this context when delineating exposure by war region. In Columns 3 and 6, we use the number of months of war exposure as a measure
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Infant Health, Cognitive Performance and Earnings: Evidence from Inception of the Welfare State in Sweden

Infant Health, Cognitive Performance and Earnings: Evidence from Inception of the Welfare State in Sweden

Chay et al. (2009) study black-white convergence in test scores as a function of hospital de-segregation in America, Bharadwaj et al. (2013) show impacts of neonatal care facilities on school test scores in Chile and Norway, Bhalotra and Venkataramani (2013) demonstrate impacts of infant exposure to a clean water programme in Mexico on cognitive attainment in middle and late adolescence, and Almond et al. (2009) show that in utero exposure to (accidental) radiation from the Chernobyl disaster influenced cognition. Other studies that analyse impacts of early life health rather than of health interventions or shocks, include Black et al. (2007) and Figlio et al. (2014), who use twin or sibling estimators to identify impacts of birth weight on later outcomes including cognitive performance in Norway and Florida respectively. Like Figlio et al. (2014), we are able to assess impacts of infant health on cognitive scores at different ages and by the socio-economic characteristics of parents. However, while they analyse impacts of birth weight differences, we use population-level exposure to an intervention that improved infant health. This is important because, as Figlio et al. (2014) state,“While we have strong evidence from twin comparison studies that poor initial health conveys a disadvantage in adulthood, we have little information about the potential roles for policy interventions in ameliorating this disadvantage during childhood”; also see Heckman et al. (2014). Another advantage we have is that our data contains records of sickness-related absence from school, allowing us to analyse the relevance of contemporaneous health vs early life health impacts in producing test score gains.
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The Effects of a Household Income Shock on Infant Health. Evidence from a Welfare Benefits Reform

The Effects of a Household Income Shock on Infant Health. Evidence from a Welfare Benefits Reform

There are many possible pathways between parental income and child health, sum- marized by Currie (2009): First, a budget constraint will be less binding in wealthier families, and therefore families will be able to purchase more or better quality ma- terial health inputs. Inputs include factors such as better quality medical care, food, clothes, furniture as well as safer toys, housing, and neighborhoods. In our case the material health inputs are reduced to better quality food, clothes, furniture and safer toys because in Germany the quality of medical care is almost exogenous due compulsory health insurance. Housing and neighborhoods are also exogenous because welfare payments contain a fixed amount for housing.
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Infant health, cognitive performance and earnings: Evidence from inception of the welfare state in Sweden

Infant health, cognitive performance and earnings: Evidence from inception of the welfare state in Sweden

Non-Technical Summary We study a historical, pioneering intervention that was implemented in the early 1930s in response to a cessation in the decline of infant mortality in Sweden, at a time when its incidence was similar to that in many of today’s poor countries. It constituted a significant step in the development of the modern welfare state in Sweden. Trained health workers provided information, support, and monitoring of newborn health through home visits and local clinics, with a particular emphasis on nutrition and sanitation. The principles were similar to those underlying the Nurse Family Partnership programmes in the UK and the US. Similar early childhood and home visiting programmes are increasingly being introduced in developing countries, but there are few systematic evaluations. In earlier work, we showed that the intervention achieved its goal of improving infant health and survival and, moreover, that it lowered the risk of death from chronic disease and raised longevity, likely through reducing inflammation and improving net nutrition. In this paper we examine dynamic impacts of the improvement in infant health on longer term educational and economic outcomes. As infancy is a period of rapid neurological development, net nutrition (including breastfeeding, clean water, reduced infections) in infancy can influence brain development, creating a biological mechanism for causal effects of infant health on cognition. Individuals carrying an improved cognitive endowment from infancy may make greater investments in education themselves (lower cost of effort), receive reinforcing investments from parents, or compete more effectively for state investments in education. If the intervention-eligible cohorts exhibit higher human capital attainment and, if there is sufficient demand for the acquired skills, we may expect they had higher earnings.
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Infant health, cognitive performance and earnings: Evidence from inception of the welfare state in Sweden

Infant health, cognitive performance and earnings: Evidence from inception of the welfare state in Sweden

We found that the cognitive gains in primary school from the intervention are distributed differently for males and females: males significantly improve their scores between percentiles 50–80, whereas females experience a significant improvement near the very top of the distribu- tion (percentiles 70–90). This is consistent with investments, possibly by parents or teachers, reinforcing the intervention in accordance with the expected returns to these investments. In Sweden in the 1930s, the returns to years of schooling were in general larger for women than for men (B˚ ang, 2001). According to the National Census of 1930 there was a limited supply of well-educated women as only six per cent of all women above age 16 had secondary education or more. As described above, girls did not have access to state-led secondary schools until 1927 (in turn implying a higher cost and a narrower social selection into secondary schooling for girls than boys) which was the starting point for a series of reforms which came to increase general access to secondary education in the following decades. Returns to education declined over the following decades but gender differences are still visible in 1970. In Table 12 we regress income on marks in grade four and on the secondary schooling variable. Columns 2 and 3 suggest that returns to school grades were slightly larger for females than for males, but more importantly the estimated secondary schooling premium is significantly larger for females than for males, even after controlling for primary school performance (see also Bj¨ orklund and Kjellstr¨ om, 1994). It is thus striking that female improvements in primary school performance were concentrated exactly in the parts of the distribution that were most likely to proceed to secondary school (cf. Figures 6 and 7).
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The Distinct Impact of Information and Incentives on Cheating

The Distinct Impact of Information and Incentives on Cheating

We purposely chose a task where performance is only determined by luck and honesty in order to isolate the pure effect of feedback and incentives on cheating behavior. 9 In partic- ular, we get rid of a number of possible confounds that would arise if performance was also determined by effort. First, our results are not influenced by participants’ innate abilities or effort, which is known to vary across different payment schemes and feedback policies (see Section 2); second, subjects’ beliefs about the true performance of the counterpart are constant within each pair and across conditions; third, we prevent subjective entitlements from arising. Our task also captures real-world settings where an agent over-reports a per- formance measure (e.g., the quality of a product, company earnings) for personal benefits, and this measure is determined in part or fully by external factors (e.g., the volatility of markets, the quality of work of a previous team). It also reflects what previous studies in organizational economics have used to measure the true and reported performance of “workers” in laboratory “firms” (see d’Adda et al., 2017).
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The impact of non-parental child care on child development: Evidence from the summer participation "dip"

The impact of non-parental child care on child development: Evidence from the summer participation "dip"

21 by a reduction in maternal employment or other changes in work behavior (e.g., shifting from full- to part-time work, delaying a job search, or working from home). Second, it is important to determine the types of activities in which children are engaged with parents, and in particular, whether parental time investments increase during the summer. Such information will highlight the potential mechanisms through which the summer-driven IV estimates operate. To conserve space, Appendix 1 and Appendix Tables 2 through 4 present detailed evidence on these issues. Briefly, four key findings emerge: (i) mothers interviewed in the summer are equally likely to be employed, to be working full- or part-time, and to be looking for work as their counterparts interviewed during the non-summer months; (ii) the summer-induced reduction in child care use occurs primarily among mothers loosely or not attached to the labor force as well as those with flexible work schedules (i.e., working from home); (iii) time investments in the focal child increase substantially during the summer, as evidenced by the increased frequency of several parent-child activities; and (iv) these investments are made disproportionately by the same families experiencing the largest drops in summer child care utilization. Therefore, the IV estimate of NP should not reflect the commingled effect of simultaneous changes in maternal employment and child care use; rather, the estimate likely operates through increased time investments by mothers with flexible work-family schedules.
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Assessing Impact of Health Oriented Aid on Infant Mortality Rates

Assessing Impact of Health Oriented Aid on Infant Mortality Rates

constant terms, as it is a generally held notion that wealthier nations tend to have more improved health conditions. Wealthier nations should have in general better living conditions, and affordability for better quality healthcare should also be higher. In fact Gerbhard et all (2008) found that GDP alone tend to predict almost 50% of all patterns within aid recipient countries. A majority of aid effectiveness studies previously have looked at GDP growth as the dependent variable, but when other outcomes are being studied, it becomes important to include income as a control variable, especially when it comes to analyzing changes over time. Aggregate aid and health oriented aid have been converted into per capita terms so that inclusion of population as an additional control variable itself is not quite mandatory. However as mentioned previously, when it comes to aggregate aid, the question of fungibility may come into force (Rajan and Subramanium, 2005a; Mishra and Newhouse, 2009), owing to a lack of a defined sense of direction of the aid to a particular sector. Hence in keeping in theory, where other types of sectorally oriented development aid are not specifically tied to particular purposes and primarily relax governments’ budget constraints (and thus have similar effects on social and economic outcomes), we also look to analyze impact of 4 other categories of sectorally defined development aid, being, i) Population Policies and Reproductive Health Policies Aid; ii) Education Aid; iii) Water and Sanitation Aid; and iv) Humanitarian Aid, to establish if there is some element specific to health oriented aid that affects health. Data regarding these categories of development aid are sourced from AidData as well. In our analysis, we augment health oriented aid with aid channeled to the population policies and reproductive health sector and later onwards also with aid channeled to the water and sanitation sector, owing to the fact that the population and reproductive health aid captures AIDS/HIV projects as well as family planning and reproductive health, and these are known to play an influential role in reining in Infant Mortality Rates. Furthermore, water and sanitation aid is added to our AID per capita variable owing to the fact that clean water is a crucial component for controlling health outcomes. In addition, improved sanitation access also translates into improved health outcomes, and thus we factor in water and sanitation aid in our AID variable as well.
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