Abstract. Becoming a continuously improving organization demands more than
debates and resources; it requires a proper organizational culture. Successful continuousimprovement depends on certain cultural factors. The challenge that faces many organizations is how to facilitate continuousimprovement and embed its spirit in their organizational cultures. There are specific values and behaviours associated with continuousimprovement. Several recent studies have confirmed the crucial role of organizational culture in implementing operational management approaches. However, answering the question of “how” is still awaiting a clear road map. This paper provides aliteraturereview that explores the aspects that could facilitate acontinuousimprovementculture, where there is a clear demand for modelling the proper climate for continuousimprovement. This literaturereview has included the articles have been published within the last two decades. It concluded with a group of cultural aspects, which draws guidelines for leaders to facilitate continuousimprovement in their organizations.
What makes the perceived proliferation of financial fraud especially worrying is the in- creased involvement of established financial institutions. Captains of industry, including large banks the likes of Goldman Sachs and Deutsche Bank, accountancy firms like Ernst & Young and Deloitte, and insurance conglomerates such as Lloyds and AIG, have been involved in many of the financial scandals discussed in this paper. Even in those cases where these respected institutions did not play an active role as primary perpetrators, they often played a more facilitating role backstage by turning a blind eye to fraudulent practices from which they could reap profits indirectly. The industry itself has usually responded to revelations of their involvement in financial fraud by suggesting that such fraudulent deals are the work of “a few bad apples” within the organization. The findings of this literaturereview, however, seem to dismiss the “bad apples” theory and instead lend support to the criminogenic markets hypothesis, which postulates that markets and organizations can be criminogenic in the sense that they structurally facilitate or even promote illegal behavior. Although the market structures and arrangements that have been identified in the literature as being responsible for financial fraud differ between different types of fraud, it is possible to distill from this literaturereview four recent de- velopments that are believed to have greatly facilitated the occurrence of financial fraud. First, scholars have repeatedly pointed out the problematic consequences of financial deregulation and the changing structure of competition and compensation. Financial deregulation has intensified competitive dynamics in previously protected industries and allowed new fundamental conflicts of interest and perverse incentive structures to develop in both vertically and horizontally integrated, large financial conglomerates that provide a wide range of financial services to a great diversity of clients. Parallel to this, the institutionalization of incentive-based compensation structures (e.g., stock op- tions, bonuses, commission fees) in financial firms, not only at the top but at all levels, has been said to have created perverse incentives throughout the entire financial value chain. As a result, business models of financial firms have become increasingly oriented towards short-term profit-making and stock-price maximization, irrespective of the legal implications of such business models. Fines and other legal penalties are built into such business models as simply a cost of doing business. 81 The incentive problem has been further exacerbated by the introduction of new layers of intermediaries (e.g., fund managers, financial advisers, mortgage brokers, insurance agents) in the financial value chain and the new forms of compensation that have come with it.
specific transition processes were accompanied, sometimes guided by the advice of international organisations. Especially the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have recommended a policy mix which aimed at facilitating the systemic change. The recommended policies included liberalising economic activity, prices, and market operations with the aim of reallocating resources to their most efficient use. Macro-economic stability was thought to be best achieved by indirect, market-oriented instruments (Havrylyshyn and Wolf, 1999; Hare and Turley, 2013). Free entrepreneurship was a cornerstone of a more efficient allocation system. More effective enterprise management in incumbents was often achieved by privatisations and the imposition of budget constraints to incentivise efficiency enhancing firm restricting. Markets were opened to both national and international competition, and firm exit was facilitated (e.g., Commander et al. 1999). The advice for specific policies was accompanied by the establishment of an institutional and legal framework that secured property rights, the rule of law and transparent market-entry regulations (Havrylyshyn and Wolf, 1999; Hare and Turley, 2013). In addition, the prospect of EU accession has encouraged many transition countries to open and deregulate their markets and divest state-owned assets (Dutz and Vagliasindi, 2000b).
were identified as existing at the individual level, as well as at the national level. According to Hofstede et al. (2010), Saudi culture has revealed the following scores for each dimension. The power distance in Saudi Arabia is very high (95) and tends to be more centralised, where people accept a hierarchical order with no need for further justification. In the second dimension (individualism), the score was low (25), which shows that Saudi Arabia is considered a collectivistic society, where loyalty in a collectivist culture is paramount, and over- rides most other societal rules and regulations. Masculinity in Saudi society seems to be relatively high (60). In masculine countries the emphasis is on equity, competition and performance and conflicts are resolved by fighting them out. Saudi culture has a preference for avoiding uncertainty (80). Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour. Saudi culture has revealed low score in long term orientation dimension (36), which exhibits great respect for traditions and a focus on achieving quick results. In the last dimension (indulgence), Saudi Arabia has achieved 52, which does not point to a clear preference on this dimension (Hofstede et al. 2010) .
Keywords: Organizational culture, continuousimprovement, nonprofit organizations. Introduction
The success of continuousimprovement (CI) practice is dependent upon certain critical success factors. Areview of the continuousimprovementliterature reveals that the primary function of continuousimprovement in any organization is to improve processes. CI also develops services and products by establishing gradual but incremental improvements or developments within a business. Continuousimprovement is all about tactics, and the anchor for CI is the belief that any additional small changes will result in significant developments in an organization (Sila and Ebrahimpour, 2003). The specifics or the tactics of CI aim at changing the organization culture from an ordinary one towards an improved culture. The improved culture focuses on the improvement opportunities rather than problems that may arise during the continuousimprovement process (A.S. Sohal and M. Terziovski, 2000). Some success factors enhance these improvement opportunities.
184.108.40.206 Process Management
Process management means having a clear commitment to control and improve a process using certain tools and techniques (Shaked, 2013). Bessant et al. (1994) suggest that the entirety of organisation management should be transformed toward managing as a process, which could be strengthened by a supporting toolkit. Al-Tabbaa, Leach and March (2014) had no doubt that ‘managing for improvement’ is in the spirit of CI. According to Bessant, Caffyn, and Gallagher (2001), CI development is essentially an evolutionary process, not a binary state. Process management underpins active CI implementation, which requires the use of scientific skills in decision-making and the adoption of a quality information system capable of producing precise and valid information (Lee et al., 2002). According to Firbank (2010), CI is influenced by the degree of formalisation and professionalisation throughout the organisation. Verma and Moran (2014) argued that process adjustment and improvement should be considered as a non-stop mission, one that needs to allow the proper infrastructure to keep processes improving continuously. Process management also needs to develop futuristic planning through implementing strategic performance management (Fryer and Ogden, 2014). Nguyen and Robinson (2015) observed that different types of organisational structures play roles in CI progress, and they believe that some national cultures have more suitable structures than others in terms of CI. According to Lodgaard et al. (2016), organisations must demonstrate management commitment to organizing and operating CI and prove this by using a variety of CI methods in addition to capturing and sharing knowledge. Good maintenance of equipment is one of the CI practices that is mentioned widely in CI literature and one that has an unarguable impact (Iberahim et al., 2016).
Dr Patrick McLaughlin
Senior Lecturer in Manufacturing Management, Cranfield University
The literature shows that organizational culture has a significant impact on implementing and sustaining continuousimprovement initiatives, although there is a lack of research on how to achieve this impact. Therefore, this action research adopts a grounded theory approach to explore aspects of organizational culture that facilitate continuousimprovement. Eighteen interviews in nine nonprofit organizations yielded data which, when analysed revealed forty emergent factors, classifiable into six core themes developed by the participants during two focus group discussions. These themes conceptualized by Schain's model of organizational culture.
In summary, eye-movement measures have proven to be valuable for detecting certain perfor- mance decrements, assessing high-workload conditions and SA, and discriminating between more- experienced and less-experienced pilots. Depending on author and theory, at least Stage 1 of SA can be assessed via eye tracking. Pilots with high SA have shown, for instance, high fixation rates on the electronic centralized aircraft monitoring display when searching for a special malfunction together with a structured scanning behaviour (Van De Merwe et al., 2012). Structured cockpit scanning and more attention to relevant cues when failures are present (e.g., the percentage dwell time on areas of interest) can be an indicator of expertise and good performance. The average dwell time of fixations on the instrument panel can be an indicator of workload, whereas the parameter of fixation time can be useful to estimate uncertainty and risk of a situation. Different models of visual attention and scanning were proposed (e.g., modeling performance in a changing flight environment and predict- ing visual attention; e.g., ADAPT; Doane & Sohn, 2000) or predicting the level of pilot SA from the optimality of the pilot’s scan path (A–SA; Wickens & McCarley, 2008). An important finding of the reviewed eye-tracking studies is that pilots were not always aware of their actual scanning techni- ques. The importance of appropriate visual scanning techniques to support flight performance, decision making, and SA suggests that eye-tracking devices integrated into flight simulators could be useful for training to promote SA and efficient and effective scanning behavior.
Objetivo: Analizar la importancia de Tamizaje Neonatal para el tratamiento de los niños con fenilcetonuria. Método: Se trata de una revisión integradora. Para seleccionar los estudios que analizamos las bases de datos electrónicas Scientific Electronic Library Online - Portal de la revista SciELO y CAPES en septiembre de 2013, utilizando las palabras clave: Fenilcetonuria, Triaje, Salud del Niño. Resultados: El análisis de los artículos se indica que en el período 2008- 2013, el año 2010 tuvo el mayor número de publicaciones. La mayoría de los estudios se detuvieron para examinar la importancia del programa de cribado neonatal para evaluar los fenilcetonuria seguimiento, así como para caracterizar el rendimiento de los niños son diagnosticados a tiempo con fenilcetonuria. Conclusión: Los estudios han demostrado que el tratamiento es significativamente más eficaz cuando se despliega en la etapa de pre - clínica de la enfermedad y hay una prueba de detección, la prueba de detección, que es simple, eficaz, aplicable a gran escala y bajo costo. Descriptores: Fenilcetonuria, Triaje, Salud del niño.
and aromatics. It is the latter group that is thought to have an eﬀect on the solubility of water in jet fuel, as discussed in Section 4.3.2.
Approximately 0.5% to 1% of petroleum-based jet fuel consist of non- hydrocarbon components such as naphthenic acids and compounds of sul- phur, sodium, lead and bromine . Raw kerosene must meet the limits of non-hydrocarbon components set by the Defence Standard (DEF STAN) 91-91 (or equivalent, Table 1) [3, 4]. In most cases the kerosene has to be treated in the reﬁnery (by hydrotreating or Merox-Processing) to meet these targets. The resulting chemical composition of jet fuel varies slightly with the diﬀerent treatments, and this was thought to have an impact on the fuel hygroscopicity. However, recent studies have shown that the diﬀerent treat- ments do not have a signiﬁcant eﬀect on the amount of water absorbed by the fuel .
2 good jobs are harder to find locally than they used to be”, Mughan and Lacy underline the role that may be played by “socio-tropic job insecurity”, i.e. people’s perception that all citizens in a country are having a hard time finding good jobs. For a discussion a different types of job insecurity and their determinants see also Anderson and Pontusson (2007).
The first to look at the relationship between institutions, investment in ICT and productivity are Gust and Marquez (2004), who focus on the E.U.-U.S. productivity gap and its relationship with investment in ICT and analyse whether the lower investment in ICT and the lower productivity impact of ICT in the E.U. can be related to the regulatory framework in the E.U. relative to the one of the U.S.. In particular, their main interests reside in labour and product market regulations. Their working hypothesis is that excess product regulation –creating barriers to entry and exit and hence reducing market dynamism- reduces the incentives to invest and adopt new technologies. Similarly, rigidities in the labour market tend to reduce the ability of firms to adjust flexibly their workforce (as suggested by the ICT-Organizational change- Human capital complementarity hypothesis) and hence discourage ICT adoption and reduce the impact of ICT on productivity. 82 The authors regress labour productivity growth rates on the share of ICT production over total GDP (to capture the size of the ICT-producing sector) and the share of expenditures in ICT over GDP (to measure diffusion of ICT within the economy), while controlling for changes in the labour force participation rate. They find that both ICT-related variables are positively and significantly correlated with productivity growth (the coefficient on the share of ICT production over GDP tends to be more robust to the introduction of additional controls 83 ). When exploring the determinants of ICT expenditures, Gust and Marquez add, as additional controls, human capital (proxied by the years of schooling in a given country), the share of the service sector (to control for differences in industrial composition), an index of overall regulatory burden, an index capturing the regulatory burden to start-ups
that this assumption is misleading since any kind of empirical work requires a system by its nature. Therefore, the comprehensiveness and the complexity of this task make an unsystematic approach obsolete. The comprehensiveness as well as the degree of detail for aliteraturereview depend on both the chosen methodology (see 2.2.4) as well as the type of literaturereview (see 2.2.2). The necessity of a clear methodological approach is often underestimated but ultimately forms the basis for an effective literaturereview (Levy & Ellis 2006). This is one of the characteristics which Levy and Ellis (2006) point out as a key success factor. Additionally, they point out that researchers should keep in mind, that firm basis, which aliteraturereview provides, serves as a baseline to demon- strate the new contribution of the proposed research endeavor (Levy & Ellis 2006). This foundation provided by the literaturereview should be used to position the own research among the other sources in the own research area (Ridley 2012). However, this statement is only applicable to research conducted in an area which is already examined to a degree in which a broad foundation is existent. In some areas, which have not yet been in focus of scholarly activity, aliteraturereview is not the means of choice for start- ing a research project. So, exploratory research as it is performed in this thesis cannot be based on a conventional literaturereview as proposed by several guidebooks. Still the differentiation of Ridley (2012) is applicable which divides the term literaturereview into two parts: The product which is the results of performing according to the above-men- tioned methodology and will be the starting point for the research. The second and equally important part looks at the literaturereview from a process perspective which is per- formed gradually throughout the research project. Each step a researcher has to follow to complete his endeavor should be guided by literature supporting as well as justifying the current action. In conclusion, it can be stated that aliteraturereview is neither a single nor simple task. Conducting a full literaturereview requires a wide range of activities to achieve satisfactory results for the whole research project.
The final hurdle to trial participation are of course decisions by the patients themselves, and indeed the reasons to decline – preference for one particular intervention and unwillingness to be randomly assigned – can be viewed as forms of randomisation bias. Specifically, as mentioned, non-experimental designs allow patients to choose the treatment option they prefer. In an RCT, by contrast, this choice is taken away and patients can only choose whether to receive a probability of receiving a given therapy (indeed, they might only be able to choose whether to volunteer for a blinded trial where they would potentially but not knowingly be receiving a new treatment with unproven benefits and unknown risks). Such a design will thus exclude those with strong treatment preferences (hence not willing to leave the choice to chance) and is likely to create a highly selective pool of trial participants, e.g. those accepting randomisation as a last hope for a cure. In addition to the loss of control, a dislike of randomisation itself is the major reason given by patients for declining trial entry (see e.g. Jenkins and Fallowfield, 2000, and the literaturereview by Ellis, 2000). Indeed, such recruitment hence selection difficulties are further compounded by the fear of being a ‘placebo responder’. 10
Provided in Cooperation with:
European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
Suggested Citation: Hansen, Hogni Kalso; Niedomysl, Thomas (2010) : Migration of Creativity
- ALiteratureReview of a Growing Field, 50th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Sustainable Regional Growth and Development in the Creative Knowledge Economy", 19-23 August 2010, Jönköping, Sweden, European Regional Science Association (ERSA), Louvain-la-Neuve
employers, ultimately to be made redundant or pressurised into early retirement.
As would be expected, some occupations and roles are more likely to fall into either linear or protean career types (Hall and Richter, 1990; Heslin, 2005) and certain jobs also may be perceived as age-typed (e.g. stereotypically young or old) or gender- typed (stereotypically masculine or feminine) (Goldberg et al., 2004). To a degree this may affect career plateauing although whether this largely results from an employer‟s unwillingness to overturn these stereotypes or an individual‟s own reluctance to attempt to breach these perceptual barriers has not been investigated. Similarly in situations where plateauing is still defined very much by objective career mobility, progress may vary according to what is commonly accepted as the meaning of “mobility” in a particular job type (Tremblay and Roger, 1993).
2.2.3 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH LITERATURE
Like the innovation and market research domains described in Section 2.2.1 and 2.2.2 the consumer behaviour research domain of literature includes a very large volume of texts 4 . It is split into two broad categories, based on the perspective of consumer behaviour adopted within the research. The behaviourist perspective assumes that behaviours are the direct response of a consumer to an external stimulus (Jenkins, 2002). The cognitivist perspective however, posits that individuals engage in an intervening period of information processing when stimulated (Jenkins, 2002; Baker, 2002) during which they “make sense” (Jenkins, 2002, p. 182) of the information received. This processing and interpretation procedure is guided by the person’s underlying interests, values and knowledge of past experiences (Baker, 2002; Gutman, 1982), and results in the formation of attitudes or actions on the basis of these internal influences (Jenkins, 2002). The role of the researcher within cognitivist consumer behaviour research is to uncover and interpret the information processing mechanisms in order to understand how attitudes and behaviours are produced (Baker, 2002). These cognitive processing mechanisms are carried out at a subconscious level (Baker, 2002). Consequently consumers are often unaware of or unable to describe the specific processes in a given situation and the phenomena of interest within cognitivist studies are therefore similar in nature to hidden consumer needs. Consequently, due to its focus on a phenomenon which is similar to that on which this systematic review is focussed, it is the cognitivist approach to consumer behaviour research which is of greatest relevance.
Crowd Logistics − ALiteratureReview and Maturity Model
Jens Mehmann, Volker Frehe and Frank Teuteberg
Crowd Logistics (CL) is identified as a topic of high importance in the area of logistics. From the practical point of view, initial experiences and realizations have already been gained, however, scientific research regarding Crowd Logistics is still in its in- fancy and multiple research questions are still unexplored. By means of a systematic literaturereview (LR) as well as a quantitative data analysis (QDA) of existing busi- ness models, we obtained a scientific definition of the term Crowd Logistics. Further- more, we set up a research agenda to counter the open research questions. Addition- ally, based on the results of the LR and the QDA as well as the knowledge gained in field studies, we developed a Crowd Logistics Maturity Model (CLMM). We evaluated the CLMM by the use of an existing company.
Most trace gases with large man-made sources show higher concentrations in the northern hemisphere compared with the southern hemisphere, following the global population distribution. Hydrogen is unusual in having larger atmospheric sinks in the northern hemisphere compared with the southern hemisphere, following the global land surface distribution. The soil uptake sink for hydrogen causes higher concentrations in the southern hemisphere compared with the northern hemisphere, hence the inverted concentration distribution, because of the greater land surface area in the northern hemisphere Continuous high-frequency hydrogen monitoring carried out at the Mace Head, Ireland Atmospheric Research Station supported by BEIS points to current northern hemisphere baseline levels being 496.5 ppb (Simmonds et al., 2000) over the 1994-1998 period. This makes hydrogen the ninth most abundant atmospheric gas (after nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium and methane). The Mace Head observations demonstrated the presence of European regional hydrogen sources, local sinks in the peat bogs surrounding the Mace Head station and the inverted tropospheric distribution when elevated hydrogen levels were advected to the station from tropical latitudes (Simmonds et al., 2000).
120 Numerous studies have measured the correlation between Facebook use and personality characteristics. For example, studies have reported on the significant use of the Big Five personality model (Lee, Ahn, and Kim, 2014; Marshall et al., 2015). The model comprises of five dimensions of personality: extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Costa and McCrae, 1992). Extraversion is related to being assertive, seeking social connections, and loquacity; neuroticism is associated with anxiety, mood swings, and emotional imbalance, such that people with a higher level of neuroticism prefer to be alone rather than being connected socially; openness to experience includes welcoming new options, such as exploring and learning about new prospects; agreeableness is a state of being cooperative, collaborative, warm, and synergic; and conscientiousness is related to diligence and caution (Marshall et al., 2015). According to several authors (Correa et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2014; Marshall et al., 2015; Moore and McElroy, 2012), these personality factors differentiate users of SNSs from one another. The research further confirmed that openness to experience and extraversion are meaningfully linked with SNSs use, while emotional stability is inversely associated therewith.