More broadly, this paper is also connected to the evolutionary literature on cultural transmission of traits and preferences and the coevolution of genes and culture (e.g., Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman, 1981; Boyd and Richerson, 1985; Richerson and Boyd, 2004; Bell, Richerson and McElreath, 2009; and in economics Bisin and Verdier, 2000, 2001, 2010; Seabright, 2010; and Bowles and Gintis, 2011), and to the growing empirical literature on the e¤ects of speci…c genetic traits, measured at the molecular level, on economic, cultural and social outcomes. 3 However, as already mentioned, in our analysis we do not focus on the direct e¤ects of intergenerationally transmitted traits subject to selection, but on general measures of ancestry based on neutral genes, which tend to change randomly over time, and capture long-term relatedness across populations. Finally, our work is connected to a di¤erent but related set of contributions focusing on the economic and political e¤ects of genetic and cultural diversity not between populations, but within populations and societies (Ashraf and Galor, 2013a, 2013b; Arbatli, Ashraf and Galor, 2013, Desmet, Ortuño-Ortín and Wacziarg, 2014).
Compared with some traditional economic push and pull factors discussed in the migration literature, this study finds that the impact of linguistic proximity on migration flows is lower than that of ethnic networks or income per capita in the destination country, but much stronger than that of unemployment rates . Emigration flows to countries with the same language as in the origin are 20% higher than to countries with a language that does not share any level on the linguistic tree. For example, emigration rates to France are predicted to be around 18% higher from Benin, where French is the first official language, than from Zambia, whose first official language shares only one level of the linguistic tree with French, and 6% higher than from São Tomé, whose language shares four levels of the linguistic tree family. However, using a more comprehensive data set than analyses that are restricted to migration between OECD countries, recent research finds a much smaller implied role for linguistic distance , . A one standard deviation increase in linguistic proximity raises migration flows by just 0.02 standard deviations (a tenth of the impact of a similar change in GDP per capita but a larger impact than that of higher unemployment). The result also holds when either the linguistic proximity between the most commonly used language in each country or the minimum distance between any of multiple official and most widely spoken languages in each country is used. Figure 2 presents the size of immigration flows for different levels of linguistic proximity. The majority of migrant flows occur between linguistically distant countries when the distance is measured only between the first official language in origin and destination countries. Not surprisingly, flows are somewhat larger at high levels of linguistic proximity when a comprehensive measure is used that includes multiple official and widely spoken languages rather than just the first, since the language of the former colonial power is often one of many official languages in former colonies.
Nonetheless, translations into the other major European languages happen to be con- siderable by general world standards, and as a result, those into English remain stunningly low in the comparison. Table 3 derives from a study that was financed by the Commission of the European Communities (BIPE conseil 1993). The statistics are only partial, as they relate to one particular year, 1991. They also focus strictly on translations into the home language and, therefore, fail to reflect the (small) extent to which some European countries outside of the UK translate their own authors into English. (Corresponding translations of English authors into non-English languages are negligible in the UK.) However, the general impression the statistics convey is confirmed by a variety of other sources, including a study by the research department of the French Ministry of Culture (1990), a related and broader investigation by Heilbron (1992) (giving special, though not exclusive, attention to the Netherlands), and a close check of UNESCO data. The first three columns display the much greater importance of translations into the home language elsewhere in Europe than in the UK: the difference is on the order of 8 to one! As can be seen from the data, even a country as small as Portugal trans- lates more French and German into the national tongue than the UK. 18 Note also the afore-
(Volkmann 2010, 10). Literature, according to critics like Volkmann, Thaler, and Hass, in the context of cultural studies, has become part of a medial universe, which goes along with an extended definition of text/literature for modern approaches to teaching Englishlanguage and culture. This blurring of the distinction between literature with a capital L and a small l, as Thaler (2008, 16) quotes Mc Rhae (1996), had and still has an influence on school teaching, and thus on academic training of teachers, in a similar way as it is the case with culture C/c. Thus both, university curricula and – with some delay – school curricula have opened up the canon to “genres” like graffiti, popsongs, commercials or YouTube clips. There have been ongoing discussions about an “anything-goes-approach” to the literary canon – which affects universities and schools alike.
explorative intercultural studies with 77 high school students aged 16 in grades 9 and 10. As baseline data, American high school students in the USA were included in the survey. The studies were conducted between 1996 and 1997. They were situated within a complex study on the role of reading interest and reading strategies in understanding English texts (Finkbeiner, 1998, 2005). Text reading and follow-up interviews with immediate retrospections were conducted and polarity profiles were distributed to students of English in Taiwan and Germany. With the help of a polarity profile instrument (which allows assessment of readers’ text preferences), reader response was measured for three texts. Two extremes within one dimension are used. Several dimensions or indicators make up one main category. This study focused on the following main categories: (a) perception of text difficulty (b) reading interest and emotional text engagement (c) prior knowledge. There were indicators for each
Figure 2. Most frequently spoken languages in Europe (2006) Considering the fact that it is impossible to account for the ex- istence of one without the other, many linguists strongly suggest that culture should be integrated into EFL/ESL teaching materials (see Alptekin, 1993, 2002; McKay, 2000; Kılıçkaya, 2004). McKay (2000) emphasises that language teaching materials should include a variety of cultural elements in order to help learners develop an interest in language learning and to foster learner motivation. Likewise, Kılıçkaya (2004) suggests that textbooks that focus students’ attention on gram- matical structures are uninteresting and do not stimulate students who need variety and excitement in language learning in order to develop a genuine interest in the language learning process. Consequently, as posited by Peterson and Coltrane (2003), language classrooms should be environments where learners develop intercultural awareness in their attempt to learn the language; namely, they should know how to address people, make requests, and agree or disagree with someone who is a member of the target language speech community. Thereby, it could be possible for them to view the world from the perspective of others.
The Middle English period began with the invasion of the Normans in 1066. After winning the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror ascended the throne of England the same year. With him, Norman culture and civilisation entered the country, which was reigned by French-speaking rulers for more than three centuries. As French was the language of the rulers, it became the language of court, of aristocracy, of feudal culture, and finally of the middle class and of public administration (Klein & Reissner 2006: 14). This development was also facilitated by the fact that the majority of the English upper class had died in the Battle of Hastings. Therefore, the empty spaces were filled with the supporters of William (Baugh & Cable 2002: 112). Hence, society consisted of a French-speaking upper class and an Anglophone lower class. Moreover, it was a trilingual country, with French in the government and aristocracy, Latin being used in the churches and monasteries, and English as the language that was used by most people of the country (Algeo & Pyles 2004: 125). During that period, around 10 000 Franco-Norman words were included into English, with 7 500 of them still being used today. It is also due to this time that there are many designations for which a Romance as well as a Germanic version exists, for instance, to ask – to demand, and to wish – to desire (Klein & Reissner 2006: 14). The so-called Hundred-Years War between England and France from 1337 to 1453 led to a crucial change in terms of the social significance of French, as it was the language of the enemy. Therefore, English gained in significance (Klein & Reissner 2006: 15). It was also due to the fact that, towards the end of the Middle English period, the middle class rose. As this class mostly spoke English, it was a supporting factor for the language, as the importance of a language is highly dependent on its speakers (Baugh & Cable 2002: 142).
Numerous studies have been conducted on the Total Physical Response learning strategy in various different settings. Among the target languages were Russian and Japanese for instance and children as well as adults served as subjects. The study outcomes propose that “dramatic facilitation in learning listening skill for a second language is related to acting out during retention tests” (ibid.). Even though the performing of actions whilst practicing for children of a particular age was not found to be crucial in these interventions, several pilot studies firmly suggest that this implication could be restricted to short-term practice that is a typical feature of interventions. However, if the practice is conducted throughout multiple weeks, performing actions appear to have strong motivational effects that preserve the performances and interests of students.
The texts that I have examined here involved themselves in a field that is latently structured by the conspirational mode of reading. Literature is capable of cap- turing and mapping the complexity of the semiotic order in a public sphere that is dominated by this mode. But, apparently, it has no other means to step out of this mode than by simplification: Nikolai is clearly less intelligent and less well- read than Pierre, but he is still more right than his brother-in-law. Mr. G-v, the narrator of Besy, is naïve and a bit shortsighted, yet his chronicle seems to be the only means to reinstall political order. Though not concerned with the conspira- tional mode of reading induced by journalism and the press in the “epoch of an uncovering of all mysteries,” Tolstoy, in the concluding pages of Voina i mir, devaluates conspiracy as a political strategy; he ultimately ridicules Pierre’s de- sire for fame. The paradigm of individual heroism, evoked here through the mentioning of Plutarch and impersonated in the figure of Napoleon, is possibly the most effective conspiracy theory of the nineteenth century. The idea that a chosen individual, by some secret force, some inner “genius,” could change the course of history left a deep imprint on the minds of the epoch—in historiogra- phy, in novels as well as in daily life. The motif of threads, guided by an alien force, often recurs in conspiracy theories. It is of course no accident that in Niko- len’ka’s dream they are denoted in French (“le fil de la Vierge”) by his tutor Desal’. Nikolen’ka’s self-indulgent vision of greatness, inspired by his godfa- ther’s political speeches, is the dream of an adolescent who longs for recognition from his (dead) father. 70 What follows is the second, theoretical part of the epi-
In general the word order of a source language differs from that of the target language. The word reordering, especially the long-distance reordering, is a hard task in statistical machine translation. In order to tackle the reordering problem, this work investigates methods of reducing the number of units to be reordered by forming word groups. Syn- tactically relevant words are first clustered into syntactic phrases, which are then further reordered. In this work the reordering is modeled using different units such as part-of- speech (POS) tags, syntactic chunks, and trees. These labeled units are reordered using corresponding reordering rules, which are either learned automatically from training data (POS, chunks) or defined manually (trees). The experiments have been carried out on variant corpora sizes and shown that the chunk-based reordering works better than the POS-based method. The tree-based reordering works best on longer sentences. Although the experiments have been performed on Chinese-English translation, the chunk-based reordering is also suitable for other languages which have no good quality tree parser. In addition, our approaches have provided multiple reorderings for the translation system rather than only one reordering, in order to avoid translation errors from false reorderings. Another aspect of this thesis is the analysis of unaligned words. Sometimes a word in the source language has no corresponding translation in the target language, which brings about unaligned words in the word alignment. This work argues that these unaligned words cause translation errors such as word deletions and word insertions. To test this hypothesis, the most frequently unaligned words in the source language are completely deleted (hard deletion) or conditionally deleted (soft deletion). Both approaches result in an improvement in the translation quality.
Porter, M.; Kramer, M. (2011). Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Review January - February.
Przychodzen, J.; Przychodzen, W. (2015). Relationships between eco-innovation and financial performance - evidence from publicly traded companies in Poland and Hungary. Journal of Cleaner Production 90: 253-263. Rennings, K.; Zwick, T. (2003). Employment Impacts of Cleaner Production. Heidelberg: ZEW Economic Studies. Rexhepi, G.; Kurtishi, S.; Bexheti, G. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Innovation the Drivers of
sophistiquée, les moyens de transport plus efficaces. L’Angleterre orientale, largement ouverte aux innovations venues du continent, les villes, les élites rurales furent les vecteurs du changement, qu’il s’agisse de modifications dans la structure du bâti, du développement d’une céramique correspondant davantage aux exigences des élites, ou encore des transformations dans le domaine vestimentaire. Ce qui ressort de la lecture de cette contribution est la vision d’un monde à la fois plus complexe, plus mouvant et plus sophistiqué que ce que l’historiographie traditionnelle de la culture matérielle du Moyen Âge a longtemps laissé envisager.
In this work Brewer addresses not only a specialist readership, but also a wider public of people with an interest in history. He dispenses with footnotes, providing instead an annotated bibliography. Brewer weaves the theoretical and conceptual basis of his work into its fabric so skilfully that the reader is never made explicitly aware of it. (His theoretical approach derives from his own studies on the history of consumerism. It is inspired by Bourdieu’s work on the evolution of taste, La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement, and draws important impulses from John Guillory, Cultural Capital: The Problem of Literary
This special issue features the work of authors originally coming from different communities: bibliometrics/scientometrics (SCIM), information retrieval (IR) and, as an emerging player gaining more relevance for both aforementioned fields, natu- ral language processing (NLP). The work presented in their papers combine ideas from all these fields, having in common that they all are using the scholarly data well known in scientometrics and solving problems typical to scientometric re- search. They model and mine citations, as well as metadata of bibliographic records (authorships, titles, abstracts sometimes), which is common practice in SCIM. They also mine and process fulltexts (including in-text references and equations) which is common practice in IR and requires established NLP text mining tech- niques. IR collections are utilised to ensure reproducible evaluations; creating and sharing test collections in evaluation initiatives such as CLEF eHealth 1 is common IR tradition that is also prominent in NLP, e.g., by the CL-SciSumm shared task. 2 From an IR perspective, surprisingly, scholarly information retrieval and rec- ommendation, though gaining momentum, have not always been the focus of re- search in the past. Besides operating on a rich set of data for researchers in all three disciplines to play with, scholarly search poses challenges in particular for G. Cabanac
model should have the function of representing how English is spread worldwide. It depicts its patterns of acquisition and the functional domains in which the language is used globally. The Inner circle describes those countries in which English is natively spoken (ENL) and used as a primary language e.g. The UK, The USA, Australia and New Zealand. The Outer Circles refer to “postcolonial Anglophonic contexts”, countries with diverse and large speech communities such as African and Asian societies (Nigeria, Zambia, India, Singapore etc.). Thus, this circle involves multilingual societies in which English is only one of the many speech varieties. In such societies English becomes recognized as an official, legal or educational language and is used in a range of domains. The remaining Expanding circle, hence refers to those areas where English is an international language, meaning it is learned as a Foreign Language (EFL). China, Greece, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Korea, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, and the former Soviet Union have been included in this first definition. Nowadays this circle includes most Western countries and is still expanding (cf. Bolton, 2006:289-312). In his model Kachru (1985) argues not to give native language countries a superior status and thus he is less concerned with Inner Circle countries but rather with the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. It should be emphasized that the Englishlanguage belongs to all people who use it and that most developments can be observed in Outer Circle or Expanding circle countries. Thus, his model followed the mission of reducing existing inequalities in scholarly and political contexts and by that it has been changing attitudes towards varieties of English. Considering its implications, this model has been of great importance in the field of Linguistics and influenced perspectives on language teaching and language policies (cf. Schneider, 2007:14). Since the group of interest in this study are international people who are temporarily studying or working in Perth, English as a Foreign Language should be the focus of research. In other words, I focus on the Expanding (rather than the Outer) Circle 1 .
73 Findings regarding students‟ attitudes towards the languages revealed that students predominantly perceived English as a global language, whereas the vast majority perceived Slovene as a language that enabled students to communicate with fellow citizens from Slovenia and speakers of Slovene. However, students‟ various attitudes and perceptions towards Slovene reflected the variety in which the language is represented in Carinthia. Therefore, Slovene represented not only the official language of the Republic Slovenia, but also the language of the territory the students lived in and the language of the Slovene minority. Even though it is clear that languages are primarily used for communication, the findings revealed the status as language of communication was perceived as one of the highest. This supports the argument that the students were not only interested in communicating English with people from all over the world, but also in communicating with people from Slovene-speaking countries. However, students‟ motivations to learn the languages were related to where the languages were spoken. Therefore, the students valued English more as there are more countries in which English is spoken than Slovene- speaking countries. Since communication involved understanding media, the motivations to understand English media clearly outweighed. English media could represent students‟ external stimuli and therefore support these findings. The same results for Slovene and English were found in terms of the status as a foreign language, supporting the finding that Slovene was primarily learned as a foreign language than a second language. This means that even though Slovene represents the second language in Carinthia, the vast majority of the participating students learned it as an additional foreign language.
Numbers and phonetic spellings are to be spoken at a slower rate, preferably with slight pauses to ease understanding and to allow the writing process (ICAO, 2001f).
The language used for communication is mainly English. The designated glossary of standard words and phrases used are limited and devoid of contextual influences. The message structure and construction differs from general English, in that it lacks grammar and tenses, persisting on brevity and accuracy. More will be discussed on ATC related vocabulary in Chapter 3. Globally, the same guidelines are used by every country that provides air traffic control services. Pilots and controllers are trained to communicate as standards and recommended practices prescribe. On the other hand, it is necessary to maintain a certain degree of proficiency in general English when none of the standard phraseologies are suitable to address such scenarios. As other air traffic related technologies advanced and improved, ATC radiotelephony has to accommodate the increased demand of more users on the frequency as well as enhanced efficiency of traffic management. ATC radiotelephony has been an area of interest for its significant role in ensuring safety of flights. Errors in radiotelephony which contributed to aviation incidents and accidents are usually categorised under communication problems, some of which will be discussed next.
From the beginning of the 21st century, world literature has been a resurgent concept and a highly influential field. But it has also been relatively weak and uniform on literary theory, as well as susceptible to perpetuating an old world order. On both counts, Lorna Burns’s Postcolonialism after World Literature: Relation, Equality, Dissent offers a major intervention and essential reading for anyone interested in global and postcolonial trajectories of literature today. Engaging theorists in discourse – from Bruno Latour and Rita Felski to Gilles Deleuze, Édouard Glissant, and ultimately Jacques Rancière – as well as writers like J. M. Coetzee, Arundhati Roy, and Kamila Shamsie, the book assembles new philosophical and post-critical perspectives for conjoining postcolonial and world literary studies.
The reduced relevance of originality that makes it possible for fan contribu- tions to figure as equally accepted versions of a transmedia storyworld leads us back once more to the new role of the consumer. Participatory culture implies modes of participation that can no longer be easily controlled by the media indus- try. It describes multi-directional processes where the roles of producers and con- sumers, authors and readers can no longer strictly be kept apart and where con- sumers creatively appropriate stories in forms that may in turn be seized upon and re-appropriated by the media industry (Jenkins 2006, 148). This new appreciation of the creative activity of consumers is not explicitly taken into account by theories of adaptation or medial transposition. With its two main pillars of ‘transmedia storytelling’ and ‘participatory culture,’ convergence culture thus implies two new aspects: the downgrading of the original and the upgrading of the prosumer. It is these two aspects that may, after all, justify the proclamation of a new ‘conver- gence culture’ for phenomena that in other respects do not differ so much from well-established concepts.