Nach oben pdf Energy and carbon taxes in the EU: Empirical evidence with focus on the transport sector

Energy and carbon taxes in the EU: Empirical evidence with focus on the transport sector

Energy and carbon taxes in the EU: Empirical evidence with focus on the transport sector

Abstract This paper provides an overview of energy and (implicit) CO 2 taxation in the EU member countries. Against the background of the EU energy taxation directives, energy and implicit CO 2 tax rates in the EU countries are discussed, focussing on taxation in the transport sector as a major non-ETS emitter. Empiri- cal evidence on the impact of energy and carbon taxes on energy use and emissions is presented and the economic and distributional effects of energy and carbon taxes are then discussed. Research on energy price elasticities suggests that energy and carbon taxation can make a significant contribution towards achieving emission reductions, particularly in the transport sector where greenhouse gas emis- sions continue to be on the rise in the EU. Evidence on the economic impacts of energy and carbon taxes furthermore shows that a double divided can be achieved. With respect to the distributional im- pacts of carbon and energy taxes evidence is, however, mixed. While empirical studies generally ne- gate regressive effects for taxes on transport fuels, energy and carbon taxes on heating fuels tend to be found regressive.
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The Effect of Renewable Energy Development on Carbon Emission Reduction: An Empirical Analysis for the EU-15 Countries

The Effect of Renewable Energy Development on Carbon Emission Reduction: An Empirical Analysis for the EU-15 Countries

5. Summary, Conclusion and Policy Recommendation In this study, we evaluated the impact of renewable energy development on carbon emission reduction. We also investigated the effectiveness of innovation in energy technologies for reducing carbon emissions, ICT technologies, and environmental taxes applied to encourage renewable energy development. Environmental tax was considered in the model, in order to evaluate the effects of market regulation. Several scholars have applied different methodologies to examine the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in individual and groups of countries with respect to governmental energy policies. The relationship between carbon emissions and economic growth has been studied by many researchers using the Environmental Kuznets Curve. These studies analyzed variables, such as population, inequality, trade, and openness. Most results showed that environmental quality would be promoted after a certain level of economic growth is achieved. Therefore, developed countries with a high level of GDP per capita would promote environmental quality.
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Household Welfare and CO2 Emission Impacts of Energy and Carbon Taxes in Mexico

Household Welfare and CO2 Emission Impacts of Energy and Carbon Taxes in Mexico

While the effects of these reforms on energy consumer prices may be uncertain in some  cases (oil sector) or modest in others (gasoline price subsidies), energy subsidy cuts and an  ambitious climate policy are likely to increase energy prices in a country with a fossil‐fuel re‐ liant energy system. Higher energy prices are thus likely to lead in the short‐run to welfare  losses that may not be equally distributed. In developed countries, poorer households tend  to be more vulnerable to energy price increases, as energy goods usually represent a larger  proportion  of  their  total  expenditure,  with  some  exceptions  for  transport  fuels  (Flues  and  Thomas 2015; Speck 1999). For developing countries, although there is less evidence on the  distributional effects, Shah and Whalley (1991) as well as Shah and Larsen (1992) pointed out  early on that the emerging distributional patterns are apparently different. Recent results in  Sterner (2011) and Arze del Granado et al. (2012) show that high‐income households capture  significantly  higher  amounts  of  subsidies  for  fuels  than  low‐income  households. A  similar  result  is  found  by  Datta  (2010),  who  investigates  the  distributional  welfare  effects  of  a  fuel  tax  in  India.  Gillingham  et  al.  (2006)  show  that  the  direct  (consumption  losses  via  higher  prices)  and  indirect  (income  effects)  welfare  impacts  of  fuel  price  increases  (both  domestic  and  transport  fuels)  are  either  regressive  or  distributionally  neutral  in  relative  terms  for  a  range of developing countries. 
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Corporate Sustainability Management in the Energy Sector – An Empirical Contingency Approach

Corporate Sustainability Management in the Energy Sector – An Empirical Contingency Approach

Interviewees from the UT sectors see national and European governments and regulators as the most powerful external pressure groups in terms of corporate sustainability. This is not because they are most demanding but because they are in the strongest position to change or revoke companies’ current licenses to operate through higher chiefly environmental standards. In the past domestic emission standards and the EU large combustion plant directive effectively reduced air pollution (Economist Intelligence Unit, 2003a). Nowadays mostly utilities with a CO 2 -intensive fuel mix for their power plants are strongly driven by the European CO 2 emission trading system which will become mandatory after 2008. The EU has also set an indicative target for electricity sourced from renewable energies of 12.5% by 2012. In contrast, governments in industrialized countries constitute a less powerful pressure group in the OG sector because, as elaborated in the quote below and section 8.1 Issues in more detail, they cannot easily regulate those activities that are associated with the sector’s major issues. This is because the activities take place in developing countries (social impact of upstream activities) and in the use phase of the product (local air pollution and, above all, climate change through use of fossil fuels). Interviewees also reported that governments in developed countries are clearly more concerned with social and environmental performance than developing countries are. The latter are primarily concerned with oil and gas revenues, even if they become increasingly aware of environmental and social issues over time. In developed countries regulatory pressure on OG companies is limited to raising standards of fuel quality, i.e. the reduction of lead and sulfur content to combat local air pollution. In Europe, individual member states have introduced eco-taxes on fuels. Furthermore, refineries will be subject to the forthcoming EU emission trading system (Anonymous, 2004d), but the corresponding pressure is substantially lower than in the UT sector due to the lower carbon intensity (see section 8.1.1.2 Environmental issues).
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How do plants respond to a rising carbon tax? : empirical evidence on energy consumption and emissions

How do plants respond to a rising carbon tax? : empirical evidence on energy consumption and emissions

Ever since researchers have provided evidence for a causal link between man-made emissions of green house gases and global warming, there is a consensus that urgent actions are required to drastically reduce emission levels and avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. How- ever, no consensus has been reached regarding the key question on how to efficiently reduce the climate-damaging emissions. In fact, a broad spectrum of climate policy instruments are con- currently in use ranging from emission trading schemes, subsidies for renewable energy sources, emission target agreements to taxes on gasoline as well as taxes on carbon dioxide emissions. The main goal of these policies is to provide incentives for consumers and firms alike to switch to cleaner energy sources and/or to reduce their emissions of GHG into the atmosphere. In light of this broad variety of potential policy interventions, empirical evidence on the impact of various policies on energy consumption and emissions of firms and households is rather scarce, in particular with respect to the effects of a carbon tax on firm or plant outcomes.
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Carbon taxes, path dependency and directed technical change: Evidence from the auto industry

Carbon taxes, path dependency and directed technical change: Evidence from the auto industry

Second, our paper relates to the literature on directed technical change, in particular Acemoglu (1998, 2002; 2008) which itself was inspired by early contributions by Hicks (1932) and Habakkuk (1962). 4 An application of this idea is the empirical literature link- ing environmental policy and directed technical change (surveyed in Popp, Newell and Jaffe, 2009). In particular, Popp (2002) uses aggregate U.S. patent data from 1970 to 1994 to study the effect of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. He finds a signif- icant impact from both energy prices and past knowledge stocks on directed innovation. However, since Popp uses aggregate data a concern is that his regressions also capture macro-economic shocks correlated with both innovation and the energy price. Our work uses international firm-level panel data which allows us to exploit differences in the extent to which firms in different countries are affected by policy-induced shocks to the energy price (e.g. from fuel taxes). We control for global macro shocks with a full set of time dummies. Further evidence of directed technical change in the context of energy-saving can be found in Newell, Jaffe and Stavins (1999) which focuses on the air-conditioning industry, or in Crabb and Johnson (2010) who also look at energy-efficient automotive technology. However, neither of these papers use multi-country data nor analyze whether there is path dependency in the direction of technical change. Hassler, Krussell and Olovs- son (2011) find evidence for a trend increase in energy saving technologies following oil price shocks. They measure the energy-saving bias of technology as essentially a residual which is attractive as it side-steps the need to classify patents into distinct classes. The advantage of our technology variables is that they are more directly related to the inno- vation we want to measure. Finally, Acemoglu, Akcigit, Hanley and Kerr (2012) calibrate a microeconomic model of directed technical change to derive quantitative estimates of the optimal climate change policy.
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Carbon pricing in Germany's road transport and housing sector: Options for reimbursing carbon revenues

Carbon pricing in Germany's road transport and housing sector: Options for reimbursing carbon revenues

Abstract In 2021, Germany will launch a national emissions trading system (ETS) in its road transport and housing sectors. This climate policy instrument aims at raising the energy cost burden of those households and firms that consume fossil fuels, the major source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. A promising approach to secure public acceptance for such a carbon pricing would be to entirely reallocate the resulting “carbon” revenues to consumers. This article discusses three alternatives: a) a per-capita reallocation to private households, b) the reduction of electricity prices by, e.g., decreasing the electricity tax, as well as c) targeted financial aid for vulnerable consumers, such as increasing housing benefits. To estimate both the revenues originating from carbon pricing and the resulting emission savings, we use price elasticities on individual energy consumption in the road transport and housing sector from the empirical literature. Most effective with respect to alleviating the burden of poor households would be increasing housing benefits. While this measure would not require large monetary resources, we argue that the remaining revenues should be preferably employed to reduce Germany’s electricity tax, given the steadily increasing amount of electricity generated by renewable energy technologies.
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Energy integration across electricity, heating & cooling and the transport sector - Sector coupling

Energy integration across electricity, heating & cooling and the transport sector - Sector coupling

5 What is the impact of taxes, levies and fees on the profitability of sector coupling technologies? In the EU, the development of RES has been stronger in the power sector than in heating & cooling and in the transport sector. Provided that financing of addi- tional costs arising from RES-support is predominantly financed via levies on top of the electricity price, the burden on electricity (weighted EU-average) has been increasing between 2008 and 2015 (see Figure 2, upper figure), leading to higher burden for electricity compared to gas. This leads to high fuel prices for heat pumps, whilst a gas boiler profits from gas prices with lower regulatory price com- ponents. We observe an increasing relevance of regulatory and non-market based price components in particular in case of electricity (see Figure 2, upper figure). Whilst the higher burden for electricity has not been a problem for com- petition in two separate and mainly independent markets, differences in charges can lead to distortions of competition, if electricity competes as a fuel with gas. Another effect of the increased relevance of regulatory price components is that price signals from the market do not reach the final consumers in an undistorted manner and may set wrong incentives. Thus, industrial load management may lead to higher grid fees if the maximum load increases due to the implemented measures (see Agora Energiewende, 2017). Self-produced electricity which is often (partially) exempted from charges or fees may not cease production in times of excess electricity supply or electricity prices amounting to zero (see Agora En- ergiewende, 2017).
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A study of international trade with a theoretical and empirical focus on endogenous transport cost / Vera Stelzer B.A.(econ.)

A study of international trade with a theoretical and empirical focus on endogenous transport cost / Vera Stelzer B.A.(econ.)

Also Hummels, Lugovskyy, and Skiba (2007) theoretically and empirically look at this topic. They investigate the market power in the transport sector and show that the transport price is not just a cost proportional to the value traded. Hummels, Lugovskyy, and Skiba (2007) found that ocean cargo transport firms charge higher prices when transporting products with higher product prices, lower import demand elasticities, higher tariffs and when facing fewer competitors on a trade route. They also mention that the transport sector formed a cartel and the transport carriers met at so-called liner conferences to discuss shipping prices and market shares. Since October 2008 carriers serving the EU are no longer allowed to participate in liner conferences. The EU commissions released their own guidelines, first in 2008 and then some clearer guidelines in 2011 which are similar to the competition laws in other sectors of the economy. This shows that in the real world there exists a transport sector with endogenous transport costs and therefore transport costs should also be endogenously modelled in trade theory.
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Carbon Prices are Redundant in the 2030 EU Climate and Energy Policy Package

Carbon Prices are Redundant in the 2030 EU Climate and Energy Policy Package

LIBEMOD determines all prices and quantities in the European energy industry as well as prices and quantities of energy goods traded globally. In addition, the model determines CO 2 emissions by country and sectors (households; services and public sector; manufacturing; transport; and electricity generation). In Section 2 we provide a description of LIBEMOD, focusing mainly on supply of electricity. This section builds on an earlier version of the model; see Aune et al. (2008). In the new version of the model, more countries have been added (mainly Eastern European countries); the end-user sectors have been refined (the services and public sector has been separated from the household segment); the modeling of wind power has been changed and more renewable technologies have been included (run-of-river hydro and solar power); the modeling of natural gas has been refined (LNG has been included); bioenergy has been split into biomass and biofuel; all data have been updated (the data year has been changed from 2000 to 2009); and the complete model has been recalibrated (see LIBEMOD 2015). In particular, to the best of our knowledge, LIBEMOD is the first energy market model with truly endogenous investment in renewable electricity.
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Tightening EU ETS targets in line with the European Green Deal: Impacts on the decarbonization of the EU power sector

Tightening EU ETS targets in line with the European Green Deal: Impacts on the decarbonization of the EU power sector

8% and cumulated power sector emissions by 18%, thereby shifting more of the decarbonization burden to the industry sector. At the same time, electricity prices and total system costs are only marginally affected even if BECCS is unavailable – they increase by less than 1%. This illustrates that the negative emissions from BECCS can facilitate achieving deep decarbonization targets, but they are not a sine qua non for power sector decarbonization. Refraining from using fossil-based CCS has no discernible effect on carbon emissions and prices. It thus seems sensible to focus CCS-related research and demonstration projects on BECCS and CCS for industry process emissions instead of CCS for fossil power plants. While this study provides new insights on ETS-driven power sector decarbonization pathways for the EU, further research is needed to test the robustness of these findings and to better represent the deep interconnectedness of future decarbonized energy systems. One important step would be to increase the detail of the representation of industry and heating plant abatement costs and options. Furthermore, sector-coupling effects on electricity demand and short-term flexibility options as well as the competition for scarce resources like biomass or CO 2 storage
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Innovation in the energy sector

Innovation in the energy sector

Reactions to arising issues While a flexible policy design is desirable and adjustments to existing policies are required, the means are arguable. In particular, instruments that are currently applied in Germany promote conflicting policy objectives, since there have been calls for subsidies for maintaining back-up capacities. Hence, the phase-in promotion of RE would be combined with the promotion of undesired technologies that policy makers sought to phase-out. Quintessentially, all energy producers would receive subsidies, the state would be the old and new central player, and the market selection process would be undermined. This is not desirable in an industry in which many decentralised players compete, and central planning is neither feasible nor desired. Policy makers need to guarantee the security of supply, which resulted in a discussion about the grid, and spare capacities or maintaining a strategic reserve. The strategic reserve does not partake in the wholesale market. It is triggered by a shortage and a price increase, which induces a volume of approximately € 12bn. This is then paid to the entity of all plants, and not only to the providers of emergency capacities who would otherwise exit the market due to their lacking profitability. Approximately 40% of the volume, € 4.8bn, is paid to nuclear facilities (12,000 MW) and brown coal plants (18,000 MW).
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The use of carbon taxes and charges in climate policy

The use of carbon taxes and charges in climate policy

The first carbon taxes were implemented in the early 1990s in the Scandinavian countries and Netherlands (Table 2). The objective of these taxes levied on petroleum products, natural gas and – in some cases – coal, were to reduce or at least stabilize energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. Carbon taxes in Finland, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden are general government revenues and are not rather earmarked for environmental purposes. However, in all four countries carbon taxes were part of a broader environmental tax reforms designed to the overall shift tax burden from labor to environmental degradation (see Hoerner and Bosquet, 2001: 11-26). The carbon and other environmental tax revenues have been used to reduce income taxes and social security contributions.
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Supporting carbon taxes: The role of fairness

Supporting carbon taxes: The role of fairness

port for Pigouvian pricing. Politicians are well-advised to not use all environmental tax proceeds for green spending purposes, as it could leave those disengaged about the environment outside of the conversation. A lump-sum payment appears to have broadest appeal because it seems to address a wide variety of fairness motives and own economic interests. 1 Rich countries that enacted a major carbon price reform in the past used the revenue for several modes of spending at the same time (see Klenert et al., 2018a). Our study underlines that such revenue use to make carbon pricing work for all citizens is an essential feature, rather than a political bug of political successful environmental taxation, which is not the case for naïve double dividend proposals that entail the reduction of other taxes for instance. What is more, with increasingly ambitious climate policies in the future both the distributional impacts as well as the revenues are bound to grow. Sooner or later the question of recycling will thus become conflated with questions of broader societal redistribution. If anything, this will make the issue of fairness only more relevant.
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Resource Integration and Value Co-Creation: Evidence from the Energy Sector

Resource Integration and Value Co-Creation: Evidence from the Energy Sector

elements of the environment are reflected in the organization and these characteristics show persistence after the sensitive time period (Marquis & Tilcsik, 2013). In the observed cases, organizational structures such as the size of the organization and the degree of existing ecosystems and capabilities as shown with the firm’s endowment with operand or operant resources showed to have an impact on the pathways of the value co-creation activities. Therefore, it can be said that the co-creation activities were designed to fit the initial institutional environment and the synchronization is a mechanism to ensure this throughout the maturization of the value co-creation. The relative stability of the pathway later can be then explained by institutionalism (Marquis & Huang, 2010; Kimberly, 1975). On the other hand, recent literature finds, that the constraints of initial resource and technology environment shape initial practices and capabilities as shown for example in a study of Kriauciunas and Kale (2006). In our sample, firms that showed a background in technology development or were familiar with several technology-based value creation activities, focused to take these initial resources to leverage them for resource integration through a higher degree of resources interaction. Contrary, firms with low technology resources focused on high interaction of organizations and maintained this over time. However, contrary to the findings of Kriauciunas and Kale (2006), in the case of value co-creation initial resource and technology constraints need to be evaluated based on the included overall ecosystem and synchronized alongside the actors. Therefore, the path dependency or imprint has an impact on the overall ecosystem and seems to get stronger in its effect. Moreover, the counterintuitive finding that pathway 1c is impassable to the studied firms
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Energy efficiency and the role of energy-related financial literacy : evidence from the European residential sector

Energy efficiency and the role of energy-related financial literacy : evidence from the European residential sector

The survey included eight questions that account for several dimensions of energy-related financial literacy. Five of these eight questions tried to assess the level of knowledge related to electricity price, the electricity consumption of some appliances, and the concept of risk diversification. The remaining three questions were structured to collect information on the level of cogni- tive skills of the households in performing an invest- ment analysis and computing the lifetime cost of an appliance. In particular, two out of these three questions ask respondents to make calculations considering the inflation rate and the concept of compound interest rate, while the third question targets computation of the life- time cost of an appliance. We provide a description of the questions used to compute the literacy variables in the “Appendix” section. Based on the number of correct answers to the different questions, we compute three indices of energy-related financial literacy. 13 We con- struct a general index of energy-related financial literacy (lit_index) based on all eight questions available, which takes values from 0 to 8. We also split the general index into two sub-indices and compute one index varying from 0 to 5 that should reflect the level of energy-related knowledge (lit_knowledge) and a second index varying from 0 to 3 that should represent the level of cognitive abilities of the households in doing an investment cal- culation (lit_cogn_abil). We think that this distinction is interesting because it allows us to separate the role of knowledge from the role of cognitive ability with re- spect to the level of efficiency.
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Labour relations in comparative perspective: Special focus on the SME sector

Labour relations in comparative perspective: Special focus on the SME sector

representation (i.e. that are partners in collective bargaining) and trade interests (i.e. chamber of trade and commerce, etc.). 3 The most radical restructuring process took place in the Post-socialist economies during the 1990s following the collapse of state-socialist ‘regime’. Aftermath the privatisation, in relation to the deconstruction-decentralisation of the former mono-system of employers’ organisations, a proliferation of employers’ organisations have taken place. 4 As a result of this process, we may register three employers’ organisations in Poland and six or more in Hungary. Among various problems related to the role of business and employers’ associations in the New Member States, we would like to stress the underdevelopment of sector level bargaining: ‘This is due to the fact that in most of these countries sectoral employers’ organisations are either weak and lack the necessary resources to participate or that they are denied the authority to conclude sectoral agreements on behalf of their members, as is often the case for instance in Hungary and in Poland.’ 5 However, in Hungary, to overcome the lack of sector level social dialogue, an EU-funded (PHARE, 2001-2004) project was launched aimed to create autonomous sector (branch) level institution of social dialogue. This new institution within the Hungarian LRS would have a role to support sector level consultations among the social actors, increasing the number of sector level collective agreements. 6
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The effect of organizational justice on knowledge sharing: Empirical evidence from the Chinese telecommunications sector

The effect of organizational justice on knowledge sharing: Empirical evidence from the Chinese telecommunications sector

2007; Yesil & Dereli, 2013 ). Therefore, knowledge (such as skills and expertise), when used in daily business practices of an organization, plays the role of competitive advantage ( Afsheen et al., 2015 ; Hu, Horng, & Sun, 2009 ; Yesil & Dereli, 2013 ). It requires the firms not only to share the knowledge but to also integrate it into daily organizational processes at large ( Llopis & Foss, 2016 ). Organizations are now knowledge-integrating institutions that combine different groups and people to col- lect as well as donate their knowledge to produce goods and services ( Ibragimova, Ryan, Windsor, & Prybutok, 2012 ). More- over, while obtaining and donating knowledge, knowledge sharing is found as a significant method to further generate the knowledge ( Xinyan & Xin, 2006 ). Therefore, for burgeon- ing knowledge management initiatives in the organization, knowledge sharing is very crucial ( Wang & Noe, 2010 ). It can be said that knowledge sharing is a mechanism by which knowl- edge can be transmitted between individuals. Consequently, through such knowledge transmission, individuals acquire new edge to facilitate new actions. Thus, it can be infer that knowledge sharing contributes value to existing knowledge within the organizations. In the knowledge management liter- ature, knowledge management is defined as “those strategies that comprise of such activities of creating, codifying and shar- ing knowledge for obtaining the right information for right person in the right place at right time”( Jean-Paul & Shih, 2011 , p. 3). This definition highlights the importance of knowledge management in day-to-day organizational maters. Addition- ally, importance of knowledge sharing is also well accredited in psychology literature related to work ( Wang & Noe, 2010 ). Knowledge sharing is referred as “provision of task informa- tion and the know-how to help others and to collaborate with others to solve problems, develop new ideas or
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Combining international cap-and-trade with national carbon taxes

Combining international cap-and-trade with national carbon taxes

3 1994; Bovenberg, 1999). Different revenue recycling regimes can also have major implications for first-best instrument choice (Pezzey and Jotzo, 2012). We show that an additional tax levied in one country will increase the country’s cost of producing the public good, decrease the others country’s cost, and increase overall costs. This is because of differences in marginal abatement costs. The allowance price in the joint cap-and-trade scheme will decrease as result of the tax relative to a situation without the extra tax. The relative size of countries and the magnitude and correlation of uncertainty are important determinants for the actual effect of the tax on the allowance price and total costs. Additional abatement generated by the tax will only occur in cases when all abatement is generated by the tax and exceeds the joint quantity target of public good production of both countries. This represents a corner solution in which the cap-and-trade allowance price equals zero. Expected costs can be far higher in this situation than in the case of pure cap-and-trade without the tax.
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Turnaround in Energy Policy – Measures to Reduce the Carbon Dioxide Emission from the Private Sector

Turnaround in Energy Policy – Measures to Reduce the Carbon Dioxide Emission from the Private Sector

x and several more. These legal acts are to turn the political stagnation due to the greenhouse gas emission into action. Thus, in Article 7 of Directive (EU) 2018/855, European Union points out: “The 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change following the 21st Co nference of the Par- ties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 21) boosts the Union’s efforts to decarbonize its building stock. Taking into account that almost 50% of Union’s final energy consumption is used for heating and cooling, of which 80% is used in buildings, the achievement of the Union’s energy and climate goals is linked to the Union’s efforts to renovate its building stock by giving priority to energy efficiency, making use of theenergy efficiency first’ principle as well as considering deployment of renewables.”
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