Digital technology gives us a totally new perspective on the broadcasting of information and Inter- net has changed the way we communicate and share information in a way we could not have fore- seen. Countless websites contain educational, artistic, scientific, and lifestyle information, next to websites offering entertainment in the broadest sense of the word. We can travel through time and space, see and hear things that we would never before have seen or heard. There are digital copies of fragile old books and manuscripts that we can look at, we can search for annotations and read what other people know or think about the pages we visit. We can educate others and ourselves by sharing knowledge via digitalised information, being text, images, film, or sound and music. This article aims to discuss various reasons for ‘digitisation’ and explain a few of the methods used. I shall illustrate this by showing a few examples from Europe and the United States. The underlying con- cepts of ‘digitalconservation’ as well as ‘culturalheritage’ are complex. I will elaborate, very briefly, on these concepts to touch upon their complexity.
Second Life also provides due to the peculiarities of its content creation and storage system severe challenges for the sustainability of engagement by institutions and corporations. As it has been discussed before, investments that are undertaken in the creation of new assets could be lost if Second Life ceases to exist as a platform. This content strategy applied by Second Life shows strong similarities to early on- line platforms like Compuserve (CompuServe Information Service) and its market strategy in the 1980-90s where content was held in a walled garden environment. Despite these limitations, Second Life provides nevertheless a useful and informa- tive environment for the evaluation of user contributions: first of all, the tight inte- gration of content production tools and workflows within the environment itself al- lows user contributions to take place. Second, Second Life can be regarded as a case study for an emerging environment. While the principal concepts of virtual worlds have been around for several years, actual uses and practices that would ap- peal to a mass audience haven't been identified yet. The emergence of such prac- tices depends however upon innovation as discussed before and Second Life pro- vides an environment where these practices are actively explored through user contributions.
the World Trade Organisation (WTO) (Desai, 2015). Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa form the acronym BRICS. The BRICS countries have relatively stable economies, and developing countries in Africa have turned to them for economic support. Especially in the case of India and China, their presence in Africa is seen as a South-South cooperation that offers policy alternatives that would bring better economic yields to African countries. Contrary to new hopes of economic salvation from neo-liberal capitalists, BRICS promote economic dependency in Africa (Luce, 2015). BRICS is sponsoring huge infrastructure development in Africa, and African countries will have to endlessly be paying off loans. In some cases, African countries have to offer their resources as collateral for such loans. These conditions are similar to colonial conditions (Luce, 2015). These sub-imperialist tendencies are perceived as a form ofcultural imperialism. The donation of Gandhi’s statue to Ghana would therefore be part of India’s cultural sub-imperialism.
The digital presentation of reference libraries has, until now, of- ten been limited to the provision ofdigital catalogs that make li- brary metadata and digital copies available in a specific viewer and/or as a PDF download. While these forms of presentation do provide access to the material for research, they hardly convey the autographical patterns in the book collections, which are distinctly characterized by the reading traces that have been left in them. While current research practices are based on time-consuming ex- tensive individual book research and oftentimes require applica- tions to get access to the books, we aim to devise modes of access that provide synoptic perspectives on the whole material at once as well as detailed views on particular books and pages. This re- sembles what Wieland calls a diachronic-vertical way of reading the reference library in addition and distinction from the usual hor- izontal reading [ Wie15 ]. The goal of the project was not to provide a research tool for close-reading practices, e.g., by developing an integrated PDF viewer for annotation, but to create a tool that en- ables a completely new perspective on the material for exploration, serving as an entrance point to the formulation of tentative research questions.
The application of Earth Observation (EO) techniques has proven essential to the detection, documentation, monitoring and preservation of tangible culturalheritage sites. Advanced remote sensing methodologies can provide a multi- temporal analysis and monitoring ofculturalheritage sites, in order to provide essential information to stakeholders regarding the condition of the culturalheritage sites, so that appropriate measures can be taken for the preservation and conservationof the sites. Instruments based on the integration of EO products and in-situ data have been exhaustively proven to be a valuable tool in support of the protection and management ofCulturalHeritage at risk . One of the main advantages of remote sensing techniques is their capability to provide a huge amount of information in a non- invasive way in a cost-effective way than the traditional techniques. Data acquired by active and passive satellite, aerial and ground sensors have provided the opportunity to visually access areas that may be remote or hazardous, as in the case of wars, terrorist attacks or natural disasters. Especially in these cases, satellite sensing carries the advantage to monitor areas without being there and facing the challenges of political crisis and personal security. Taking advantage of large-spatial coverage, high-spectral and sensitivity satellite remote sensing can be usefully adopted for looting . Such issues were examined within the auspices of the ATHENA project, whose overall objective was to create a centre of Excellence specialised in the field of Remote Sensing for CulturalHeritage applications at the Cyprus University of Technology. The ATHENA project focused on the development and systematic use of advanced remote sensing science and technologies for the multi-temporal analysis and interpretation of archaeological and built culturalheritage, and the distant monitoring of their natural and anthropogenic environment. The ATHENA
Audiovisual media such as ﬁlm, video, and TV have become the predominant medium of the 21th century. From its beginning in the early 1900s until today, all kind of events all around the globe have been captured on celluloid, magnetic tape, or digital hard discs. By accessing these recordings, we are able to turn back the clock and take a peek on people and places of bygone time. But, most AV material being part of our culturalheritage is kept in archives without the possibility of appropriate access for the public audience. Even worse, celluloid is subject to an aging process and deteriorates over time. Also extensive (analog) preservation technology cannot guarantee long time storage and access. Thus, more and more AV material from the early age of ﬁlm will be irrecoverably lost. Therefore, governments worldwide are funding preservation and digitalization projects, such as NESTOR 1 – the German competence network for digital preservation – to prevent
As described in Section 2, one can argue that our proxies for culturalheritage are endogenous. Both measurement error and selective attention for heritage in particular neighbourhoods by municipalities may result in correlation between our heritage indicator and the error term in our estimation equations. We use a dummy for city rights as an instrument for the current size ofconservation area or number of listed built monuments. City rights were special rights and privileges ascribed to certain towns during the Middle Ages. Indeed, the traditional definition of a ‘city’ in Europe was a town with city rights. In the UK, city rights were appointed by a royal charter. Typically, the cities had a larger population compared to other towns and some of them, but certainly not all, have grown over the centuries to become main cities. These large cities have a lot ofculturalheritage, but the same is true for smaller cities that were more important in the past than nowadays. On the other hand there are also cities in the top of the current hierarchy that were virtually non-existent in the Middle Ages or the early modern period. This ensures that there is a positive correlation between this instrument and our proxies ofculturalheritage, whereas the quality of the culturalheritage as perceived today and the maintenance efforts (or lack thereof) in more recent times are probably unrelated to this variable.
The Villa of the Papyri was first explored from 1750 to 1765 through a network of tunnels burrowed into the volcanic rock by Karl Jacob Weber, a Swiss archi- tect and engineer, under the patronage of Charles III of Spain. From his detailed drawings an accurate map of the Villa could be established. Today, a large part of the Villa remains underground. In 1826, a library of about 1800 papyrus scrolls was discovered, giving the Villa its name. It is believed that the house belonged to a wealthy and learned Roman noble man, probably Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, father-in-law of Julius Caesar and consul in 58 BC. Recent excava- tions have revealed a small room with brightly colored wall paintings in a great state ofconservation. Therefore, this room is of major interest to conservators, conservation scientists, archaeologists, and historians as its surfaces remain as they were left in 79 AD. It is in this room and on the above terrace where our NMR measurements were taken.
3. Concerns regarding European urban heritage
Concerns of the World Heritage Cities (Organization of World Heritage Cities - OWHC) for European urban heritage are evident also by the programs launched by it. In this regard can be exemplified an achievement program case studies on conservation and management of historic cities called Historic Cities in Development: Keys for Understanding and Acting (http://www.ovpm.org/en/compilation_case_studies_conservation_and_management_historic_c ities). Each Member City has been invited to contribute by presenting one (or several) urban project(s) so as to understand in detail and describe in a hands-on manner the necessary processes and procedures and, by doing so, instigate a new shared understanding and respect with the respect for heritage, and in particular World Heritage, as part of urban development projects. The project goes beyond the exchange of know-how in conservation – it aims at introducing a more heritage-centered urban development approach. The aim is to create a dynamic within the OWHC’s network of member cities and, more generally, to thereby contribute to the global debate on urban heritage management and sustainable development. The project is headed by the OWHC and implemented by a Steering Committee coordinated by the City of Lyon (member of the OWHC) and the OWHC’s General Secretariat in collaboration with: UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre, as part of its financial and technical support through the Convention France-UNESCO and the Netherlands’ Funds-in-Trust, the Getty Conservation Institute, the Council of Europe, ICOMOS International.
societies through social and economic activities, which define the principle of sustainable develop- ment. Moreover, the contribution of past legacies to the local development can be measured not only by the immediate impact on the economy and on employment in several sectors (restoration of buildings, urban regeneration, rural develop- ment, cultural activities and tourism), but it can also be measured by the various benefits for the com- munity, such as improvement of image, well-being, a feeling of identity as well as social cohesion. Despite all the efforts, hopes and aspirations of those groups working towards peace in Kosovo* through cultural understanding and dialogue, the political situation in the region is still complex and Kosovo* remains in an extremely weak state. The lack of political commitment, continuous neglect, vandalism, theft, adverse decisions of municipal bodies, unplanned urban development, limited professional staff, and paying attention to the issue of inter-ethnic balancing of the cultural and religious heritage protection are the main reasons for the current situation. When we talk about monuments on the World Heritage List, it would be expected that they are (due to their great econo- mic potential) in the focus of reconstruction, but this is generally not the case. The Government in Priština did very little in that direction. Non-govern- mental organizations in the region working on the protection and promotion ofculturalheritage have not been dealing with the monuments on the List. Conservation and restoration, as well as other works on the sites are mainly implemented by the Institute for Protection ofCultural Monuments of the Republic of Serbia, and the Serbian Orthodox Church (SOC) is also taking care of them. However, due to the specific situation on the ground, per- haps the Church’s and the Community of
Due to climate change extreme weather conditions become more and more frequent in the last years. Especially in Germany nearly every year a large flood event happens. Most of these events are caused by strong rain. There are at most two causes for these floodings: The first is locally strong rain in the area of damage, the second happens at damage sites located near confluxes and strong rain in the upper stream areas of the joining rivers. The amount of damage is often strongly correlated with unreasonable designation of new construction in such endangered regions. Our presented study is based on an earlier project together with a german insurance company. In this project we analyzed correlations of geographical settings with the insurance data of flood damages over ten years. The result of this study was a strong relation of the terrain with the amount and the probability of damages. Further investigations allow us to derive a system for estimating potential endangerment due to strong rain just from suitable digital terrain models (DTMs). In the presented study we apply this method to different types ofculturalheritage (CH) sites in Germany and other parts of the world to detect which type of CH sites were build with potential endangerment of strong rain events in mind and which ones are prone to such events.
commercial inimitable competitive advantage for place-specific products (Montella 2009).
Instead, in such a scenario, policy makers are still debating regarding the perspectives of protection and enhancement, as if the two perspectives are dichotomous, and appear generally oriented to a policy focused on conservation targets that eventually neglect that the conservation itself implies and requires the devotion of stronger attention to enhancement targets. Indeed, conservation and safeguarding, on the one hand, and enhancement, on the other hand, have traditionally been objects of contention, almost as though the aims contrast in some manner. In effect, Italian regulation relative to culturalheritage (Legislative Decree 22 January 2004 n. 42) has established that enhancement must be conducted in accordance with safeguarding processes and, in any event, without prejudicing them. In this respect, in Italy, as mentioned, the primary orientation views cultural goods as objects of value to be protected through conservation activities and the establishment of several constraints. The result is the building of barriers that separate cultural goods from their general environments, which ends in the favoring of an approach that disregards what happens ‘outside’ the borders and, consequently, limits opportunities for enhancement. Thus, this view, although it has the aim of protecting goods, has the counter-effect of drawing boundaries around each unit ofcultural goods and the subsequent effect of disregarding the core characteristic of Italian culturalheritage: its uninterruptable continuity with the environment.
Especially in the coast of Asia Minor is worth mentioning, that today a great number of settlements is rescued and they are part of larger areas, of monumental architectural and cultural interest, such as those of the Propontis (Marmara Island, Cyzicus Peninsula), in Bithynia, the Region of Ayvalik, the peninsula Eritrea, Lycia etc. Additionally, many of these settlements are currently protected by the Cultural-Natural Heritage Act 2863, which defines which buildings are under the protection of Regions Committees (e.g. Marmara settlements with buildings protected by the Commission of Bursa according to law 2863: Bursa Kultur ve Tabia Varliklarini Koruma Bolge Kurulu, ConservationofCulturalHeritage Board of Bursa). This specific information concerning Asia Minor settlements, is conducted through an extended research which is part of the ongoing study program titled «Greek Communities Cultural and Ekistics Heritage in Asia Minor (17 th - 20 th centuries) » 8 . In particular, the content of the research includes the historical and architectural registration and enhancement of Greek settlements in the region of Asia Minor, from the sea of Propontis, all along the A.M. coast, to Lycia territories. The research project aims to fill the gap related to the historical, cultural and ekistics heritageof the Greek communities in Asia Minor. The implementation of this project will substantially contribute to highlight the role of the Greek communities in social, economic and cultural fields.
was organized in order to gather insights on the limitations and effectiveness of Artfacts for serving as platform that provides solutions for developing and managing DIA s . In this regard, the 2017 edition of the CdV offered an optimal setting for assessing the platform. The CdV has not only obtained the support from more than 70 institutions (see Section 2 .1.3 for more information about the motivation of organizers in regard to the CdV ), but also been able to attract different individuals from a variety of technical, artistic, and cultural backgrounds who are interested in pushing the boundaries of what can be create with Digital Collection (see Section 2 .1.2 for more information about the motivations and profiles of participants in regard to the CdV ). Concerning the research goals, besides trying to gather insights on ideal use cases supported by the platform, the case study also focused on analyzing how well the Artfacts Platform was able to cope with the demands of an interdisciplinary team within a creative working environment and under a strict deadline. Such environments, which are based on experimentation, expect DIA s ’ prototypes to respond quickly to changes in concept, structure, and content. The platform needs therefore to accommodate fast-changing requirements during intensive iterative development cycles (see Fast-speed IT Approach in Section 6 .0.1 ). In this sense, in an ideal scenario, all team members should retain a certain degree of autonomy to try out different design possibilities. That can be afforded by user-friendly and flexible methods for modeling data structures that can be fast deployed and integrated in DIA s . As part of the study, the chatbot Marbles of Remembrance (Murmeln der Erinnerung) was conceptualized and implemented. Not only details in regard to the technical development are discussed, but also observations that concern the employment and deployment of storytelling with Artfacts.
equity. This call for conservation is extended to the built environment, though the nature
of cities dynamics implies that we have to make trade offs between conservation and development issues. Therefore, preserving our built heritage means managing it for the benefit of current and future generations. In order to manage, we need to assess the relevance of the urban heritage we are dealing with. At first glance, we can distinguish between landmarks, and non-monumental buildings, which form the historic fabric, the setting for the most symbolic heritage given by monuments (Seragaldin, 2000). Traditionally, conservation has dealt with the restoration of outstanding buildings. In more recent years, the concept has been extended to the urban fabric, the historic centres, where often the issues ofconservation have to face the need for development. Obsolescence, and sometimes neglect are the indicators of loss ofcultural significance that may occur in parts of cities. Preservation of these parts may occur only when the community has both a use and a symbolic value to them. Urban development strategies need to achieve a balance between public commitment, private investors and community initiatives. Understanding the meaning that a specific urban heritage bears for the community it relates to is an important step towards a sound management project.
Seven-Parameter Transformation. SfM method delivers camera orientations and sparse point clouds, initially in an arbitrary model space. Each synthetic image involved in the SfM process stores 2D-to-3D correspondences between each image pixel or feature and the 3D laser data. This allows an implicit determination of the 3D-to-3D correspondences between the sparse point clouds and the laser data. To introduce scale information to the bundle, a seven-parameter transformation is estimated using the latter 3D correspondences and then applied to the SfM output. This results in having absolute oriented images in relation to the laser data. An alternative method that can increase measurement redundancy is by reprojecting the sparse point clouds onto the synthetic image using equation 4.1. Then, the 3D-to-3D correspondences between the sparse point clouds and the laser data can be determined using the 2D-to-3D correspondences between the latter projected sparse point clouds and the laser data stored in the synthetic image. For the reason that some points will be reprojected from object surfaces that are not covered in the generated image, the geometric relationship of the 3D-to-3D correspondences should be evaluated to remove these wrong points. This can be done using RANSAC filtering scheme based on seven-parameter transformation. Furthermore, an outlier removal process can be applied on the reprojection errors in object space, e.g. using the X84 rule. As mentioned in section 4.2, some dense matching algorithms deliver individual point clouds for almost each image, e.g. the software SURE therefore, it is more convenient to perform first a dense image matching step and then project only the corresponding single point cloud onto the generated image. This can filter out incorrect reprojected points on the generated image. Dense Image Matching. After the estimation of the transformation parameters, the orientation parameters for the camera images are known in the laser scanning coordinate system. These parameters can be used to retrieve dense surface reconstruction information from the images by means of dense image matching methods. The resulting geometry is in the coordinate system of the laser scanner and thus scaled. Supplemental improvement of point cloud registration using ICP is possible.
The edited volume DigitalCulturalHeritage is a collection of thirty contributions dealing with culturalheritage in the digital context. Covering a broad geographical and chronological scope, it presents the reader with an extensive overview of the current work in the field. Some of the topics that were given special attention in the volume are questions of preservation and presentation of (digital) culturalheritage, as well as possibilities for its enrichment with the help ofdigital tools. While rich in examples, the volume, however, lacks reader guidance and a rounded approach to the topic.
der crossing, and diaspora. Recent work considers such questions by ana- lysing the various ways in which multicultural groups are organised and what different individuals and groups regard as relevant »heritage« in their everyday lives. In this respect, critical heritage studies and memory stud- ies have a long tradition of putting a spotlight on the variety of everyday heritages and memories in various ways. 47 The connotations and framing ofheritage, however, differ from ›memory‹: To discuss heritage in terms of memory rather in terms of the materiality, durability over time, and value of artefacts significantly »displaces the debate, compared to the early years ofheritage boom […]. As a consequence, there is a move away from trying to be selective in heritage management to being inclusive.« 48 Hence, there has been an increasing focus on participation and the local, especially directed towards indigenous and minority groups, their participation in safeguard- ing projects, and a much needed emerging exploration of the potential for fruitful collaboration in heritage making, unmaking, and management. 49 In contrast, Sharon Macdonald’s analytical category frees itself from notions of »heritage« and »memory« lost in favour of paying attention to practices of »past presencing«. According to her, past presencing encompasses »different kinds of technologies, materializations or objects«, that societies have creat- ed to make the past present, which should all be considered in anthropolog- ical enquiries, with a focus on »how they allow access to distant pasts and places, or […] generate particular kinds of responses«. 50 At a higher level, the question should be discussed more widely on how we can keep cultural knowledge in its different forms of expression, materialities, and qualities (e. g. as culturalheritage) alive in the ongoing area of tension between conti- nuity and change – a debate which often operates under the term of »living heritage«, for instance in the context of the patrimonial regime of intangible culturalheritage. 51
As presented in chapter 4, our proposed general integration approach is applied to the dataset of the old farm house in order to assess the results. Therefore, 3 RGB images and 35 camera images have been employed for the SfM reconstruction. The orientations and the geometry from all used images were successfully derived (see figure 4.18). Then, the correspondences between the sparse point clouds and the laser data can be easily determined using the stored 3D data in the generated images. These correspondences allow the estimation of the Helmert transformation parameters in order to calculate the orienta- tions in absolute coordinate system. Furthermore, a procedure based on an iterative com- putation of the seven-parameters was accomplished in order to remove blunders or outliers. To assess the registration accuracy, our target-free registration is compared to the manual registration results. Table 5.3 shows that the registration reaches about three centimeter level for positioning accuracy (∆X, ∆Y, ∆Z) and about a tenth of a degree level for angular accuracy (∆ω, ∆ω, ∆κ). Additionally, table 5.3 demonstrates that the distance error (∆D) is two centimeters. These results indicate an improvement in the registration accuracy compared to the result of the approach in section (5.1) and very close to the results presented in section (5.2). Obviously, the automatic registration provides accurate a priori alignment for further global registration step by ICP. However, the precision of the positions is highly dependent on the image acquisition geometry – in particular the image scale and the intersection angles. Advantageous in the proposed approach is that the integrated camera images in the SfM process can strengthen the relative geometry of the generated images. Especially in case that scans are acquired at considerably changed viewpoints e.g. wide baseline or provide very little overlap, and non-overlapping laser scans.
The focus of this paper is the proper use ofdigital marketing tools in communication with the target audience. In all four institutions surveyed, their relationships with audiences are nurtured through digital marketing tools, of which they pick out Instagram, Facebook and the official website. The goal ofdigital marketing is to use all its resources. The authors of this paper believe that digital communication tools are not being used to a sufficient extent, given the opportunities they provide. It is therefore desirable to increase the number ofdigital channels used in communication in the future. With very little investment, the aforementioned tools offer sponsored content, and such advertisements with their novelties can serve as a tool to reach a younger audience. This is supported by the fact that young people today use “smart” phones in their daily communication through which they receive information in a fast and easy way. For cultural institutions to make the most of social networks, it is very important to be active, define your target audience, and create promotional content accordingly. Listening to visitors’ preferences is an important factor in creating promotional content. With a well-developed audience relationship strategy, great business progress can be made, and the audience needs to be at the heart of communication as every communication cycle begins and ends with it.