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Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Anti-Phishing Education App

Design, Implementation and Evaluation of an Anti-Phishing Education App

There are several proposals in literature for embedded learning [46, 47, 51]. One of these is a solution proposed by Jansson et al. [46] where simulated phishing e-mails with links to fake websites or malicious download attachments are sent out to users. The moment a user falls for a trap of these simulated e-mails he receives a notification informing him that he could have fallen for a real phishing attempt. Also, the e-mail includes a link to a website with a training program with general information and tips on how to detect phishing and malicious attachments. After consulting the training program the user is asked to complete a questionnaire in order to verify whether he understood the content of the training program. A very similar approach, the so called PhishGuru [47], is proposed by Kumaraguru. Another possibility is to leave out the step where simulated phishing e-mails are sent to users. Instead actual phishing e-mails are utilized. For example, the APWG and Carnegie University’s CyLab Usable Privacy and Security Laboratory (CUPS) work on the project “Phishing Education Landing Page” [52]. The moment a user clicks on a link of a real phishing website which has already been taken down, i.e. the moment the user behaves riskily, he is redirected to the anti-phishing landing page. There he is told that he had almost become a victim of phishing and provided with educational material to this topic. Finally, there is an approach where the intervention does not happen after clicking on a dangerous link, but while surfing [51]. When the user lands on a blacklisted phishing website and is about to disclose his sensitive data, i.e. presses the submit button, the system interferes: the user is warned and given tips on how to detect phishing websites (for example, he is provided with abstract information on the detection of spoofed URLs). As discussed before, all of these solutions benefit from the so called teachable moment (cf. Section 2.4.2). A downside of these
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Design, implementation and evaluation of a 3D image browser / Johannes Zlattinger

Design, implementation and evaluation of a 3D image browser / Johannes Zlattinger

Based on these colour spaces the following feature vectors and the corresponding computations have been implemented: Colour Coherence Vector, Dominant Colour Descriptor, Hue Histogram, M[r]

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Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Trust-Supporting Components in Virtual Communities for Patients

Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Trust-Supporting Components in Virtual Communities for Patients

The artifacts in the community give a rich and deep understanding of the life in the VC krebsgemeinschaft.de and the level of trust that members have in the community and each other. With the poem “Sign in the Heart . . . ,” an active community member described her feelings for the VC. Inspired by the original text of a popular German poem, she versified a corresponding variation about krebsgemeinschaft.de. Given such an impetus in form of her poem about the importance and meaning of the com- munity, the members started a vital discussion on the specific use of the Internet, in general, and of krebsgemeinschaft.de, in particular, for persons in their situation. This discussion reflects how fast the members reach the private level and reveal de- tails on their individual situation to delineate in which position they are. It can be assumed that VCs such as krebsgemeinschaft.de, which leave it to the users to choose their preferred degree of anonymity, lower the barrier to openly discuss taboo sub- jects (see Figure 8).
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Blockchain Lab : Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Innovative Business and Process Models

Blockchain Lab : Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Innovative Business and Process Models

Blockchains also enable fundamental organisational changes in governance, so they may be characterised as a disruptive innovation that breaks up established business models. For instance, a blockchain might be used to maintain estate property records in a peer-to-peer network eliminating institutional overhead. Generally speaking, several different classes of use-cases have been identified, conceivably triggering novel service processes and governance. Providing, auditing and preserving provenance information is, for instance, an important service today that is vital for a broad range of industries.
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Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile Security Scanner App for Smart Home Users / submitted by Kai Knabl, Bsc

Design, Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile Security Scanner App for Smart Home Users / submitted by Kai Knabl, Bsc

Another app meant to detect vulnerabilities in home-network devices is the IoPT (“Internet of Protected Things”) scanner. Here a scan is performed in two steps. First device “fingerprints” are created, containing information like open ports and running services. In a second step the app tests devices for a range of potential vulnerabilities. The app´s description states that the software is able to detect Server Message Block Protocol (SMB) vulnerabilities like “Eternal Blue” and the “Double Pulsar” backdoor installations. Other examples include the “String Bleed” exploit, which utilizes unauthorized Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) read/write and most recent router authorization bypass vulnerabilities. However, most checked vulnerabilities seem to be very specific which introduces issues as described in Section 3.1.3, including annoyingly long scan times. On a positive note, this app – compared to most others that have been mentioned – actually scans devices for actual problems. Yet, the used terminology definitely appears to be too technical for end-users with non-technical backgrounds. Furthermore the app seems to only list devices that could be successfully fingerprinted, meaning that a device provides at least one service which is considered relevant enough for further investigation. On top of that devices are only identifiable via their IP addresses. Scan-history functionality is not existing. The convenient use and meaningful interpretation of vulnerabilities by non-expert users therefore seems questionable. Furthermore, when tested with devices that contain insecure Telnet and SSH authentication the app failed to detect any problems [19].
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Implementation and evaluation of a hybrid microservice infrastructure

Implementation and evaluation of a hybrid microservice infrastructure

Considering modern software architecture, the microservice architectural style is a lasting trend over the last years, promising to be the key to highly available, scal- able and flexible application deployments. Today, these topics are mainly discussed in the context of web applications backed by cloud providers like Amazon Web Ser- vices (AWS) or the Google Cloud Platform, which are backed by numerous large scale data centers spread across the world. The microservice style is, however, by no means limited to end-user applications running on cloud provider infrastructure. Instead, regarding our mainframe scenario illustrated in figure 2.1, we can also exploit it to re- work the System z firmware design towards a microservice-based structure that takes advantage of the physical distribution between the SEs and the firmware partitions. The resulting microservice architecture can help with improving the stability of not only the systems management software, but of the mainframe platform as a whole. Pursuing this idea even further, moving more and more parts of the firmware onto the processor modules could, at least, render the alternate SE obsolete since the plat- form itself could be used for redundancy purposes. In this way, the utilization of ex- istent hardware could be increased while the costs for additional components would partially disappear.
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A System for Privacy-Preserving Mobile Health and Fitness Data Sharing: Design, Implementation and Evaluation

A System for Privacy-Preserving Mobile Health and Fitness Data Sharing: Design, Implementation and Evaluation

The server could obviously also change the study URL, but at this point, it becomes equivalent to the server discarding the registered study and creating its own, copying the description. The detection of forged studies (studies that claim to be from one institution but aren’t) can’t be done automatically and is an issue of user education. Finally, the server can modify the messages sent by clients attempt- ing to join a study. As they are not authenticated and use a publically known public key, their contents can easily be replaced by the server. However, this is equivalent to the server discarding the old message (which would be an attack on availability) and creating a new one. The effect would be that one user thinks she is participating in a study but in fact is not. However, it would not allow the server to read the data submitted by the client.
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Enhancing Asthma Control through IT: Design, Implementation and Planned Evaluation of the Mobile Asthma Companion

Enhancing Asthma Control through IT: Design, Implementation and Planned Evaluation of the Mobile Asthma Companion

ETH Zurich, Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Zurich, Switzerland fbarata@ethz.ch Abstract. The personal and financial burden of asthma highly depends on a patient’s disease self-management skill. Scalable mHealth apps, designed to empower patients, have the potential to play a crucial role in asthma disease management. However, the actual clinical efficacy of mHealth asthma apps is poorly understood due to the lack of both methodologically sound research and accessible evidence-based apps. We therefore apply design science with the goal to design, implement and evaluate a mHealth app for people with asthma, the Mobile Asthma Companion (MAC). The current prototype of MAC delivers health literacy knowledge triggered by nocturnal cough rates. We conclude by proposing a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of our prototype.
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Anti-Unification Algorithms: design, analysis, and implementation / eingereicht von: Alexander Baumgartner

Anti-Unification Algorithms: design, analysis, and implementation / eingereicht von: Alexander Baumgartner

a on some examples and discussing its properties, we briefly ex- plain informally what the rules do. At each step, each AUE ˜ x : ˜ s fi ˜ q; ˜ X : ˜ c fi ˜ d; a in P represents the hedges ˜ cr˜ ss and ˜ dr˜ qs which are to be generalized such that the final generalization contains the function symbols from a. They are split according to the occurrences of alignment elements: All symbols from a are in ˜ s and ˜ q . None of them appear in ˜ c and ˜ d . Such an AUE can be transformed by one of the first four rules: Spl-H, Abs-L, Abs-R, or App-A. The eventual goal of these transformations is to reach the occurrences of the first alignment element in ˜ s and ˜ q . In the course of the transformation, ˜ c and ˜ d are getting extended with contexts above those occurrences. Spl-H. When the symbols in a are distributed in more than one term both in ˜ s and in ˜ q , then we use the Spl-H rule to select subhedges of ˜ s and ˜ q which contain all the alignment elements. (The other parts of ˜ s and ˜ q are moved to the store, since they will not contribute a symbol to the generalization.) Furthermore, by this rule, each of these subhedges are split into two smaller subhedges: From the ˜ s side these are ˜ s| i k
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Design, Implementation, Evaluation and Application of a 32-Channel Radio Frequency Signal Generator for Thermal Magnetic Resonance Based Anti-Cancer Treatment

Design, Implementation, Evaluation and Application of a 32-Channel Radio Frequency Signal Generator for Thermal Magnetic Resonance Based Anti-Cancer Treatment

Targeted RF-induced heating is based on constructive and destructive interferences of electromagnetic (EM) waves transmitted with a multi-channel RF applicator. To achieve precise formation of the energy focal point, accurate thermal dose control and safety management, the transmitted RF signals’ frequency, amplitude and phase need to be regulated in real-time. Thus, the RF signal source is the key component for facilitating appropriate frequency, amplitude and phase settings of the RF signals. The radiation pattern of the single RF transmit element, the RF channel count and the RF frequency of the RF applicator are of high relevance for ensuring a patient and problem-oriented adaptation of the size, uniformity and location of the RF energy deposition in the target region [ 19 , 21 , 22 , 24 , 30 ]. The (re)design of multi-channel RF applicator configurations showed more than twofold enhancement of the RF power focusing capability by increasing the number of RF antennae from 12 to 20 [ 31 , 32 ]. Increasing the number of RF antennae resulted in higher RF power absorption and enhanced tumor coverage ratios in deep-seated brain tumors in children [ 33 ]. The optimal operating RF frequency depends on the RF applicator characteristics and the target tissue parameters [ 34 ]. Lower RF frequencies focus EM energy to larger regions and have lower energy losses inside and outside tissue. Higher RF frequencies facilitate focusing EM energy onto small targets. Numerical simulations and evaluation studies investigated the optimal RF frequency [ 24 ]. For regional hyperthermia improvement of the RF power absorption in the target region versus regions outside the target was demonstrated when increasing the RF frequency from 100 MHz to 150 MHz and 200 MHz [ 35 , 36 ]. The optimal heating frequency was examined for seven tumor locations using RF frequencies ranging from 400–900 MHz [ 37 ]. For superficial tumors, the highest average specific absorption ratio (aSAR) was obtained with higher frequencies where aSAR was improved with increasing the number of RF antennae. For deep-seated tumors, the highest aSAR was reported for lower frequencies. Studies on ultimate SAR amplification factors and RF applicator concepts suggested the use of high frequencies up to 1 GHz for a highly focused EM energy deposition [ 21 , 30 ]. Time-multiplexed beamforming, a mixed frequency approach and multi-frequency SAR focusing provide other directions into optimization of RF heating performance [ 38 – 40 ]. Recently, an iterative multiplexed vector field shaping (MVFS) approach was introduced to solve the time- and frequency multiplexed problem of constrained RF-induced hyperthermia [ 24 ]. This work underlined the need of wideband signal generators by demonstrating the contribution of distinct frequencies to the RF heating and by showing that these frequencies and contributions depend on the target geometry.
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Holistic design and implementation of pressure-actuated cellular structures

Holistic design and implementation of pressure-actuated cellular structures

Forces of inertia are included in both computational models in order to establish common conditions. Variances between the results from the truss and the FEM model thus have to be caused by the reasons described in chapter 3.3. As pressure loads are not yet applied to the structure, cell side elongation does not significantly affect the resulting distortion. A deviation of ∆𝛽𝑑𝑒𝑣 = 11.24° can be obtained and is consequently caused by assumptions within the implementation of hinge elements in the truss model. The increase of this deviation with rising amounts of pressure, which are investigated in the test segments two to five (cf. Figure 29), verify the relevance of hinge and cell side effects for accuracy of the computational results. Variations between FEM data and the experimental values attest the influence of the cell closure on the overall deformation. As investigated in [17] the DSEC is designed to utilize the cell pressure to support deformation. For zero pressure, the membrane’s stiffness leads to a reduction of the PACS’s deformation. The related values can be extracted from Figure 29. It should be noted that the examined PACS structure shows a deformation hysteresis, which is due to the utilization of polymeric and elastomeric materials. A value of ∆𝛽 ℎ𝑦𝑠 = ±8° appeared for the unloaded structure. An increase of loads reduces the influence of flexure-hinge-based energy potentials on the deformation and thus the cause for this hysteresis. The plastic deformation of hinge elements is another effect that results from the utilization of flexure hinges, expands the theoretical deviation analysis in chapter 3.3 and is labeled with 1-f).
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Design, implementation and characterization of synthetic riboswitches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Design, implementation and characterization of synthetic riboswitches in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

28 Although recognized as beneficial to wild type populations, synthetic biologists rather view noise as an impediment to the predictable functionality of designed genetic circuits. Here noise manifests as intrinsic and extrinsic to the studied phenotype. Intrinsic noise refers to variable rate constants of underlying processes such as promoter activity, transcription, partly translation and protein and mRNA half-lives of the respective gene. Extrinsic noise stems from processes that affect gene expression at large, such as the availability of the general and specific transcription and translation machinery. The differentiation between these two can be assessed by monitoring the expression of the equally controlled reporter genes. Uncorrelated fluctuations hint toward intrinsic noise, whereas correlated fluctuations point toward extrinsic influences. Noise as a cause of malfunctions of devices cannot be inferred from bulk measurements as these inherently average any phenotype and thus blend out the significant effects of cell-to-cell variations. To study populations with respect to their heterogeneity at the single-cell level corresponding techniques must be used. Time-lapse recordings by fluorescence spectroscopy in a microfluidic environment have emerged as powerful means to investigate noise phenomena. Flow cytometry is equally suited, but allows only snapshots of the population over time, as a specific cell can only be analyzed once. Efforts to determine and reduce noise have led to the construction and refinement of various synthetic genetic circuits and networks in the past years. Designed to follow Boolean logic, it is generally sought to have them process input signals in a digital-like manner (exemplified in Figure 2.13). Logics are named according to the desired signal integration. A NOR gate for instance will only yield an output, if none of both input signals are present. As described, phenotypic variations bedevil the realization of digital behavior.
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Design and implementation of a brain computer interface system

Design and implementation of a brain computer interface system

For the design of the data structure it is essential to take into account that the methods would deal with many kinds of data, such as continuous multi-channel EEG recordings, epoched data of different kinds, spectrograms, spectra, feature vectors, and many more. What all those types of data have in common is that they are representable as n-dimensional data. What separates them, from a data structure point of view, is merely the number of dimensions and the different names (and meanings) of their axes. We decided to create a simple data structure which has an n-dimensional array to store the data at its core, and a small set of meta information to describe the data sufficiently. Those extra attributes are: names, axes, and units. The names attribute is used to store the quantities or names for each dimension in the data. For example: A multi channel spectrogram has the dimensions: (time, frequency, channel), consequently would the names attribute be an array of three strings: [ 'time' , 'frequency' , 'channel' ] . The order of the elements in the names attribute corresponds to the order of the dimensions in the Data object: the first element belongs to the first dimension of the data, and so on. The axes attribute describes the rows and columns of the data, like headers describe the rows and columns of a table. It is an array of arrays. The length of the axes array is equal to the number of dimensions of the data, the lengths of the arrays inside correspond to the shape of the data. For the spectrogram, the first array would contain the times, the second the frequencies and the third the channel names of the data. The last attribute, units contains the (preferably) physical units of the data in axes . For the spectrogram that array would be: [ 'ms' , 'Hz' , '#' ] . Since the channel names have no physical unit, we use the hash (#) sign to indicate that the corresponding axis contains labels.
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Design and implementation of a blockchain multi-energy system

Design and implementation of a blockchain multi-energy system

introduced. Each device reacts for the common good of the community and follows the principle of relieving the operation burden of the grid. Game-theory based strategy pro- vides a feedback loop for devices to make better decisions with limited information. The agility it provides is essential in the intraday trading. This design is implemented for the Ethereum blockchain and tested with real consumption and production profiles of electricity and heating systems. Three pricing strategies, namely zero-intelligence pri- cing, inversed-production pricing, and game-theory based pricing, are compared and evaluated. An analysis of the energy consumption and operation cost of such systems is performed in the end. The design incentivizes the access to local green energy with minimized cost. In general, the degree of price’s influence on energy consumers de- pends on their connectivity to energy suppliers. Consumers have more stable green supply from the community when they have a better connectivity. By choosing a com- petitive pricing strategy, households pay significantly less than in a determined pricing case. Battery plays an inevitable role in providing stability in the system shaving the peak. To make the operation more sustainable, the system needs more storage or other forms of renewable energy that do not share a similar production pattern with PVs.
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Evaluation of the LDACS Cybersecurity Implementation

Evaluation of the LDACS Cybersecurity Implementation

Around 2011 the development of an extension towards navigation in the sense of ”Alternative Positioning Navi- gation and Time” (APNT) started [28]. The concept was proven in theory in 2012 with simulations in 2013 show- ing achievable accuracy of the aircraft position of around 4m [22]. Later in 2013 and 2015, flight trials confirmed the localization accuracy of around 15m with demonstration equipment, while in 2019 it was set out in the German national project MICONAV [15] to test real-time position- ing. All of the aforementioned steps confirm, that LDACS can be used as a true navigation substitute for En-Route (ENR) continental flights in case of DME or GPS outage. In the long term, it must be considered whether LDACS can truly replace legacy DME systems in the long-term. There are also considerations to use LDACS for surveil- lance such as Filip et al. showed in [10] using LDACS as a passive radar substitute. However, the easier ap- proach to implement surveillance into LDACS is to use ADS-C and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broad- cast (ADS-B) and broadcast the position of an aircraft to all neighboring planes and periodically send the position of that aircraft via the RL down to the ground network. As demonstrated in flight trials, LDACS can provide the three vital components for civil air traffic, being communications, navigation and surveillance, and is thus the world’s first true integrated CNS system [26].
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Design und prototypische Implementierung einer multimedialen Lern-Plattform für Phishing Prävention im KMU-Umfeld

Design und prototypische Implementierung einer multimedialen Lern-Plattform für Phishing Prävention im KMU-Umfeld

Ansprache vorhanden. Trotzdem wurde nicht erwartet, das 34.9% das Email als genügend Vertrauenswürdig eingestuft haben, um den Link zu öffnen. Die Gründe für diesen hohen Wert, können durch diese Auswertung nicht festgestellt werden. Es kann angenommen werden, dass der Aufruf als zu wenig unseriös eingestuft wurde um kritische Gedanken hervorzurufen. Für das Design der Lern-Plattform ergeben sich aber Ansatzpunkte, welche verwendet werden können. Nicht alle Mitarbeitenden der Firma SMC sind über Phishingmails gleich sensibilisiert. Wenn man sich nicht bewusst ist, dass ein Phishingmail eine aktive Gefahr ist, können simple Phishing-Attacken zu Erfolg führen. Die «Awareness» (Bewusstsein) vor Phishing-Attacken zu erhöhen wird deshalb ein Ziel der Lern-Plattform sein. Beim «Submitted Data» Wert ist festzustellen, dass 76.3% die angefragten Daten eingegeben haben und den Unterschied zwischen der Phishing-Webseite und der originalen Website nicht erkannt haben. Ob die 23.7% der Mitarbeiter, welche keine Daten eingegeben haben, misstrauisch wurden bei der Frage nach den Zugangsdaten, ist nicht überprüfbar, jedoch kann man davon ausgehen. Die wenigen Nachfragen und Tickets die bei der IT-Abteilung eingegangen sind, zeigen ebenfalls eine Wissenslücke wie man sich im Zweifelsfall verhalten sollte. Zusammengefasst sieht man, dass ein Drittel der Teilnehmer der Attacke zum Opfer gefallen ist. Deshalb wird durch den prototypischen Einsatz einer Lern-Plattform bei der Hälfte der Teilnehmer eine verbesserte Wahrnehmung von Phishing-Attacken erwartet.
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The job guarantee: Design, jobs, and implementation

The job guarantee: Design, jobs, and implementation

infrastructure jobs are often high skill and predominantly male. Therefore they are not always suitable for running the JG as an ongoing long-run program for all that provides employment opportunities to the least-skilled and most marginalized groups in the labor market. Working to address looming environmental challenges can generate millions of public service jobs for years to come. There is a lot of “invisible” environmental work that is labor intensive and can be done by people of various skill levels. This work must be performed on an ongoing basis and could provide the needed job opportunities, without competing with the private sector. Establishing and fortifying our nation’s infrastructure to prevent, mitigate, and withstand the impact of intensifying hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, and floods requires immediate action and a large labor force. And if a large infrastructure program is attempted alongside the JG, the latter will likely be smaller and it will continue to guarantee job opportunities to those who cannot work on infrastructure projects.
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Design Thinking in der Entwicklung einer Schach-App / Aleksandar Karakaš

Design Thinking in der Entwicklung einer Schach-App / Aleksandar Karakaš

Bei den App-spezifischen Fragen wurden die Teilnehmer auch gebeten, ihre Nutzung an Ihrem Smartphone zu demonstrieren. Dadurch konnten noch mehr Fragen zu bestimmten Elementen einer App wie dem User Interface oder der Funktionalität gestellt werden. Häufig wurde auch die Frage gestellt, welche Funktionalität von den derzeitigen Schach-Apps noch vermisst wird. Eine außergewöhnliche Antwort war hier zum Beispiel die Möglichkeit, Schachpartien als Bilder oder Musikstücke abspeichern zu können. Meist wurde auch gefragt, welche Schachprogramme die Spieler auf ihren PCs nutzten. Bei solchen Interviewteilnehmern, die lediglich am PC Schachprogramme verwendeten, wurde auch gefragt, ob sie sich eine Nutzung auf dem Smartphone oder Tablet vorstellen könnten bzw. warum sie dem PC gegenüber moblien Endgeräten den Vorzug gaben. Des weiteren wurde darauf geachtet, den interviewten Personen die Möglichkeit einzuräumen, über Dinge zu erzählen, die sie selbst erwähnenswert fanden.
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Anatomy of welfare reform evaluation: Announcement and implementation effects

Anatomy of welfare reform evaluation: Announcement and implementation effects

The 1998 Budget received phenomenal media coverage. The government’s dissemina- tion effort was intense, as revealed by the considerable number of press releases issued by the Treasury on March 17th, 1998 (the day of the speech) and by the emphasis of post-Budget press releases issued by the Department of Social Security, which was then responsible for the administration of Family Credit. 12 A content analysis of four major tabloid newspapers (The Sun, The Daily Mirror, The Daily Express, and The Daily Star), two main broadsheet papers (The Times and The Daily Telegraph) and the BBC’s Online News Service shows at least 250 stories on the announcement of the new tax credit reform published during the course of 1998. Almost three-quarters of these came out between February and April 1998. According to data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), approximately 52 percent of single mothers read a newspaper regularly and, after controlling for a standard set of socio-demographic variables, single mothers’ likelihood of reading a daily newspaper was not statistically different from all other women’s (including single childless women). 13 This evidence provides only an indication that single mothers
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Evaluation of cross-platform app development using react native

Evaluation of cross-platform app development using react native

This way, state resides in one component only (the <Auth /> component) and sibling component get access to this state as needed. This concept, also called Lifting State Up, is a core design pattern of React. 12 Of course, this requires passing down the state from the top component through all sib- lings. As the app grows in size, other ways of managing state may be useful. A popular alternative to managing state in React is Redux 13 by Dan Abramov, which by some is considered the de-facto state solution for React [VS16]. Redux keeps all state inside an immutable, serializable object. Components can hook into this state from any place in the component hierarchy and modify it only by dispatching so called actions. Actions can be of any structure but commonly are JavaScript objects of the from { type: ’SOME_- ACTION’, payload: {} }. So called reducers listen for these actions and determine the change in state - e.g. in the previous counter example, we could dispatch an action { type: ’INC_COUNTER’, payload: 1 }, and the corresponding reducer picks up the action and returns a new state by copying the previous and increasing the counter by 1.
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