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Corporate Culture and Public Relations

Corporate Culture and Public Relations

As for the sec ond sit u a tion — or ga ni za tional sub cul tures con flict — it is nec es sary to re call ear lier men tioned Mar tin and Siehl who cau tioned that coun ter cul tures some times can be help ful, as well as Wilkins’s ac - cen tu a tion that while de ter min ing an or ga ni za tion’s cul ture spe cial at - ten tion should be paid to the con flict be tween sub cul tures: “The con flict be tween cul tures pro vides a clear pic ture of the dom i nant sub cul ture (A) be cause sub cul ture B ad her ents are much more aware of dif fer ences than are those of sub cul ture A. As a mi nor ity group, they feel as if they are sort of mu tual pro tec tion so ci ety that must as sert its dif fer ences with the ma jor ity clearly and de fend its mem bers from be ing over whelm - ed. Fur ther, each group seems to char ac ter ize the other as rep re sent ing the dark side of its own most cher ished val ues. Thus, one group’s de - scrip tions of the other and their con flicts can produce rich information about the culture and its subcultures” [15, p. 35].
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Corporate Social Responsibility in the Practice of Public Relations Professionals

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Practice of Public Relations Professionals

CSR research in the corporate sector in Croatia is becoming more numerous, and the following lines will state the results of those that are important for the subject of the research. According to the analysis of the 13 most successful companies in Croatia from 2012, selected according to the Southeast European Top 100, the overall development of the socially responsible business of the most successful Croatian companies was rated 3.38, i.e., good (Quien, 2012). A national survey from 2013 showed that the environment for the application of CSR in Croatia is unfavourable, that the term CSR is limited and viewed exclusively through the aspect of philanthropy, and that CSR practice is related to short-term image management and reputation, not with long-term plans (CEA, 2013). The same research confirmed that ethical, social, and environmental criteria are relevant and that 75% of surveyed companies implement them in business policies. Also, this research showed that CSR applies due to corporate culture and employee motivation. Further, only 32% of the same respondents report on CSR (CEA, 2013). According to a 2014 survey, only 30% of the analyzed companies have departments in charge of implementing and communicating CSR programs (Grudić Kvasić, 2014). According to the same research, only 30% of companies submit annual reports, and only 10% a combination of annual reports and sustainability reports. Galant and Černe (2017) showed that the trend concerning non-financial reporting in Croatia is non-disclosure. CSR is present and relevant in retail in the consumer goods sector (Mandić, 2019).
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Corporate Social Responsibility in the Practice of Public Relations Professionals

Corporate Social Responsibility in the Practice of Public Relations Professionals

CSR research in the corporate sector in Croatia is becoming more numerous, and the following lines will state the results of those that are important for the subject of the research. According to the analysis of the 13 most successful companies in Croatia from 2012, selected according to the Southeast European Top 100, the overall development of the socially responsible business of the most successful Croatian companies was rated 3.38, i.e., good (Quien, 2012). A national survey from 2013 showed that the environment for the application of CSR in Croatia is unfavourable, that the term CSR is limited and viewed exclusively through the aspect of philanthropy, and that CSR practice is related to short-term image management and reputation, not with long-term plans (CEA, 2013). The same research confirmed that ethical, social, and environmental criteria are relevant and that 75% of surveyed companies implement them in business policies. Also, this research showed that CSR applies due to corporate culture and employee motivation. Further, only 32% of the same respondents report on CSR (CEA, 2013). According to a 2014 survey, only 30% of the analyzed companies have departments in charge of implementing and communicating CSR programs (Grudić Kvasić, 2014). According to the same research, only 30% of companies submit annual reports, and only 10% a combination of annual reports and sustainability reports. Galant and Černe (2017) showed that the trend concerning non-financial reporting in Croatia is non-disclosure. CSR is present and relevant in retail in the consumer goods sector (Mandić, 2019).
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Directing Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy in the Public Sector to Public Value: Antecedents, Components, and Outcomes

Directing Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy in the Public Sector to Public Value: Antecedents, Components, and Outcomes

relation to the development of new products, services, and processes (Lumpkin and Dess 1996 ). Innovation in the public sector has gained an increased interest from scholars and practitioners (Borins 2014 ; Brown and Osborne 2013 ; Damanpour, Walker, and Avellaneda 2009 ; Hartley, Sørensen, and Torfing 2013 ; Osborne and Brown 2011 ; Walker 2014 ). There is a growing body of evidence regarding the influence of innovation on public sector performance (Walker, Damanpour, and Devece 2011 ). Public sector innovations seek to enhance social performance through reorganizations of cross-sector decision making, financing, and production systems (Moore and Hartley 2008 ). Furthermore, innovation can contribute to improve the quality of public services as well as enhance the problem-solving capacity of governmental organizations to manage societal challenges (Damanpour and Schneider 2009 ; Walker, Damanpour, and Devece 2011 ). The public sector organiza- tion’s vision can lead it to pursue innovations that provide more effective benefits and to scale these benefits to a larger, more diverse market. Sanger and Levin ( 1992 , 88) found that, ‘‘innovative public managers are entrepreneurial: they take risks . . . with an opportunistic bias towards action and a conscious underestimating of bureaucratic and political obstacles their innovations face.’’ There is general agreement that a well-performing public sector must rely on creativity and innovation to overcome problems (Vigoda 2002 ). Innovation is a fundamental part of the provision of effective public services (Osborne and Brown 2011 ). Borins ( 1998 ) found that oppor- tunities for innovation in the public sector arise from circumstances peculiar to the public sector and that innovation is much less focused on commercial considerations than in the private sector. It is important to recognize these differences in order to develop entrepreneurship within the public sector and obtain the benefits that are generated by an effective entrepreneurial culture (Kearney, Hisrich, and Roche
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Public Sphere, New Media and Political Culture in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

Public Sphere, New Media and Political Culture in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

63  In Egypt, although established power relations were briefly shaken or even suspended in the post­ Mubarak phase in response to the popular dissent, social contestation and deliberati[r]

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Economic relations between personal and corporate income tax

Economic relations between personal and corporate income tax

irrational behavior of taxpayers. If we assume that additional (ineffective) costs account for 1% of total costs, we obtain the amount of 13 billion zloty. In 2012 Polish companies obtained the revenue of PLN 1,370.2 billion while CIT amounted to PLN 15.6 billion. Turnover tax at the level of around 1% is a ‘lesser evil’. It covers all entities and cannot be avoided by any ‘bookkeeping tricks’ or avoidance via losses. We can say that it is an effective tax, reflecting the principle of tax equity and expanding the tax base. Such a solution generates better effectiveness for a tax system. Of course, it is not a homogenous tax and while taxing costs it may increase the fiscal burden of processing companies (in their case, the value of the used material is taxed several times), while preferring companies providing raw material. It can be assumed that at a low tax rate, at the level of 1%, and the level of material costs ratio (on half the revenue) the injustice scale would be manifested in the differentiation in the range from 0.5 to 1.5%. Such a solution simplifies the system, as the tax will be collected at the moment the revenue is generated, so that control will be limited to establishing whether the company sells its goods accompanied by an invoice or not. This will allow the ‘leaning’ of tax organs, lowering compliance costs, simplification of taxpayers’ tax returns and elimination of the danger of control. Moreover, CIT in its current form is not fiscally effective – it constitutes only 5% of public income, while its collection is very costly.
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Bedeutung und Wirkungsweise von Public Relations

Bedeutung und Wirkungsweise von Public Relations

H ierher gehört zum Beispiel der Begriff der „fin a n c ia l relatio n s“ , die Pflege der Beziehungen zu den Geld-, Bank- und Börsenkreisen sowie zu den Aktionären. H ierher gehören die „govern- ment relatio n s“ , die Pflege der Kontakte zu den Regierungsstellen und den Parlamenten und um­ gekehrt von diesen zur Bevölkerung, die „la b o r relations“ , die Pflege der Beziehungen vom Unter­ nehmen zu den Gewerkschaften, die „com m unity ■elations“ , die Pflege der Beziehungen zur Um­ gebung, also Stadt oder Gemeinde, Landkreis, Behörden des Einzugsgebiet etc., und nicht zu- etzt die „in te rn al relatio n s“ , die sich auf lie internen Partner und M itarbeiter erstrecken jnd dam it zu den sogenannten „C o m p an y“ oder ,corporate relatio n s“ der unternehm ensbezoge- len PR gehören. Schließlich bezeichnen die „in - ernational relatio n s“ den unbegrenzten Bereich veitw eiter ö ffe ntiichke itsa rb eit.
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On Public Deliberation and Public Culture: Reflections on the Public Sphere

On Public Deliberation and Public Culture: Reflections on the Public Sphere

address a larger public and to get attention for one's utterances. Prominence may be linked to the attribution of competence. But prominence does not necessarily imply a positive evaluation by the public. Prominence as "celebrity" can also be based on other attributes which make a person interesting, but not necessarily trustworthy or competent (being rich or beautiful or a member of the nobility, or having some kind of artistic reputation). It can even be based on a negative image, on negative "publicity" or notoriety. Prominence is a feature of the public sphere and has to be attained within this sphere (by becoming an object of attention). But while some forms of prominence are primarily gained in public communication roles (as a journalist or "media personality", for instance), in other cases prominence is importantly backed by status positions outside the immediate sphere of public communication: positions of high status in any social sphere are helpful for gaining public attention. 61 Prominence can also be bought, to a certain degree, by investing in publicity (employing of agents or agencies for public relations, staging of appearances and so on). Public authority (or prestige) can refer to different forms of competence or credibility which are attributed to a person: empirical knowledge and cognitive ability, abilities to moral understanding and judgment or to evaluative judgement, impartiality, experience with certain problems and demonstrated abilities to analyse problems, to propose solutions, and so on. Having authority gives credit to one's utterances, an advance of credibility, the expectation that one's judgements are true or appropriate. This can work in two overlapping ways. It may make one's judgement acceptable without the need to convince by elaborated argument or presentation of evidence, or by lowering the demands of evidential and argumentative support. 62 In this case, judgements of an authoritative speaker are taken on trust. Or it may gain more intense and serious attention to one's arguments. Authority can have institutional backing: being a member of prestigious institutions or being certified by them or being in prestitious formal roles (e.g. as scientist, university professor etc.) can improve one's authority. 63 The acceptance of positions or ideas is also directly influenced, of course, by the prestige of certain institutions (if they become "official" positions) and by the prestige of communication channels (e.g. by the prestige of newspapers or magazines). In this sense, there is also a stratification of institutions, organizations and communication channels in the public sphere with respect to prestige.
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OPUS 4 | Multimediale Public Relations bei Messegesellschaften

OPUS 4 | Multimediale Public Relations bei Messegesellschaften

Abbildung 0-3: Ausgewählte Maßnahmen multimedialer Public Relations (Quelle: Eigene Darstellung in Anlehnung an Sauvant 2002, Ruisinger 2007, Herbst 2001) Um in Kontakt mit den Medien zu treten, bedarf es einer umfangreichen und gut organisierten Basis. Dies bietet ein so genannter Online-Pressebereich (vgl. Sauvant 2002, S.51), der bspw. Pressemitteilungen beinhaltet, Kontakte zum Unternehmen, Bildmaterialen, Audio- und Videodateien, Geschäftsberichte usw. (vgl. Sauvant 2002, S.51). Die grundlegende Frage hierbei ist, ob dieser Bereich öffentlich zugänglich sein soll oder ob sich die Journalisten registrieren und einloggen müssen. Der Vorteil liegt darin, dass Journalisten so exklusive Informationen erhalten, an denen sie stark interessiert sind. Denn niemand veröffentlicht etwas, das sowieso jeder bereits im Internet lesen kann. Außerdem kann sich die Messegesellschaft so vor ungewollten „Surfern“ schützen (vgl. Sauvant 2002, S.50) . Ergänzend zu der klassischen Pressemappe in Papierform, wie sie gerade bei Messen von Ausstellern und der Messegesellschaft selbst verteilt werden, kann diese auch in digitaler Form auf der Webseite veröffentlicht werden. Die Pressemitteilungen sollten auf einer Webseite in chronologischer Reihenfolge gelistet und für jeden zugänglich gemacht werden. Besondere Mitteilungen hingegen könnten auch exklusiv für Journalisten in einem geschlossenen Bereich veröffentlicht werden. Themenspezifische Newsletter sind periodisch erscheinende Publikationen, die per E-Mail zugestellt werden (vgl. Ruisinger 2007, S.263). Für welche Bezugsgruppen der Newsletter zur Verfügung gestellt wird, obliegt der Entscheidung des Unternehmens. Ein Newsabo ist eine sinnvolle Alternative zum Newsletter, wenn keine ausreichenden Informationen vorhanden sind, die regelmäßige Veröffentlichung erlauben. Wichtige Nachrichten oder Ereignisankündigungen werden knapp formuliert und an die Medienvertreter versendet. Mit einer virtuellen
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Corporate culture, partnership and co-determination: results of an empirical investigation

Corporate culture, partnership and co-determination: results of an empirical investigation

was given to the analysis of the relationships between German legal co-determination and various forms of participative management. Between 1992 and 1994, extensive case stud- ies on corporate culture were published on seven selected enterprises which differed in various respects, such as age, size, market share and competitive position as well as in

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Mehr Schein als Sein? Grenzbeziehungen zwischen Journalismus und Public Relations

Mehr Schein als Sein? Grenzbeziehungen zwischen Journalismus und Public Relations

Daneben bestehen zwischen Journalismus und Public Relations auch Gemein- samkeiten in den Kommunikationszielen. Beide wollen die RezipientInnen informieren, wobei der Journalismus sich direkt an die Öffentlichkeit wendet, Public Relations in der Regel den Zwischenschritt über den Journalismus gehen. Unterschiedlich ist dabei wiederum die Art der Information. Während Journalis- mus alle gesellschaftlich relevanten Themen und Meinungen aufgreifen soll, beschränken sich Public Relations auf die ihre Auftraggeber betreffenden Infor- mationen. Differenzen existieren auch in der Form und den eingesetzten Instru- menten der Informationsvermittlung: Journalismus bedient sich journalistischer Darstellungsformen, wie Bericht, Nachricht oder Kommentar. Diese nutzen auch Public Relations, beispielsweise beim Verfassen einer Pressemitteilung. Darüber hinaus stehen PR aber noch viel mehr Möglichkeiten zur Verfügung. Sie können auf Instrumente, a) die sich direkt an ein Medium richten (Pressekonferenz oder Pressemitteilung etc.) oder b) die für die RezipientInnen bestimmt sind (Geschäftsbericht etc.), zurückgreifen. Schließlich setzen Public Relations auf die interpersonelle Kommunikation zwischen JournalistInnen und MitarbeiterInnen einer PR-Abteilung.
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Das Beratungsverständnis von Public Relations- Beratenden aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive

Das Beratungsverständnis von Public Relations- Beratenden aus systemtheoretischer Perspektive

Als meistgenannter Aspekt erscheint die Vertrauensbasis, auf die jede Beziehung aufbaut. Das planungsmässige Vorgehen in der Beratung taucht zwar in den Ergebnissen auf, weist aber keinerlei Evidenz auf. Das heisst keineswegs, dass das Vorgehen der PR- Beratung planlos ist. Hierbei können sowohl die theoretischen wie auch die empirischen Erläuterungen zur Situationsgebundenheit und der damit einhergehenden Flexibilität in Zusammenhang gebracht werden. Beide scheinen bedeutende Voraussetzungen für bera- terisches Handeln von PR-Beratenden zu sein. Übereinstimmend mit den theoretischen Abhandlungen taucht in der empirischen Untersuchung die Zielorientierung als ein Kenn- zeichen professioneller Beratung auf. Was die Partizipation betrifft, so wird diese durch- aus erwünscht, da sie vor allem als Legitimation für die initiierten Massnahmen der Public Relations-Beratenden gilt. Allerdings geht die Partizipation in den wenigsten Fällen soweit, dass Klienten selber die Umsetzung übernehmen. Die weiteren Kennzeichen theoretischer Fundierung, wie das Evidenz-basierte, die Ressourcen- und Klientenorientierung, Interdis-
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MOnAMi | Public Relations für deutsche Computerspiele oder Computerspiellokalisierungen

MOnAMi | Public Relations für deutsche Computerspiele oder Computerspiellokalisierungen

46 Durch diese Rollenverteilung hat der Publisher eine gewisse Machtposition, welche allerdings ins Wanken gerät, wenn er sehr erfolgreiche Spiele behalten und nich[r]

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Corporate culture : a framework for its measurement and comparison

Corporate culture : a framework for its measurement and comparison

Traditionally, the way to measure culture has been by internal examination involving observation of group behaviour and decision making, focus groups to discuss va[r]

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Circular business models and corporate culture: Identification of Main Drivers, Promoting and Inhibiting Corporate Culture-Related Factors / Author Samuel Feichtner BSc

Circular business models and corporate culture: Identification of Main Drivers, Promoting and Inhibiting Corporate Culture-Related Factors / Author Samuel Feichtner BSc

With regard to literature, evidently business models are viewed in different ways (Boons & Lüdeke-Freund, 2013, p. 10; Lüdeke-Freund, p. 13; Teece, 2010, p. 175). Consequently, there is no clear uniform description. Osterwalder’s business model concept is commonly referred to in literature, as it is explained in detail in section 3.1. The model contains one of the first comprehensive definitions and is based on four pillars (see Table 1) according to Lüdeke-Freund and Schaltegger et al. (2012, p. 106). Thus, this Master Thesis uses the concept of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2013, p. 14) who provide the following definition of a business model: “a business model describes the rationale of how an organization creates, delivers and captures value.” Antikainen and Valkokari (2016, p. 7) further explain that sustainable business models and CBMs can be seen as subcategories of business models and are closely connected in literature. Furthermore, they describe that business model innovation is the new type of the value creation approach which is made possible by changing one or more elements of the business model. Within their applied framework for the categorization of sustainable business models, Florin et al. (2015, IV) go further and classify CBMs as a subgroup of sustainable business models. Such CBMs have to be focused on production and consumption stimulating efficiency and sufficiency in their opinion. In particular, to define and categorize business models, this Master Thesis follows the approach of Geissdoerfer et al. (2018, pp. 713–714) who “consider business models for the circular economy as a class of or generic strategy for sustainable business models”. The concept of the authors is explained in more detail in chapter 3.2 where their created model is illustrated as well (see Figure 4).
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Public relations employment and expenditure in the United Kingdom

Public relations employment and expenditure in the United Kingdom

It also makes use of extrapolations from this survey and from other recent research work carried out by the Institute of Public Relations and others to arrive [r]

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Monumental Heritage - Strategies, Public Relations and Digital Media

Monumental Heritage - Strategies, Public Relations and Digital Media

Ellacea rcimint molendam con pore pro- videl id untibusa nonemped magnatu ri- aesto milAliatis mos dolupti untibus pore cuptiaeped magnam fugitas num facit as et et exerchit volo occab[r]

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Gibt es eine deutsche Spielart der Public Relations?

Gibt es eine deutsche Spielart der Public Relations?

Sehr geehrter Herr Berghändlerl I ch danke Ihnen für Ihr Schreiben vom 16. August d. Js . und möchte Ihnen darauf folgendes erwidern; In der Sprache eines jeden Volkes kommen Ausdrücke vor, die einer fremden Sprache entnommen sind; sie haben sich deshalb eingebürgert, weil es sich in dem betreffenden Fall um einen Begriff handelt, der sich in der eigenen Sprache nicht so prägnant oder nicht so kurz ausdrücken läßt. Genau dieser Grund ist es, der das W ort „Public Relations" bei uns ziun Sprach­ gebrauch gemacht hat. Denn die genaue Übersetzung „öffentliche Beziehungen" würde keineswegs das aus­ drücken, was in USA. und auch bei uns unter dem Begriff der „Public Relations" zu verstehen ist. Herr Dr. Gross und ich haben In unseren Vorträgen vor
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Corporate Governance in der Energiewirtschaft – zwischen Unternehmenswert und Public Value

Corporate Governance in der Energiewirtschaft – zwischen Unternehmenswert und Public Value

Während bei der wertorientierten Unternehmensführung die Zahlen, Daten und Fakten aus dem internen und externen Rechnungswesen im Vordergrund stehen, bedarf es für die Ermittlung der Public Values anderer Datenquellen. Klar ist, dass Public Values nicht nur Finanzkennzahlen umfasst, sondern auch nicht-finanzielle Kennzahlen. Auch ist der Public Value keine Kennzahl an sich, sondern der Oberbegriff für ein Kennzahlensystem an Public Values zur Schaffung von Mehrwert für die Gesellschaft. Für die Ermittlung der Public Values werden im folgenden die Komponenten dargestellt und mit Kennzahlen verknüpft. Um eine breite Anwendbarkeit sowie eine Vergleichbarkeit der Ergebnisse zu ermöglichen wurde dabei Wert darauf gelegt, keine Spezifika von Regional- und/oder Stadtenergiedienstleistern in den Vordergrund zu stellen. Ebenso wurde darauf geachtet, dass das Vorhandensein bzw. die Stärke der Ausprägung der jeweiligen Segmente Strom, Gas, Wasser und Wärme sowie der jeweiligen Wertschöpfungsstufen Ereugung/Gewinnung, Handel, Netze und Vertrieb nicht die Auswahl der einbezogenen Komponenten beeinflusst. Für das jeweilige Unternehmen bietet es sich an, die Definition der Public Values anhand der jeweiligen Spezifika anzupassen.
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The Role of Corporate Culture in the Financial Industry

The Role of Corporate Culture in the Financial Industry

3.1 Defining Corporate Culture We broadly adopt the definition of corporate culture by Kotter and Heskett (1992), who describe the culture of an organization as a two-level collective. On the one hand, corpo- rate culture refers to values that are shared by all members of the organization. Those values, as, for example, the deep caring about customer satisfaction, employee well-being, or even money, are less clearly visible outside the corporation and hard to change since the members of the organization might be unaware of their common values that bind them together. This first level reflects the implicit self-sorting mechanism of workers as it has been described in Friebel and Giannetti (2009). Potential employees and especially CEOs might be just willing to accept a job offer of an organization if the shared values of this company are in line with their own beliefs. This understanding of corporate culture as a self-sorting mechanism is also largely in line with the ideas of Van den Steen (2005) who argues that managers with strong beliefs about the right course, which he calls a ‘vision’, can have an important indirect influence on a firm’s behavior and performance. By at- tracting people with similar beliefs, the manager corroborates the corporate culture that increases the effort and utility of employees and improves coordination among workers. Beginning with the beliefs of the founder, the organization should have hired only those worker, especially in the firm’s management, that correspond to the initial values and beliefs such that corporate culture can be seen as a quite stable phenomenon. The second level of corporate culture refers at a more visible stage to the image or the behavioral pattern of the organization. Those group behavior norms set an example of the common work life to new employees as, for example, daily working overtime or wearing a particular dress code. This level of culture is generally automatically adopted by new employees, but might be more easily changed, e.g. in case of an appointment of a new manager. 11
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