In the following are some remarks on demography. Deaf groups occupy no special national geographic area: there is no national territory, but you can observe, that they come together in the big cities. They are concentrated in Munich, Berlin or Cologne and enjoy meeting each other. The absolute proportion of deaf people in Germany is rather low; it lies around 0,01% of the whole population. The birth rate of children is about 1 to 1000: One out of a thousand children are deaf. There are only a few mixed marriages. Most deaf people marry a mate, who is also deaf. As a hearing person, it is unlikely, that you will become part of the language group and become accepted as a full member. But, if you are deaf and already part of the language group, it is very unlikely that you will leave it, because you find people there who communicate easily and in a natural way. In addition, the formal and informal institutional support of deaf people leaves a lot to be desired. The rate of available information transmitted per mass media is too low. Social services do not provide interpreters for everyday situations (for example if you have to go to hospital or would like to acquire a driving licence). Education still concentrates on the acquisition of a spoken language, on lipreading and articulation training. Deaf people do not have a religion of their own, but they clearly have a culture of their own. Industry provides special offers for deaf people, for example hearing aids, cochlea implants or items for everyday life, such as alarm-clocks that work with light (see Giles, Bourhis/Taylor 1977).
3.1 Aufbau der Übung
In der ersten Einheit wurden die Ziele der Lehrveranstaltung und die zu erwartende Leistungsbeurteilung besprochen, bevor eine Einführung zu CLIL theoretisch mit des- sen Grundsäulen, den 4Cs (Content, Communication, Cognition, Culture), vorgenom- men sowie Bilder und ein Video aus österreichischen CLIL-Klassen gezeigt und be- sprochen wurden. Diese Einheit zielte darauf ab, ein Basiswissen zum Thema zu vermitteln und einen Kontextbezug durch Visualisierung theoretischer Inhalte zu er- möglichen. In der folgenden Einheit wurde ein Fachartikel Bezug nehmend auf kontro- verse Ansichten zu CLIL besprochen, um in den wissenschaftlichen Diskurs einzutau- chen und unterschiedliche Sichtweisen aufzugreifen. Auch die Modelle von CLIL, von „soft“ zu „hard“, sowie die Unterschiede zu anderen Ansätzen des Fremdsprachenler- nens wie dem „content based language teaching“, „immersion“ oder „English as medi- um of instruction“ wurden aufgezeigt, um Abgrenzung zu ähnlichen Termini zu schaf- fen und Missverständnissen vorzubeugen. Die dritte Einheit setzte sich vertiefend mit einem der 4Cs, „communication“, auseinander. Dabei wurden „BICS“ (Basic Interper- sonal Communication Skills) und „CALP“ (Cognitive Academic Language Proficien- cy) – zu Deutsch Alltags- und Bildungssprache – und deren Charakteristika erläutert sowie Unterstützungsmaßnahmen (sprachlich und inhaltlich) präsentiert und vor allem auf „graphic organisers“ (GOs) eingegangen. Diese wurden dargestellt und deren Ein- satz aufgezeigt; danach sollten in Gruppen zu diversen Themen passende GOs erstellt werden. Um ein Gespür zu erlangen, wie Texte sprachbewusst erstellt bzw. adaptiert werden können, wurde anschließend besprochen, wie Texte sprachsensibel gestaltet
whether Plain Language is distinct enough to describe its features. For a pro- posal, see Chapter 4.6.
In the English-speaking world, Plain Language is defined via a user-centred approach. Such an approach is currently missing in Germany, where the pro- posals are, in terms of Cheek (2010: 6) rather “elements-focussed”, that is, focussed on generic style advice rather than on users. In Bredel/Maaß (2016a: 532), we propose to refer to empirically determined competence levels (see below); on an international scale, we have the PIAAC (2013) and PISA (2002) surveys that define and describe literacy levels. What is also helpful are the findings of comprehensibility research that has delivered extensive insights on what makes a text easy or difficult to understand (for an application to Easy Language, see Bredel/Maaß 2016a: 117ff). Additionally, there is research on language or reading acquisition on the one side andlanguage decay on the other side: vocabulary or grammatical structures that are learnt early in life (see for example, Bryant 2006; Bredel/Maaß 2016a: 302ff; 345ff) and unlearnt late (see for example, Schecker 2003, Gress-Heister 2003), are more basic and thus better suited for comprehensibility enhanced varieties than what is ac- quired later in life and more easily forgotten. Nonetheless, research with the different target groups needs to be conducted; the fundamental study of Gu- termuth (2020) makes a first effort to research the difference of Easy and Plain Language with four different target groups, among them also primary target groups of Easy Language.
The second approach, analysing nearly the same datasets as for the mitochondrial DNA analysis, was the study of microsatellites in A. ocellaris. Microsatellites are tandemly repeated short sequence motives of two to six bases that are spread over the eukaryote genome (Tautz 1989). The major mode of mutation is the increase or decrease of one or sometimes more repeats by polymerase slippage during DNA replication, causing a change of length (Levinson & Gutman 1987). The number of repeats is usually < 50, whereat the length itself has an influence on the probability of further increase or decrease of the number of repeats at the locus (Ellegren 2000). Microsatellite sequences are prone to mutation due to this typical mode. Additionally they are usually non-coding and not under selection, resulting in high mutation rates (Weber & Wong 1993). As the flanking regions of microsatellites are often also variable, most microsatellite primers are species specific, or at least only usable for closely related species. In this study, over 13 different microsatellite loci isolated for its sibling species A. percula, were tested for A. ocellaris, as well as 11 loci isolated for the saddleback anemonefish species, A. polymnus. Out of the tested loci, three of each set of loci were finally chosen for the analysis of diversity and population structure in A. ocellaris. The other tested loci were either not amplifiable, monomorphic, or showed stutterbands that were not clearly readable. For the analysis of microsatellites, amplification with fluorescence labelled primers is conducted. The resulting labelled fragments, usually of sizes between 100 to 500 basepairs, are separated by electrophoresis either in a high percentage polyacrylamid gel or a capillary sequencer to ensure the clear separation of alleles.
cater for. They thus emphasized that almost all graduates of the new schools would be employed as teachers in the expanding school system. When interviewed in 2005, the Tablighis in Malaysia had far-reaching plans, as they were hoping to open a Deoband-type school with every regional cen- tre (markaz) of the movement. Four to five years onwards in 2009 and 2010, the plans had perhaps not materialized in the envisaged pattern of equal regional distribution. Nevertheless, the number of schools affiliated with them and the number of students and graduates had almost doubled during this period. However, new branches and affiliated schools developed more in line with local and per- sonal initiatives of associated scholars and activ- ists, creating a network of friends of friends and related institutions. New schools would grow out of the local roots of religious scholars who became a kind of »faith entrepreneurs« in the religious mar- ket, as if opening a new »shop« for a »franchise«. It is remarkable that madrasas form a large part of local Tablighi centres in Malaysia. From a list of 28 regional locations where the traditional weekly meeting (ijtimah) is held, 11 are madrasas (Table 4). This connection shows the rather close association of the Tablighis in Malaysia – and in wider South East Asia – with formal Islamic teaching. This con- nection is far less pronounced in the subcontinent from where the Tablighis originate. The expansive way the Tablighis take charge of formal Islamic ed- ucation in Malaysia and Indonesia is itself a fairly new development. While the Tablighi Jama‘at in In- dia and Pakistan has been running Deobandi ma- drasas in its national centres, it has mostly stayed away from associating itself with the administra- tion of other Islamic schools.
be killed, the other ordains that no member of Israel may marry his daughter to a Benjaminite. So, the excessive violence of the rape and murder is not only answered by an excessively violent war of retaliation, but also by an excess of pre-legal bonding. In fact, these oaths exert an exorbitant binding power. They are treated as absolutely inviolable by the people of Israel—to the extent that they threaten to destroy the very corporative unity they are intended to con- stitute. Having slain the entire population of Benjamin save for 600 men, the avenging tribes suddenly realize that they are about to desintegrate their own commonwealth. Therefore they decide to spare the last surviving Benjaminites, to procure them women and to re-integrate their tribe into Israel. However, the oath obliges them to continue in the path of excessive violence in order to do so. First, they fall upon the expedient of destroying the city of Jabes, the only community outside the tribe of Benjamin which had refused to partake in the campain of vengeance. So they kill the men of Jabes and transfer their women to the Benjaminites—“comme une proye qu’on venoit de ravir pour eux.“ 53 Still,
Das Syndikat des Naturparks Nordvogesen (SYCOPARC) und der Naturpark Pfälzerwald luden zum deutsch-französischen Kolloquium vom 19. bis 21. Juni in Bitche (Lothringen, Frankreich) im Herzen des grenzüberschreitenden Biosphärenreservats Nordvogesen- Pfälzerwald (www.biosphere-vosges-pfaelzerwald.org). Die Veranstaltung wurde ge- meinsam vom Fachzentrum Moore Frankreichs (Pôle relais tourbières), der Groupe d’E- tude des Tourbières (GET) und dem Staatlichen Museum für Naturkunde in Karlsruhe or- ganisiert. Die Regionalräte Lothringens und des Elsass, das Umweltministerium Rhein- land-Pfalz und die Europäische Union finanzierten das Kolloquium i.R. von INTERREG. Es ist Teil einer Reihe interregionaler Begegnungen die von der GET auf Schloß Goutelas (Département Loire) begonnen wurde.
In Chinese, the word “space” usually refers to “空间 (k¯ong ji¯an)” while “place” often refers to “场 所 (chˇang suˇo)” or “地方 (dì f¯ang)”. Space is more abstract and generic while the notion of place is more tangible to humans. The use of the concept of “space” in Chinese is almost identical to its use in English literature. However, the concept of “place” is a little bit different in varying contexts. “场 所 (chˇang suˇo)” can afford different types of human activities in certain places, which are formed by the interaction of human and the environment. A physical space becomes a place only if it has been endowed with human intentionality, social life, cultural aspects, or other semantics. Places could be organised in a hierarchical way, and different spatial relationships exist among places [ 70 , 92 ]. “ 地方 (dì f¯ang)” has several meanings. First, it could refer to a location or a region, e.g., “在那个地方 (In that place)”. Second, it means “local”, which can be used as a comparison to “central”, e.g., “地方政府 (local government)”. Moreover, it could also be used as a venue, e.g., “找一个落脚的地方 (find a place to stay)”.
T h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f P i d g i n a n d C r e o l e L a n g u a g e s
Toward the en d o f the nineteenth century, Germ an-based pid gin and creole languages began to develop in som e areas o f the G erm an South Seas.33 A m o n g them w ere A li P idgin G erm an , spoken on Ali, an island o ff the shore o f New G u in ea,34 and U nserdeutsch (literally “our G erm an”) in northern New Britain. U nserdeutsch is a creo le lan guage that was spoken in the vicinity o f the mission school o f V u n ap op e, which also served as an orphan h om e.35 In V un apope, as in Palau, G erm an was taught intensively and was used as the language o f instruction. Yet, while the linguistic backgroun d in Palau was u n iform — Palauan was the only lan gu age sp o k en — the students in V u n ap o p e cam e from fam ilies with many d ifferent native languages. In this regard, G erm an cou ld assume a function that w ent beyond classroom instruction. However, w hile stan dard G erm an was taught in school, a G erm an-based creo le developed as a vernacular in the vicinity o f the school. This creole was passed on through several generations. Obviously, com m unicative needs and decisions m ade by the speakers thwarted the official attem pts to p rom ote standard G er man as a lingua franca.
Finally, long lasting intervention is a precondition to allow for well structured and integrated programmes and therefore to avoid short-term and small-scale activities, the presence of which is quite often a symptom of lack of long-term political commitment. 46 Reforms of educational systems in the two member states of Estonia and Latvia have only started recently, between five and ten years ago. Considering that educational systems are structurally slow to respond to changes, it would be premature to expect clear results for evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bilingual education programmes. However, general attitudes toward language policies can be observed. Reforms can be carried out with general consensus or be dictated by the state, which directly affects the attitudes and behaviours of those concerned. Attitudes, as mentioned before, play a crucial role in creating a favourable framework for inclusion policies to be successful. According to an interview with Estonian-speaking and Russian-speaking students carried out in Estonia in 2006, many Russian-speaking students claim that “ethnic differentiation takes place in Estonia and the main factor of this process is the special status of the Estonian language as the national language”. 47 Language policy seems to be perceived by the interviewees as a possible source of exclusion rather than as promoting inclusion in mainstream society. According to the results of the same interview research, “most of the Russian-speaking students who participated in the interviews believe career possibilities are decent and their opinions about gaining higher education in Estonia are pessimistic”. 48 This pessimistic view on the part of the Russian- speaking population could possibly have been avoided by positively influencing the attitudes of the minority toward language policies before their introduction.