Summary statistics for these 9 indices appear at the bottom of Table 1. By construction each index has mean zero, and is available for all 2; 701 pairs. 22
4 Ancestryandculture: A simple conceptual framework
As we discussed in Section 2, genetic distance measures relatedness between populations and is roughly proportional to time since two populations shared the same ancestors, that is, since they were the same population. Over time, ancestors transmit a large number of traits to their descen- dants, not only biologically (through DNA), but also culturally. This transmission takes place with variation and change over time. Therefore, on average, populations that are more closely related will have had less time to diverge from each other on a large set of culturally transmitted traits, such as language, religion, traditions, habits, and values. This process establishes a close con- nection between ancestry, measured by genetic distance, and culturally transmitted traits: genetic distance and memetic distance should be positively correlated. A stylized formal model, adapted from Spolaore and Wacziarg (2009, 2012), can illustrate this relationship in a simpli…ed and concise way.
At my first arrival in the United States at JFK Airport I bought a sandwich wrapped in paper. I was astonished upon discovering an imprint on the paper warning: “Paper is not edible.” I thought it odd and senseless to have such a warning on a piece of paper that was clearly not edible. Only after having lived in the United States for some time did I realize that it indeed made sense, as there are sandwiches, ‘wraps,’ which come wrapped in what looks very much like paper and is edible. In addition to that the culture of lawsuits in the United States makes it imperative to have such warnings on the paper of sandwiches, in order to prevent being sued by people who mistake their sandwich for a wrap. Anyway, when I first read the warning I was puzzled and not sure how I ought to understand it. It was so obvious to me to not to eat a sandwich with its paper on that I thought there must be another message behind it. I came up with various interpretations in order to make sense of the words. What did not come to me naturally is what every U.S. citizen would have done—to just not eat the paper. At Investigations § 199 Wittgenstein writes:
this is reasonable to assume - especially for those parts of the language border that run through cantons.
I estimate the effect of households’ exposure to language groups on their propensity to save and to spend excessively. Hereby, I mainly rely on a variable that indicates whether a household saves at least CHF 100 per month. 3 Alternatively, I employ variables that in- dicate whether the household has a retirement savings account and whether a household’s expenditures are higher than its income. To investigate the potential channels relevant for the cultural differences, I complement the main analysis with two further empirical exercises. First, I test whether different initial distributions of time preferences are con- sistent with the observed differences in saving. Second, I test whether households in the Romanic-speaking part are more likely to take formal or informal consumer credit in case of financial distress.
In the empirical literature beliefs and social norms are often difficult to disentan- gle from the effects of the local economic and institutional environment. Study- ing the behavior of immigrants and expatriates has proven useful to achieve iden- tification. A noteworthy example is Giuliano (2007), which shows that second- generation southern European male immigrants in the United States behave sim- ilarly to their counterparts in their country of origin, and live with their parents much longer than young Americans do. Similarly, Fern´andez and Fogli (2006, 2009) document that the country of origin explains fertility and work behavior of second-generation American women. Fisman and Miguel (2007) finds that diplo- mats from more corrupted countries tend to incur significantly more parking vi- olations in the United States (diplomats are generally immune, so fines are not enforced). Bruegger, Lalive, and Zweimueller (2009) compares unemployment across Swiss communities with different languages (French versus German). The language border separates cultural groups, but not labor markets or political jurisdictions. They find that cultural differences (identified by language differ- ences) can explain differences in unemployment duration of about 20 percent. A number of papers have emphasized the persistence of cultural factors. Cul- ture may respond to changes in the institutional environment, but cultural shifts may take time. This is consistent with the view that adults’ preferences are by and large fixed, as opposed to those of children, whose beliefs, non-cognitive
We study the impact of culture on financial literacy at the French-German language border within Switzerland. Two institutional features make this setting ideal to study questions related to culture. First, the language border allows cultural differences in preferences, norms and attitudes to coexist over time within a small geographic area. 1 Second, the language border runs through cantons, the first administrative division of Switzerland. Since most laws and policies are set either at the federal or cantonal level, there is no major change in institutions or policies at the language border within cantons. This setting allows to mitigate the two-way interaction between cultureand institutions (Alesina and Giuliano, 2015) since a homogeneous set of institutions is applied to both groups independent of their respective culture. Further, there are no geographic barriers and the transport system is fully integrated across the language border. Consequently, economic conditions that potentially influence financial literacy hardly change at the language border. Importantly, we do not study the influence of language per se on financial literacy. In contrast to the recently formulated linguistic-savings hypothesis (Chen, 2013) which focuses on the one-dimensional influence of language on patience, we use
2.1. Historical agricultural technologies, geography, andlanguage
A comprehensive analysis of the origin of various aspects of gender differences (labor force participation, fertility, and sex ratio at birth) has been written by Alesina et al. (2011, 2013, 2018). The hypothesis for their empirical analysis comes from the seminal work of Ester Boserup (1970). In her fascinating book, she argues that differences in the role of women in society originate in different types of agricultural technology, particularly the differences between shifting and plough agriculture. Shifting agriculture, which uses hand-held tools such as the hoe and the digging stick, is labor- intensive, with women actively participating in farm work, while plough agriculture—using the plough to prepare the soil—is more capital-intensive. Unlike the hoe or digging stick, the plough requires significant upper-body strength, grip strength, and the burst of power to either pull the plough or control the animal that pulls it. Farming with the plough is also less compatible with childcare, which is almost always the responsibility of women. As a result, men tended to specialize in agriculture work outside the home, while women specialized in activities within the home. In turn, this division of labor generated different norms about the appropriate role of women. Societies characterized by plough agriculture developed the belief that the natural place for women is in the home. This belief tends to persist even if the economy moves out of agriculture, affecting the participation of women in activities performed outside the home, including market employment, entrepreneurship, and politics.
What factors determine people’s attitude towards foreigners. Why are some countries in the world considered immigration countries and others not. This is one of the most exciting questions of our time. In the United States, the 2016 presidential election was won by a candidate who aggressively campaigned for a wall on the border with Mexico to limit immigration. In the same year, one of the slogans of the Leave campaign during the vote on Brexit was ”take back control of our borders” to stop immigration from East- ern Europe. On the other hand, during the refugee crisis in 2015, Germany voluntarily opened its borders to people from Syria, thus coining the term ”welcome culture”. Pre- vious research has focused on non-economic factors, such as cultural values or political views, and economic factors, such as competition in the labour market, as explanations for the differences in people’s attitudes towards foreigners. In my research I want to pro- vide another approach to explain why people differ in their attitudes towards foreigners,
cultural distance of country ` to the U.S. is then given by Culturaldistance ` = |I ` − I U S |,
where I ` is the individualism score of country `. We thus examine whether cultural distance
between countries affects U.S. intra-firm import shares across countries.
Industries in the U.S. are, however, heterogeneous in their exposure to foreign markets, organization of foreign production (i.e., integration vs. arm’s-length), and ethnic composi- tion of their managers. To enhance our identification, we construct a measure of cultural distance at the industrial level between a given country and the U.S. More specifically, we use information on the ancestry of U.S. citizens from the 2000 U.S. Census to estimate ethnic composition of managers in U.S. industries. In this census, 80.1 percent of the population reported their ethnic origin, 72 percent of which specified a single ancestryand the remaining 28 percent mentioned two ancestries. For the construction of our measure, we use the first ancestry indicated by an individual. Since our theoretical model emphasizes the effect of cul- tural distance on the managerial make-or-buy decisions, our baseline measures for cultural composition of a sector include only those individuals who indicated their occupation as
These developments open opportunities for the “digital humanities”. So far, humanity scholars have rarely worked with GIS, constructed to answer spatial questions, and most humanities have rarely employed geographical concepts in their analyses. With some of the developments sketched out in this article we can expect “spatial humanities” [ 107 ] to be realised. After various “spatial turns”, we may witness the humanities taking their own digital turn, where mapping-based projects shift into focus. We increasingly see examples of merging narratives and numbers, supported by the development of new visualisation methods allowing for the fuzzy, ambiguous and spatially overlapping nature of place like “spraycans” [ 108 ], overlapping isolines or diagrams [ 109 ], or spatial video [ 110 ]—although places can sometimes have clear or crisp boundaries, too. Developing place-based GIS techniques to help social scientists understand the relationships between large networks of entities could help a wide variety of social scientists, including sociologists who seek to understand human social networks, librarians and others who use bibliometrics for co-citation analysis of document databases, and linguists working on automating natural language parsing and translation. Ideally, we may yield insights and offer novel ways of interpreting a story and ultimately answering the “Why” questions. Ultimately, we may recognise that GIS have opened new and powerful means of spatial analysis but are increasingly viewed as media for communication—which necessitates the incorporation of cultural andlanguage differences and to widen the perspective while being more inclusive. In other words, a “GIS as media” view calls for the integration of place-based GIS functionality.
Finally, long lasting intervention is a precondition to allow for well structured and integrated programmes and therefore to avoid short-term and small-scale activities, the presence of which is quite often a symptom of lack of long-term political commitment. 46 Reforms of educational systems in the two member states of Estonia and Latvia have only started recently, between five and ten years ago. Considering that educational systems are structurally slow to respond to changes, it would be premature to expect clear results for evaluation of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bilingual education programmes. However, general attitudes toward language policies can be observed. Reforms can be carried out with general consensus or be dictated by the state, which directly affects the attitudes and behaviours of those concerned. Attitudes, as mentioned before, play a crucial role in creating a favourable framework for inclusion policies to be successful. According to an interview with Estonian-speaking and Russian-speaking students carried out in Estonia in 2006, many Russian-speaking students claim that “ethnic differentiation takes place in Estonia and the main factor of this process is the special status of the Estonian language as the national language”. 47 Language policy seems to be perceived by the interviewees as a possible source of exclusion rather than as promoting inclusion in mainstream society. According to the results of the same interview research, “most of the Russian-speaking students who participated in the interviews believe career possibilities are decent and their opinions about gaining higher education in Estonia are pessimistic”. 48 This pessimistic view on the part of the Russian- speaking population could possibly have been avoided by positively influencing the attitudes of the minority toward language policies before their introduction.
This paper explores the role of social norms regarding mortgage debt on individuals’ demand for a mortgage and the amount borrowed. Using a nationally representative sample of 12,344 immigrants from 41 different countries of ancestry living in Spain in 2007, we find solid evidence that mortgage culture from the country of ancestry affects immigrants’ mortgage demand in the host country both in the extensive and intensive margins. Persistence of these results among second-generation immigrants, naturalized and permanent residents, those with a tenure in the host country greater than ten years, or those who arrived as children or young adults corroborates the relevance of beliefs in shaping individuals behavioral outcomes. Although we find that the transmission of culture on mortgage finance is stronger in the extensive than the intensive margin, evidence from subgroup analysis seems to suggest that the weaker effect on the extensive margin may be related to borrowing constraints in the host country for certain groups, namely the low-educated individuals, low-skilled workers, those with children in the household, and first-generation immigrants. Interestingly, we find that social norms regarding property rights are most relevant when explaining immigrants’ decision to get a mortgage, but those about credit information matter most when explaining the amount of the mortgage, providing insightful information for policy makers.
Cultures resemble mosaics and can also be compared to palimpsests. Old manuscripts which bear the traces of former writings, scriptures that have been erased in order to be able to write upon them and that now display a new text, are called palimpsests. In painting, the process of overwriting, of correcting anterior brushstrokes is called penti- mento. This is the name of the technique because the painter repents, that is, wishes to change a detail and applies another touch. This can be revealed by probing the canvas and revealing hidden brushstrokes and colors. I think that these designations, pentimento, palimpsest or mosaic are also adequate names for describing language. Using these concepts, we can meditate on language. And this also explains how I chose the title of the present meditation: The Castilian language, a mosaic of languages.
To a certain extent, drops in cultural voltage cannot be avoided, but this holds true for any kind of translation. Instead, the improvement of the dubbing quality should be focused on. Humour also constitutes a challenging issue in the field of dubbing. In the analysed film, humour has not always been rendered, but the proposed translations based on Chiaro’s translation strategies prove that there are possible ways to keep the humorous effects in a dubbed version. Hence, both language varieties and humour constitute complex elements within a film requiring a high degree of creativity when being translated.
Language, region, and nation
Geography and more
Within the German context, national identity had more to do with language as a sign of ethnicity - t o choose a slightly modernist terminology. Regional diversity is part of this ideological frame10. It shows different aspects of the historical development of our 'national' culture. It is heavily dis puted to which point our language also forms our sight and interpretation of the world. Of course, this argumentation also implies that the different practical traditions are coined in regional form. Being guests of the 'Bergbaumuseum' (being: 'vor Ort' and doing something 'Tiefschurfendes'; both word terms from the early language of mining), it is more than obvious to take an example from the field of mining. Mining was one of the first areas of craftsmanship in which a German terminology was coined. It was the terminology developed within the silver mines of the Fug- gers in the Middle Ages which characterizes this business until now” . In a similar way, many re gional languages were characterized by the economic preferences and by the natural conditions they met as well. So dialectological research found that in alpine Switzerland there are more lin guistic techniques to be found that allow an exact local orientation12, and it is said to be out of this reason that the 'her-' and 'hin'-adverbs of German with their strict orientation with respect to the speakers standing point come from the South of Germany and are not used that fluently in the northern parts of the language area. The partition into a northern and a southern part of the area in which German is spoken has consequences on different linguistic levels. The differenc es in the pronunciation of German, which most of its speakers cannot hide, have their main dif ference along the line where the area of Low German met that
second-generation American women work in the US other than through beliefs.
Figure 1 reproduces the raw cor- relation found in Fernández and Fogli (2009) between the average number of hours worked per week by women of different countries of ancestry in 1970 in the US and the 1950 female LFP in these countries. As can be seen, there is a positive correlation between these two variables. Before turning to the question of whether this relationship is cau- sal, I will review additional evi- dence on the link between cultureand women’s work. In Fernández (2007), I employ the epidemiological approach to study the relationship between cultureand work, using social attitudes instead. I used the answers to questions posed in the World Value Survey (WVS) in 1990–91 that reveal attitudes towards women’s work. In particular, individuals were asked to answer whether they strongly agreed, agreed, disagreed or strongly disagreed with the following statements: 1. Being a housewife is just as fulfilling as working
municipality, right across the nearby language border to the French-speaking side (vice versa we would not expect to see a jump for a household in a French-speaking municipality which was moved).
This assumption would be violated if, at the language border, there was a change in not only the dominant language in the municipality, but also in factors that affect house- holds’ saving decisions but are unaffected by the dominant language in the municipality. In particular, these could be economic conditions such as deposit interest rates, inflation rates or unemployment rates. 43 I argue that this condition has to hold due to arbitrage. For example, if deposit interest rates were actually higher in the French-speaking part than in the German-speaking part, then households in the German-speaking part would start depositing money in banks in the French-speaking part. They would be able to do this as transaction costs close to the border are negligible. This increase in the supply of deposits would decrease equilibrium interest rates in the French-speaking part. 44 To make the assumption more plausible, I also provide estimates when additionally conditioning on household and regional characteristics.
According to Deretic (1983) the stories that are known about Cyril and Methods, about their life and creating are in some way like fairytales and legends. Nevertheless, there is no doubt that they gave huge contribution in literacy of Slavic people. Constantine-Cyril and Methods were brothers, they were erudite Greeks, who learned the Slavic language from Slavic people from the surrounding of Thessaloniki. They started their missionary work at Moravia in the year 863, and spread it to Pannonia. The brothers acted together, until Cyril’s death (869.). However, the main role had Cyril, as he was the creator of the Slavic script and the literary language. That moment of creating the Slavic script and the Slavic literacy was somehow unbelievable and mythical, but still real, documented and supported by two main world centers, Rome and Tsarigrad (Constantinopolis). After Cyril’s death, Methods continued the missionary, and afterwards their students. As it is known there were five students, and the most important were Naum and Climnet. The work of Thessaloniki brothers and their students was not just important for literacy of illiterates, the script and the literacy were powerful weapon for the Moravian ruler prince Rastislav in struggle against cultural, political and religious dominancy of foreigners.
From the outside the native speakers of a language seem to be an united mass. They are able to code their own decode the vocalization of the other. When being a member of this system, reality looks very different. Then differences in the vocalization become notable, dialects and regional lingual idioms get clearer and turn out to be factors for cultural differentiation. With the auxiliary function of culture, humans have created a codified cover, which acts as a mediator between the human and the world and shields the human from the world at the same time 13 .
Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a theoretical framework allows for understanding how language shapes humans’ worlds and their knowledge. In partic- ular, Wodak and Meyer (2009) argue that using Critical Discourse Analysis requires acknowledging language as social practice and that the context of language use is crucial. Examining the word choices of authors and editors of newspaper articles, and the language choices they make in regards to specific cases of sexual assault and rape, helps in understanding the “dialectical relationship between a particular discur- sive event and the situation, institution, and social structure which frames it” (Wodak & Meyer, 2009, p. 5). In essence, the discursive event is shaped by the language users, but also shapes them and their audiences. Thus, the language used in these newspaper articles does shape the perception of rape cultureand sexual assault and the way we perceive different countries and cultures and the importance of ad- dressing these issues. Not until we recognize that issues of rape culture are a global human rights issue can steps be taken to dismantle the current social and cultural norms and the issues of power in relation to the treatment of women and girls in regards to sexual assault. This includes examining the language use in major Ameri- can newspapers that reach a broad, often worldwide, audience in an attempt to bring awareness to the ways in which the biased language perpetuates and sustains cultural values related to rape culture.