verbal short-term memory

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Shared representations in language processing and verbal short-term memory: The case of grammatical gender

Shared representations in language processing and verbal short-term memory: The case of grammatical gender

However, the assumption that a gender congruency effect should not be ob- servable or should at least be attenuated with one of the most important tasks in re- search on verbal short-term memory questions the promoted importance of the pre- sent results. Nevertheless, beyond the tendency to regard one’s own results as mile- stones in science, I do not think that the results are irrelevant because of this – theo- retically based – limitation. Research on serial recall of lists of digits, letters, non- words, and words can still be conducted and interpreted without agonizing about grammatical gender. Yet the applicability of theories based on list recall to tasks that require processing of more complex materials (such as problem solving or language comprehension which normally imply processing of connected discourse) is indeed questioned. It is questioned the more evidence is found for theories that can account for retention of more complex materials. These theories postulate recall influences of information types that are not (or solely to a smaller degree) provided by digits, let- ters, or single words and thus make possibly different predictions for the complex task of interest. This is particularly the case if such additional representations do not only add to the influence of other representations but counteract the influence of well-known representations (as has been observed in the interaction of lexical- semantic and grammatical gender information in the present study). With respect to consequences for the application of working memory theories to language compre- hension, this has been discussed in the previous chapter. Generally, it seems worth broadening the scope of verbal recall and the inclusion of theories of language proc- essing allows for predicting what kind of information is represented in short-term memory under what circumstances.
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Effects of irrelevant background speech on verbal working memory tasks

Effects of irrelevant background speech on verbal working memory tasks

Research in this field focused on verbal short-term memory, assessed by a standard task in which participants have to recall a sequence of visually presented verbal items, e .g., digits, consonants, or words, in the correct serial order. Performance in this “immediate serial recall”-task is reliably impaired when task-irrelevant background sound is presented during item presentation, or during presentation and recall. This so-called “irrelevant sound effect” (ISE) is especially pronounced with speech sounds [2]. The ISE has been attributed to (i) interference between phonological representations in the phonological store component of the phonological loop [3], (ii) interference between serial order representations resulting from obligatory auditory perceptual organization of the speech stream and serial order representations of the list items (“changing state effect”, [4]), and (iii)
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The relevance of posterior thalamo-cortical connectivity for visual short-term memory capacity

The relevance of posterior thalamo-cortical connectivity for visual short-term memory capacity

Whole- and partial-report tasks were conducted in a dimly-lit sound-attenuated chamber (Industrial Acoustics Company) with simultaneous EEG recordings 11 . Stimuli were presented to participants on a 24’’ LED screen (800 x 600 pixel resolution, 100-Hz refresh rate) at a viewing distance of 65cm. Each participant completed two sessions of 1.5 to 2 hours each on different days: in one session, the whole-report was conducted and in another session the partial report task. Each session included EEG preparation, presentation of written instructions and stimuli used in the experiment, a procedure for adjustment of the individual exposure durations, and approximately 45 minutes of testing proper. At the beginning of each trial, a fixation point (a white circle, 0.9° of visual angle in diameter, with a white dot in the centre) was presented in the centre of the display for a duration drawn randomly from 10 to 240 ms. Participants were instructed to fixate this marker throughout the blocks of trials administered. Following the fixation marker, red and/or blue letters were briefly presented on a black background. Letters’ exposure durations were determined individually for each participant in a short pre-experimental practice session in order to ensure a comparable level of task difficulty across participants. The letters were randomly chosen from the following set {A, B, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, R, S, T, V, X, Z} and appeared only once in a given trial display. After stimulus presentation, a white question mark appeared in the centre of the screen, indicating the start of a verbal letter report. The participant could perform the report in any, arbitrary order, without speed constraint. In order to avoid too much guessing, participants were instructed to report only letters they were fairly certain they had seen. Following each block, participants received feedback related to the accuracy of the letters they actually reported (note that this feedback was independent from the overall performance
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Electroconvulsive therapy hasn’t negative effects on short-term memory function, as assessed using a bedside hand-held device

Electroconvulsive therapy hasn’t negative effects on short-term memory function, as assessed using a bedside hand-held device

only 60-70% of persons who tolerate antide- pressants will respond to first-line drug ther- apy for MDD. 4-6 In cases involving no or partial response to drug treatment and high symptom severity, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is regarded as an effective acute treat- ment option for both unipolar and bipolar depression. ECT is highly effective, especial- ly in treatment-resistant depressive disorders (TRD); in particular, ECT achieves remis- sion rates of 50-80% and is considered the gold standard in neurostimulation treatment for MDD. 1,3,4,7-11 However, in addition to excellent clinical response rates, ECT also has serious side effects. First, major charac- teristics of the ECT neurocognitive profile include transiently decreased orientation and impaired short-term memory function during ECT sessions. The reported ECT-induced cognitive impairment has a broad palette of different manifestations and typically con- sists of temporary anterograde (i.e., difficul- ties in acquiring and retaining new informa- tion) and/or retrograde amnesia (i.e., the impaired recall of information learned before ECT) or confusional symptoms, such as dis- orientation and attention deficits, in certain patients during relatively long periods over multiple days. These forms of impairment are more pronounced in cases involving bilateral electrode placement than in cases involving unilateral electrode placement. 12-19 Reports have indicated that ECT can lead to inefficiency or impairment in various other neuropsychological domains, including speed of processing, attention, verbal fluen- cy, and executive functions (e.g., cognitive flexibility). Up to 55% of patients also report that the aforementioned side effects persist for months after ECT. 9,12,15,16,20-22 Prolonged confusional states might limit the use of ECT; in particular, at present, this issue is often reported as a subjective limitation dur- ing courses of ECT. Because the most com- mon side effects of ECT are cognitive impairments that occur immediately after treatment, the use of a hand-held device in a bedside test setting seemed well suited to capture such effects. We also hypothesized that influencing factors such as age or gender could be relevant, and additional effects on the hypothesized cognitive decline due to medication and anesthesia were examined.
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Ostpolitik: Phases, Short-Term Objectives, and Grand Design

Ostpolitik: Phases, Short-Term Objectives, and Grand Design

The Brandt government was familiar with these anxieties, which could also be heard in Paris and London. Therefore, the Western allies were informed scrupulously about every move in Ostpolitik. At the same time, Bonn insisted that negotiations on Berlin should start immediately and should have absolute priority. From the German point of view, time was running out to reach a reasonable modus vivendi on the German question. The Brandt government emphasized right from the beginning that a “main point” should “be kept in mind.” The negotiations with the Soviet Union and Poland, the German-German contacts, and the Berlin talks were “all linked together.” “If the FRG should succeed in negotiat- ing an agreement with the Soviet Union but the Berlin talks do not suc- ceed, the whole process would be stopped.” 37 Bonn’s policy of linkages ran parallel but not always in complete harmony with Kissinger’s efforts to construct linkages. With respect to the Federal Republic’s paramount short-term objective, the improvement of relations with the GDR and of the situation in and around Berlin, the West German government tried time and again to put pressure on its allies, which was not always wel- come in Washington, London, and Paris. Bonn wanted the Western Pow- ers to speed up the Berlin negotiations. 38
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Short-term fiscal sustainability of V4 countries

Short-term fiscal sustainability of V4 countries

interest rates, and growth rates, are such that the government's intertemporal budget constraint is satisfied (Drudi – Prati, 2000). Buiter (1985) stressed two additional weaknesses of the one-period primary gap indicator. The one of the drawbacks of this indicator is that actual current primary fiscal balance could be affected by cyclical increases or reductions in public sector revenues and/or expenditures. The other drawback is that the current nominal interest rate and growth of nominal GDP may be unrepresentative of their respective long-term expected average values.
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Short-term price overreaction: Identification, testing, exploitation

Short-term price overreaction: Identification, testing, exploitation

One of the most famous stock market anomalies is the so-called overreaction hypothesis detected by De Bondt and Thaler (1985), who showed that investors tend to give excessive weight to recent relative to past information when making their portfolio choices. A special case of the overreaction hypothesis is short-term price reactions after one-day abnormal price changes. Empirical studies on various financial markets show that after such price changes there are bigger contrarian price movements than after normal (typical) daily fluctuations (Atkins and Dyl, 1990; Bremer and Sweeney, 1991; Bremer, Hiraki and Sweeney, 1997; Cox and Peterson, 1994; Choi and Jayaraman, 2009; etc).
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Complementarities in information acquisition with short-term trades

Complementarities in information acquisition with short-term trades

Two periods are the minimum with short-term trade and we begin with such a model in Section 2 in order to show that strategy complementarity may arise between the lev- els of investment in the same period. If the agent trading in the first period happens to be an information agent, he makes a decision whether to get information about the fundamental before entering the market. His strategy is the probability λ to invest in information. Since λ depends on the public probability of θ = 1, it is known by the mar- ket maker, who adjusts the ask and bid accordingly as in the standard Glosten–Milgrom model with asymmetric information and perfect competition. We analyze how the pay- off of investment for an information agent depends on λ and the public belief about the fundamental. We show that if the “consensus is strong” before period 1, i.e., if the public probability of θ = 1 is near 1 or 0, an increase in λ increases the payoff of information.
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Short-term inflation forecasting models for Nigeria

Short-term inflation forecasting models for Nigeria

Employing the SARIMA and SARIMAX processes, the paper estimated four parsimonious short-term models for headline inflation and evaluated these models based on their pseudo out of sample forecast performance. The results indicated that of the four competing models, forecast of headline inflation from one to twelve months should be done using the parsimonious SARIMAX model, with the pump price of fuel per liter, core and food price indices, reserve money and average monthly rainfall in the cereals, tubers and vegetables producing zones of the country as the exogenous variables. This model appeared to be consistently more precise than the other three competing models.
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Short‐term forecasting of the US unemployment rate

Short‐term forecasting of the US unemployment rate

2 T H E U S E O F I N T E R N ET S E A RC H DATA I N FO R EC A ST I N G 2.1 Related literature Internet search data have been used in a number of dif- ferent research topics. In economics, Choi and Varian (2012) show that Google Trends data can help to forecast near-term values of economic indicators, such as auto- mobile sales, travel destinations, consumer confidence and initial claims for unemployment benefits. Their paper inspired many economists to use Google Trends data to predict a variable that can be linked to the behavior of households. For example, Vosen and Schmidt (2011) fore- cast consumption of goods, whereas Bangwayo-Skeete and Skeete (2015) and Yang, Pan, Evans, and Lv (2015) use Google data to predict future tourism demand. Wu et al. (2015) predict US housing prices and sales. Using a Markov switching framework, Chen et al. (2015) use Google search data to improve the timeliness of business cycle turn- ing point identification, and they successfully nowcast the peak date within a month that the turning point occurred. In their analysis, they use the three keywords “reces- sion,” “foreclosure help,” and “layoff,” which represent the aggregated economy, the credit market, and the labor market, respectively. Liu, Xu, and Fan (2018) also use Internet search behavior to forecast Chinese GDP. How- ever, because Google is not prevalent in China, the authors use data from its Chinese counterpart: Baidu.
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Short-Term Price Overreactions: Identification, Testing, Exploitation

Short-Term Price Overreactions: Identification, Testing, Exploitation

As can be seen, both parameters (averaging period and number of standard deviations added to the mean) affect the number of detected anomalies. Changes in the averaging period only have a small effect (the difference between the results when the period considered is 5 and 30 respectively is less than 10%). By contrast, each additional standard deviation significantly decreases the number of observed abnormal returns (by 50% for each additional sigma). Therefore 2-4% of the full sample (the number of abnormal returns in the case of 3 sigmas) is not sufficiently representative to draw conclusions. That is why we set the parameter sigma_dz equal to 1. To make sure that this choice is reasonable in practice we test the trading strategy based on overreactions with a different set of parameters (see Appendix C). The results provide evidence in favour of 1 as an appropriate value for the sigma_dz parameter. Student’s t –tests of short-term counter-reactions carried out for the Dow Jones index over the period 1987-2012 (see Table 3) suggest that the optimal averaging periods are 20 and 30 (the corresponding t-statistics are significantly higher than for other averaging periods), and thus the t-tests are also performed for these.
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Rapid short-term reorganization in the language network

Rapid short-term reorganization in the language network

To elucidate the brain’s ability for adaptive short-term plasticity in response to a controlled virtual lesion and the contribution of left AG to semantic processing, we applied focal continuous theta- burst stimulation (cTBS) over AG or neighbouring SMG prior to neuroimaging ( Figure 1 ). The eLife digest Taking part in a conversation requires us to extract meaning from a complex series of sounds by recognising words and phrases. We then need to decide on a response, and plan and execute the lip and tongue movements necessary to generate that response. Each of these processes – from analysing the meaning of words to producing speech – requires a distinct set of brain regions to work together. However, we know relatively little about how these regions interact with one another during specific language processes, or about what happens when key regions are damaged.
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Rapid short-term reorganization in the language network

Rapid short-term reorganization in the language network

To elucidate the brain’s ability for adaptive short-term plasticity in response to a controlled virtual lesion and the contribution of left AG to semantic processing, we applied focal continuous theta- burst stimulation (cTBS) over AG or neighbouring SMG prior to neuroimaging ( Figure 1 ). The eLife digest Taking part in a conversation requires us to extract meaning from a complex series of sounds by recognising words and phrases. We then need to decide on a response, and plan and execute the lip and tongue movements necessary to generate that response. Each of these processes – from analysing the meaning of words to producing speech – requires a distinct set of brain regions to work together. However, we know relatively little about how these regions interact with one another during specific language processes, or about what happens when key regions are damaged.
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When a Short-term Analysis is not a Short-term Approach: Impacts of Agricultural Technology Adoption in Bolivia

When a Short-term Analysis is not a Short-term Approach: Impacts of Agricultural Technology Adoption in Bolivia

The main impacts of the program are observed in short- and medium-term variables, including crop diversification, input use and expenditures on inputs, and variables related to sales and home consumption. The results presented use different estimations and show a positive impact of CRIAR on land extension allocated to non-traditional higher-valued crops, and an increase in the use and expenditures of agricultural inputs. Also, the program had a positive impact on the proportion of production destined for market sales. All these results are robust to different specifications of the PSM. The program also had a positive impact on incomes from sales of agricultural production and food security, which a priori, had been identified as medium to long-term impacts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to provide rigorous empirical evidence on the impact of interventions that aim to promote the adoption of agricultural technologies on food security, particularly in Bolivia.
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Weather-induced Short-term Fluctuations of Economic Output

Weather-induced Short-term Fluctuations of Economic Output

We find noticeable effects of the various (linear and nonlinear, contemporaneous and dynamic) weather regressors, which in the –seasonally adjusted– construction sector growth data imply[r]

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Tax certainty: Proposals for the short term and the long term

Tax certainty: Proposals for the short term and the long term

4 Concluding remarks With regard to the short term proposals, precise recommendations for strengthening tax certainty can be made: For the first policy proposal, implementation would require work on common standards (handbooks, practical guidelines) and the organisation of workshops to guide countries in the implementation of EEPs. For the second proposal, inter-regional workshops on legislative action would be needed for the upscaling of existing initiatives. G20 countries need to increase their advocacy work with Ministries of Finance in developing countries to ensure political support for this legislative action. For the third proposal, additional efforts in international assistance led by G20 countries are required to support governments in their efforts of implementing new standards and regulations. For the fourth proposal, the CbCR should be strengthened by the G20 to become a worldwide standard. For the fifth proposal, the G20 should encourage policy-makers to work on unbiased tax systems to stimulate investments, implying financial neutrality for investment decisions and favourable depreciation rules but also a minimum taxation.
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Refining short-term electricity markets to enhance flexibility

Refining short-term electricity markets to enhance flexibility

The current market environment is not always fully tech- nology neutral due to specific requirements for market participation. This predominantly relates to the ability of demand-side response (DSR) options to access the mar- ket. Though DSR has long been recognised as a resource for short-term electricity markets to function effectively, PLEF countries have traditionally failed to account for DSR in their short-term market arrangements, most notably in their balancing markets. While many balancing markets have been opened up for large-scale (aggregate) demand side participation in recent years, it appears that crucial enabling factors have not yet been accounted for in all PLEF mar- kets. The related activity of independent aggregation, which is believed to be an enabling factor for small scale flexibil- ity and DSR activation at large, still remains only marginally institutionalised, for the roles and responsibilities of differ- ent market actors have not yet been defined in most PLEF markets. When assessing product specifications from the perspective of accessibility, product duration is a key aspect of balancing market design in need of attention. Specifically, product lengths should be shortened to unlock flexibility from new sources.
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Die Short-Term Variabilität der Repolarisation in einem Herzinsuffizienzmodell und bei Patienten mit dilatativer Kardiomyopathie

Die Short-Term Variabilität der Repolarisation in einem Herzinsuffizienzmodell und bei Patienten mit dilatativer Kardiomyopathie

Die Short-Term-Variabilität der Repolarisation scheint ein viel versprechender Parameter zu sein mit dem Potential, in dem entsprechenden Krankengut diejenigen herauszufiltern, die sich einem erhöhten Risiko von Herzrhythmusstörungen ausgesetzt sehen. In der Arbeit von Hinterseer et al. (26) konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei Patienten mit durch Medikamente induziertem Long-QT-Syndrom (dLQTS) im Vergleich zu einer gematchten Kontrollgruppe eine signifikant erhöhte STV-QT zu verzeichnen war.

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Short-term and long-term determinants of moderate wage growth in the EU

Short-term and long-term determinants of moderate wage growth in the EU

Interpretation of the effects. Wage growth can be broken down into three components, namely the composition, price and interaction effects. The “composition effect” measures the changes in wages due to changes in individual and job characteristics, while keeping unchanged the wages earned by the same person in the same job. The “price effect” measures changes in wages due to changes in how much a given worker in a given job earns, while keeping the composition of the workforce constant. The price effect includes changes in the “constant term” of the wage equation (e.g. wage increases common to all employees, for instance compensating inflation) and changes in the so-called “returns” to observed characteristics of workers (e.g., the “return” to higher education in terms of higher wages earned by graduates). Finally, the “interaction effect” measures changes in wages due to the interaction between changes in characteristics and changes in returns. For instance, in a hypothetical economy in which wages of workers without a tertiary degree stay unchanged over a given period, an increasing return to higher education increases aggregate wage growth through a positive “price effect”; while an increasing rate of tertiary attainment increases aggregate wage growth by a positive “composition effect”. In this case, there will be a positive interaction effect: aggregate wage growth will be somewhat higher than the sum of the composition effect and the price effect. Generally, however, interaction effects are found to be small.
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Compromising long-term sustainability for short-term profit maximization: Unethical business practice

Compromising long-term sustainability for short-term profit maximization: Unethical business practice

Lonmin reported in their sustainability report (2012) that “Due to the nature and setting of our business, issues of transformation and sustainable development receive significant foc[r]

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