the tugof war, in which case the effort of the agent is essential. The same dynamic free- riding affect arises for the stronger team, albeit in diluted form, whenever battle-outcome probabilities are strictly below one: The closer the stronger team is to victory, the higher is the probability that a defeat in a given battle is compensated by the efforts of future team members, thus reducing the incentive to exert effort for the current agent. For an intuition of the discouragement effect, it is instructive to consider the extreme case of an agent who expects his team to loose all future battles with probability one. Such an agent has no incentive to exert any effort because his team will loose the tugof war anyway – the lack of future efforts of his fellow team members discourages the exertion of effort by the agent under consideration, unless, of course, when the agent is called upon to play in the state where battle victory is equivalent to the tugof war victory, in which case the agent has the strongest possible incentive to exert effort. The same dynamic discouragement effect arises for agents of the weaker team in diluted form whenever the battle-winning probability is strictly above zero: The closer the weaker team is to defeat, the more likely it becomes that a victory in a current battle is squandered by the failure of future team members to win their battles, thus reducing the incentives to exert effort for the current agent. Crucially, the dynamic free-riding and the discouragement effect discussed above both pull in the same direction, implying lower incentives to exert effort for the agents of both teams the closer the strong team is to victory. As a consequence, the fact that it is not only the expectation of future battle-winning probabilities but also the effort of ones own opponent which determines equilibrium effort choices does not upset the intuition.
Consequently, the player who wins the …rst battle wins the contest without exerting any further e¤ort. The deterministic nature of the CSF employed was the major reason behind this result (see Konrad, 2010).
Later –building on McAfee (2000)’s analysis–Agastya and McAfee (2006) also investigated a model oftug-of-war using an all-pay-auction CSF. Two major di¤erences from Konrad and Kovenock (2005) were (i) the presence of a negative loser prize in Agastya and McAfee (2006) and (ii) the way their CSF broke ties. Now, the disadvantaged party may have a reason to con- tinue exerting e¤ort: escaping from the negative loser prize. These authors showed that there exists two types of stationary equilibria with very di¤er- ent characteristics. In one of them, e¤ort tends to rise as either player gets close to winning, whereas in the other one, players remain in an interior state forever, not …ghting against each other. The latter equilibrium resembles a discouragement e¤ect di¤erent from the one in Konrad and Kovenock (2005). Moscarini and Smith (2007) extended Harris and Vickers (1987)’s model to a continuous-time and continuous state-space environment. In their model, a player continously exerts e¤ort at a quadratic cost to produce a ‡ow out- put, and when a predetermined output di¤erence is reached, the game ends. A player’s e¤ort controls (linearly) the drift of the Brownian motion, which governs his cumulative output. The authors’ main focus is on the optimal contest design (optimal prize and optimal scoring rule). They showed that the optimal prize (maximizing expected total output) is …nite, and conjec- tured that the optimal scoring rule penalizes the leader so that the laggard does not give up, for which they provided numerical results.
The October 2013 government reshuffle in Morocco marks the latest round in the drawn-out tugof war between the Palace and the Justice and Development Party (Parti de la justice et du développement, PJD), which heads the ruling coalition. The Palace came out as the clear winner, and thereby managed to roll back some of the limited concessions granted in response to the protests in early 2011. Regional dynamics – support from the Arab Gulf monarchies and authoritarian reconstruction in Egypt after the July 2013 coup – and the dispute between the PJD and its coalition partner, the Istiqlal (Independence) Party (Parti de l’istiqlal, PI), worked to the Palace’s advan- tage. Even though the relation between the PJD and the Palace has ameliorated con- siderably compared to one decade ago, the Palace’s strategic aim is to weaken the party while at the same time using it to stabilize the regime. In the short term, and as long as the PJD is able to retain popular support, it will remain in office and retain a limited margin of maneuver for reform. Profound political reforms as well as structural socio- economic and judicial reforms, however, are likely to be postponed to the mid to long term. European Union policy makers should use the EU’s long and close relations with the Palace to encourage it to allow more substantial reform and cede power to the elected government.
in a number of ways. Klumpp and Polborn (2006) considered races with Tullock technology. Assuming a deterministic contest technology, Konrad and Kovenock (2009) studied races with heterogeneous deadlines, a potential headstart for one player, and positive intermediate prizes. Multi-player races have been considered by Do¼ gan et al. (2018). None of these contributions, however, uses …nite automata to de…ne a ‡exible class of dynamic multi-battle contest structures. Neither does any of these contributions characterize the Markov perfect equilibrium in the tug-of-war for a general class of contest technologies. 3 In our setting, the e¤ort provision is the lower the more unbalanced the state. This is in line with contest models in the tradition of Dixit (1987), for instance. However, in a framework with in…nitely many stages and no premature end, Hörner (2004) shows that the leader in a highly unbalanced state may exert excessive e¤ort so as to keep the follower at a safe distance.
Many animal species and economic institutions have developed mecha- nisms such as hierarchies, or other organizational structures to govern the allocation of prizes, such as preferential food access and the right to reprodu- ce in the biological context, or prized jobs and contracts in the organizational context. Behavior in these mechanisms could be interpreted as a conflict that consists of a series of battles, or repeated opportunities to struggle. Our re- sults help explain why these structures may have evolved. The tug-of-war delays the allocation of a given prize, compared to a single stage conflict, but can considerably increase the eﬃciency of allocation of the prize and reduce the overall resources that are dissipated among the group of players.
With mother´s speeches, healing and comforting aspects are evidenced that prayer raises through different states of psychological, emotional and spiritual stress. Reflecting more deeply in the context of prayer, we ask: when do we really go to God and pray? Faced with this challenge, the literature states: in the Brazilian historical reality, everyone is called to pray always and make their prayer be their work and their work be their prayer. They never have to put in conflict pray and work, they are actions performed by the same person who must be integrated in order to create harmony of the human being, generating deep inner peace. 16
particles formed during the first minutes after methane addition reached the second filter. Particles formed in this phase, in which temperatures in the reactor still approach a situation of thermal equilibrium, likely differ from particles formed later under more or less constant conditions. In order to allow the analysis of hydrocarbons higher than the C 2 -hydrocarbons, the GC was not stopped after ethyne was detected but was in operation for an extended period of time of 45 min. Targeting constant reaction conditions the experiment was stopped as soon as the pressure rose more than 10 mbar compared to the initial conditions or the temperature rose for more that 1 % of the initial temperature at position 320 mm in K. When neither the pressure related nor the temperature related stop criterion was fulfilled, the experiment was brought to an end after about 60 min. Then the particles present in the sample filter were removed. Carbon deposition between the outlet of the reactor and the filter were negligible. However, a significant amount of carbonaceous material could be removed from the inside of the reactor during the cleaning procedure employing a metal wire, which was moved through the reactor with utmost care. The wire was introduced in the gap between the thermocouple and the TC elbow after removing respective sealing nuts, when the temperature of the tube furnace reached values below 700 °C. Both, the carbon sample from the filter and from the reactor were prepared for a further analysis, namely the determination of the BET specific surface. An overview about reaction conditions covered in the second campaign with argon and helium as dilution gas is provided in Table 4-13 and Table 4-14, respectively.
In studying the changing composition of the Commission, I use three differ- ent indicators: first, the highest position held by a Commissioner – in other words, the position score; second, whether he or she had been in a political position before; and, third, the person’s party affiliation at the time he or she was appointed to the Commission. Methodologically, these three variables are of different types and require different multivariate models. Party affili- ation is coded as a categorical variable and has to be analysed with a multi- nomial logit model. Whether a Commissioner has held a political position before is coded through a dummy variable and analysed with a logit model. An ordinary least squares (OLS) model is used to analyse the position scores of the Commissioners. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 3. I present a more in-depth discussion of these models in the following sections. To find out how the factors that I have discussed – incumbency and country size – are interrelated with other factors, I present the results of a multivariate analysis. Based on the three categories for party affiliation – member of government party, opposition member, no party affiliation – I conducted a multinomial logit regression in which each category is compared with a reference group.
In this investigation two reliability analyses by means of probabilities of failure are carried out. To determine the exceedance probabilities, an adaptive response surface method (ARSM) was used in combination with the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). For each reliability analysis, more than 600 designs were calculated in individual (here three) iteration steps. With each iteration step, new designs are created that are closer to the limit state. The approximation quality of the generated response surfaces is 99%.
Since the 1930s it is well known that the global function fields together with the number fields form a class of fields, called global fields. These admit a class field theory, that is, they allow a description of all Abelian extensions. (An Abelian extension is a Galois extension whose automorphism group is Abelian.) Global function fields have been investigated by pure mathemati- cians ever since. However, while it is relatively easy to compute examples of number fields by hand this is hard in the case of function fields, because of the complexity of even basic operations like addition of elements.
The principle of the localization of functions may only apply to content-related functions, i.e. they are represented modularly. Neuronal programs that are restricted to a small area in the brain accordingly convey the content-related functions. Various functions can take place in a spatially overlapping or parallel manner by using different neuronal programs, like the use of different transmitters. As long as, for example, a chair is the content of our perception, several spatially separate areas of the brain are involved. If one is emotionally moved by the chair that leads to a reaction or response (e.g. taking a seat, Cieza, 2000; Roth, 2000). Several separate areas in the brain are involved in the contemplation of the chair. That leads directly to the question of how the brain integrates these pieces of information and perceives them as related to the stimulus (in this case “chair”). Even if the modules are regarded as mentally independent from one other, the content-related functions cannot be regarded as completely autonomous.
Blogs are like easy-to-update websites that allow for the quick publishing of virtually anything (Deng & Yuen, 2011). The number of bloggers continues to increase each year and blogs are quickly emerging as a useful form of media within an educational setting. The educational affordances of blogs have been revealed by earlier studies as promoting depth and breadth of student reflection (Stiler & Philleo, 2003; Yang, 2009), reflective writing (Stiler & Philleo, 2003), enhancing direct communication (Rinaldo, Tapp & Laverie, 2011), and supporting informal learning (Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs & Meyer, 2010). Moreover, blogging services afford authentic opportunities (Ferdig & Trammell, 2004). They can also be used to gain students’ insights and opinions or for class recitation (Pineda, 2007). However, blogs can also have disadvantages in that they are “vulnerable because of lack of authoritative control over content” (McLean, Richards & Wardman, 2007, p.175). One outstanding problem is that students can easily copy information from another online resource and paste direct to blogs without considering copyright issues (Tekinarslan, 2008). Considering the application in educational settings, studies of blogging services are still limited (Halic, Lee, Paulus & Spence, 2010).
Here at least we only have 4 specialties with ambulatory SUS in the Far West, the cardiology [...], oncology [...], orthopedics and Neurology. [...] The other specialties today has in the region, unless you instruct it to a query of ent, ophthalmology on the SUS, so you go there to save 100,00 consultation, but you have to afford 250,00 transport [...]. So we have this deficiency and why we can't deploy an effective policy in the municipalities. If you don't you will create a demand that will surely exist, but you have no way to give a full support this demand [...]. (G5).
possible to calculate the active, reactive constituent, the impedance module, and also construct a hodograph of impedance. Before calculating the user, it is possible to select the type of gas mixture, specify the discharge con- ditions, the range of the discharge current and the fre- quency of the signal. The result of the calculation is the family of dependences of the impedance components on the frequency for different discharge currents. Each de- pendency family is located on a separate tab. The tech- nique based on the use of expression (3) is the basis of the technique for modeling the impedance of plasma of glow discharge lasers.
Abstract. The role of invertebrates and their contribution in functioning of soils is considered. The edaphic fauna of zonal unt ouched s oils i n n atural ecosystems l ocated i n t he different zones of t he R epublic of M oldova h as be en investigated. Soils of the natural ecosystems are the habitat and the source of the conservation and reproduction of the edaphic fauna. They represent themselves the standards of the biodiversity for soil invertebrates. The database of the invertebrates’ diversity of virgin and fallow soils has a practical importance as the natural standard for the operative evaluation of degradation processes and e cological effectiveness of the land management. Agricultural practices with the involvement of areas with multiannual grasses in a crop rotation system created conditions for the improvement of the invertebrate’s biodiversity in th e chernozem which de graded as a r esult of a l ong-term a rable u se. The us e of ryegrass and l ucerne mixture dur ing 3 -5 y ears h elps t o re store t he s oil invertebrates at t he e xpense of e xudates contribution in the soil and roots of perennial crop residues. This procedure has promoted the revival of population of invertebrates. T he num ber of i nvertebrates on av erage w as 2. 5 t imes hi gher c ompared w ith t he c ontrol, the total biomass – by 1.6 times. This method is especially effective to restore the Lumbricidae family. Their number increased by 3.0 and biomass – by 2.0 times. The recovery rate of the population of Lumbricidae family reaches of 14.9 ex m -2 per
In recent years, the utilization of personal data has progressed in a variety of services. But on the other hand, alongside the utilization of personal data, attention has become focused on the important problem of leaks of this data. Within this sort of situation, Japan is in the middle of revising its law on protecting individual information and is also investigating a range of other measures relating to the utilization of personal data.
Much less well-documented is the role of the educational field of a person, which constitutes an important element for predicting labor market outcomes (van de Werfhorst and Kraaykamp, 2001; Hansen, 2001) and hence might also be a determinant of overeducation. Several reasons motivate this view. First, fields of study differ in their occupational focus. Fields like medicine or engineering with their quite narrowly defined job profiles might require more occupation-specific skills, raising the chances of graduates to find appropriate jobs in the corresponding occupational groups (Reimer et al., 2008). The high job-specificity protects graduates of fields like medicine, law, or architecture from educational mismatch (Ortiz and Kucel, 2008). Second, credentialism theories suggest that in a world where the true personal abilities are unknown, the chosen field of study can also act as an ability signal to employers. Obtaining a degree in fields like maths, natural sciences, or technical disciplines, which enjoy the reputation of imposing high intellectual demands on their students, could convince employers of the extraordinary talent and/or motivation of applicants (Barone and Ortiz, 2011). This could give them preferred access to positions with high skill requirements, possibly also outside the occupational groups associated with their subjects. Third, field choice might be triggered by individual gender role orientations and social origin (Polachek, 1978; Bradley, 2000), such that field-specific labor market outcomes are not purely causal effects but to some part driven by selection into fields. More specifically, gender norms might impact decisions on family formation and marriage and via this channel impact educational choices (Chiappori et al., 2009; Attanasio and Kaufmann, 2017). Beyond horizontal segregation, also vertical segregation relates to gender norms. Whereas women still bear the lion’s share of household chores, they are underrepresented in managerial positions throughout Europe. For example in April 2015, the EU-average of women’s share among senior executives of the largest nationally registered companies listed on the national stock exchange amounted to 13.7% and their share among nonexecutive directors stood at 22.5% (European Union, 2016, p. 26). Both the choice of “female” occupations at the beginning of the career and the typically “female” decisions in its subsequent stages can be associated with the underutilization of formal education in the current job. Furthermore, having graduated as a female in a male dominated field could convey a negative productivity signal to employers, relative to male graduates in the same field, resulting in ceteris paribus higher overeducation.
– technological innovations involving the modification of factors and properties of the implemented manufacturing processes
Many authors indicate that innovations interpenetrate and are complementary (Garcia et al, 2002: 111-130). Enterprises should therefore be oriented towards all types of innovations in order to increase their importance in the market. The benefits of the applied innovations translate into the internal and external sphere of activity in the economy. Thus, small, medium and micro enterprises implement appropriate changes, since it is changes that have been the demand of the times, and even indispensable for sustainability of business success. In the technology-oriented world, as it is today, the development and success of the ever-changing business is required exponentially. Organizations need to change and innovate in response to environmental changes, as well. They also need to identify new ways to provide collective resources for implementing an innovation (Siddiquee, 2007, Supriyono, 2015: 1057-1061). This can be seen from the standpoint of changes in the products or services that involve an evolution of features, or change the way "in view of the world". The term innovation can be viewed from various perspectives, including technology, economics and business, the global environment and the socio-political culture customer and market trends, behaviour and organizational change as a whole (Supriyono, 2015: 1057-1061)