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Effects of storage temperature on the total phenolic content of Cornelian Cherry (<i>Cornus mas</i> L.) fruits extracts

Effects of storage temperature on the total phenolic content of Cornelian Cherry (<i>Cornus mas</i> L.) fruits extracts

that the degradation process of these bioactive compounds, at tem- peratures from 2 °C to 75 °C, indeed followed first-order reaction kinetics. The degradation of polyphenols from Cornelian cherries extract was investigated. Storage time and temperature had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on total phenolic content. During storage of Cornelian cherries extracts at 2 °C the level of phenolic compounds slightly de- creased. We observed losses of 3.1%, 6.9%, 11.9% and 22.6% after 10, 20, 30 and 60 days of storage, respectively. Storage of extracts at room temperature (22 °C) resulted in no significant change of the degradation rate constant (p = 0.9), the lost of phenolic compounds being 25.4% after 60 days of storage. Stability of polyphenolic com- pounds appears to be greatly affected at temperatures higher than 50 °C. In the case of thermal treatment on Cornelian cherry fruits extracts at 55 °C and 75 °C, significant decrease can be observed in total phenolic content values. This is consistent with results pre- sented in previous studies on polyphenols degradation (K ALT , 2005;
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Effect of Candidatus <i>Phytoplasma pyri</i> infection on fruit quality, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of ‘Deveci’ pear, <I<Pyrus communis</i> L.

Effect of Candidatus <i>Phytoplasma pyri</i> infection on fruit quality, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of ‘Deveci’ pear, <I<Pyrus communis</i> L.

Abstract Pear decline is an important threat for Turkish pear production. In this study, we attempt to compare several pomological characteristics, total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacities in Candidatus Phytoplasma pyri infected and noninfected ‘Deveci’ pear from Bursa, Turkey. Based on pear decline symptoms, the fruit samples were taken in October 2008 on harvest maturity from four infected and non-infected trees. Presence of Candidatus P. pyri was later confirmed by nested PCR tests. The result indicated that infection significantly reduced fruit size, width, length; and increased pH, color values of a, b and hue. Abortive and healthy seed numbers and weights, soluble solids and acidity did not change significantly. Similarly, the infection did not affect the flesh color. To investigate a possible differential response on skin and flesh of fruits, total phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) analyses were conducted on skin and flesh tissues separately. The results indicated that, infected skin tissue had higher total phenolic and total antioxidant capacity for both methods analyzed (TEAC and FRAP). TP content of skin increased from 806 to 923 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g fresh weight (fw) while TP content of flesh increased from 195 to 249 µg GAE/g fw. TAC also found to be enhanced on infected fruits. On average, non-infected trees had 32.4 and 28.3 µmol TE/g fw for TEAC and FRAP, respectively. Infection increased these averages to 35.4 and 32.3 µmol TE/g fw tabulating 18 and 12% increase in flesh tissue. Similarly, the TEAC and FRAP averages increased from 4.0 to 5.8 and 3.3 to 4.9 µmol TE/g fw, respectively.
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Influence of the extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity and total phenolic in currant fruits

Influence of the extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity and total phenolic in currant fruits

(2007) reported the lowest FRAP values (40.7 - 65.1 μmol AsA / g DW) for red currant and gooseberry cultivars. Anti-oxidant activities were correlated with total phenolic content (Tab. 3). There is an excellent linear relationship (r = 0.84 - 0.98) between values for total phenolic content and anti-oxidant activity. This linear correlation suggested that phenolic compounds in cur- rant largely accounted for its anti-oxidant capacity. Good correla- tion (r = 0.97 - 0.98) was observed between anti-oxidant activity and total polyphenol content for variant 2 and variant 3, indicating that ethanol, in different concentrations, is a good solvent in obtain- ing an extract with high anti-oxidant activity of currants (black and red). Similar results have been reported by other researchers. W ANG
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Phenolic Compounds from Lactuca viminea L 

Phenolic Compounds from Lactuca viminea L 

Phenolic com p o u n d s were detected by T L C and H P L C -D io d e A rray D etecto r (H P L C -D A D ). T L C w as perform ed using silica gel 60 G an d m icrocrystalline cellulose (M erck) on alum inium sheets. 365 nm U V light an d am inoethyl ester o f diphenylboric acid 1 % in M eO H (N eu ’s reagent) were used as detectors. R { values were co m p ared w ith au th en tic sam ples an d literatu re d a ta [14]. H P L C -D A D was carried o u t on a M erck-H itachi

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Variability of total flavonoid and mucilage content of wild growing chamomile (<i>Matricaria recutita</i> L.) populations

Variability of total flavonoid and mucilage content of wild growing chamomile (<i>Matricaria recutita</i> L.) populations

The average swelling index referring to mucilage content changed between 15.8 and 80.8 in case of wild growing chamomile populations (Table 1). The relative st. dev. between populations was definite (CV % = 41.2 %) and we also found significant differences between them (p = 0.000; SD 5% = 2.9). According to this it can be established that chamomile stands with different origin were very diverse in terms of their mucilage content. Most of the populations (60 %) had 20-40 SI values. There were unambiguous connections between meteorological data and SI data of chamomile stands too. Plants’ swelling index had medium strong, positive correlation with both spring total heat unit (r = 0.56) and total heat unit of 10 days before harvest (r = 0.50). Based on these findings it can be seen that SI referring to mucilage content is a very variable characteristic which is influ- enced by the temperature significantly. The higher temperature helps the accumulation of poly- saccharide compounds.
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II. Total Oxygen Content Determination 

II. Total Oxygen Content Determination 

The aver- age activity coefficients for the lithium oxide-lithium fluoride solid solution results to be 0.8 at 605 °C, so that both oxide and hydroxide concentration could be deduced [r]

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Phenolic Constituents of Galactites tomentosa (Asteraceae) 

Phenolic Constituents of Galactites tomentosa (Asteraceae) 

626 D. Bäum er and H. G. Ruppel • Phenolic Constituents of Galcictites tomentosa pests. The phenolic compounds identified in G. to­ mentosa obviously are located in its plant-hairs. To get more knowledge about mechanisms re­ sponsible for the release of allergic constituents (e.g. glandular trichom es) of G. tomentosa, scan­ ning electron microscopical (S E M ) investigations o f leaves were carried out.

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Estimation of spatial gradients and temporal variations of the total electron content using ground based GNSS measurements

Estimation of spatial gradients and temporal variations of the total electron content using ground based GNSS measurements

Current flare detection systems measure high energetic X‐ray fluxes in wavelength ranges 0.1–0.8 nm or detect/measure ionospheric signatures by using amplitude and phase measurements of Very Low Frequency radio waves from military transmitters (Wenzel et al., 2016). This information can be directly used in High Frequency (HF) communication because X‐rays ionize the bottomside ionosphere and there- fore, impact terrestrial HF communication. Space‐based radio systems used in satellite communication, navigation, and remote sensing radars are more sensitive to the total electron content between satellite and receiver. Therefore, these customers primarily need information on solar flares whose extreme ultravio- let percentage on the total spectrum is high. The extreme ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths <130 nm ionizes the most frequent oxygen atoms in the F2 layer.
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"Total pain"

"Total pain"

Dame Cicely Saunders (1963) hat das Modell des «Total Pain» anhand ihrer persönlichen Erfahrungen mit Patienten in palliativen Situationen entwickelt [1,2]. Aus ihrer einzigarti­ gen, multiprofessionellen Sicht als Pflegefachperson, Sozial­ arbeiterin und als Ärztin wurde ihr klar, dass es sich meist um einen komplexen, chronischen Schmerz handelt, der aus multiplen, koexistierenden Faktoren besteht. Totaler Schmerz stellt sich aus körperlichen, emotionalen, sozialen und spiritu­ ellen Komponenten zusammen (Abbildung 1).

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Inhalt/Content

Inhalt/Content

Geburtstag, Berlin: Karl Dietz Verlag 2011 (Gerd Kaiser). 208[r]

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Total phenol and quercetin content and antioxidant activity in apples in response to thermal, light stress and to organic management

Total phenol and quercetin content and antioxidant activity in apples in response to thermal, light stress and to organic management

No significant increases in total phenolic compounds and quercetin glycoside concentrations or levels of antioxidant activity were ob- served with higher temperatures. Sunburn is a physiological disorder caused by the fruit being exposed to excessive levels of temperature and solar radiation (w ünScHe et al., 2004; racSko and ScHrader, 2012), which induces photo- and thermal protective mechanisms in the fruit tissue, expressed as higher levels of antioxidant activity and the activity of certain enzymes (l eja et al., 2003; l amberS et al., 2008). This coincides with the results of this study, in which total phenol, quercetins and antioxidant activity were higher in damaged tissue. F elicetti and S cHrader (2009) had similar results and observed that the concen- trations of chlorogenic acid and quercetin glycosides were lower further away from the area of damaged tissue. Yuri et al. (2010) observed that total phenol, flavonol concentrations and levels of anti- oxidant activity were higher in apples with sunburn in both seasons. Total phenolic compounds concentration, quercetins and antioxi- dant activity decreased during the growth period of the both con- ventionally and organically grown, while the content and activity of these compounds at the level of the entire fruit presented a tendency to increase. These results concur with observations described pre- viously by other authors (m aYr et al., 1995; H amauzu et al., 1999;
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Susceptibility of dried berries to infestation by <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in correlation with total sugar content: Poster

Susceptibility of dried berries to infestation by <i>Plodia interpunctella</i> (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in correlation with total sugar content: Poster

Values of indices of susceptibility and resistance of five tested dried berry species to infestation by P. interpunctella could be attributed to their nutritional and moisture content. A few studies showed that nutritional content is of primary importance for successful development of P. interpunctella, while moisture content is of secondary importance (LeCato, 1976; Sambaraju and Phillips, 2008; Burks and Johnson, 2012; Predojević et al., 2017). In this experiment, we hypothesized that total sugar content, as major nutrient in dried fruits, could be an important factor that influences the susceptibility of dried berries to infestation by P. interpunctella. Our result showed that total sugar content, if used alone as parameter and tested only at five dried berry species, did not show its influence. Sugars are very important for insect development, not alone, but in combination with other nutrients. For example, Arbogast et al. (2005) reported that P. interpunctella fails to develop on raisins in the laboratory, while in storage it completes development, thanks to the fungal presence, because the conidia of fungi supports neonate larval development.
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Markenbrand: Die Strategiequelle - Zeitschrift für Markenstrategie. Digital Content, Content Marketing

Markenbrand: Die Strategiequelle - Zeitschrift für Markenstrategie. Digital Content, Content Marketing

read it online and only one person claims to buy the printed version from time to time (BILD reader 1). Next, they were asked if they are also loyal to other newspapers. Among the SZ readers, one person exclusively reads the SZ (SZ reader 3) and the other two also subscribed to the Schwäbische Zeitung, which is a regional newspaper. Among the BILD readers all three answered that they also read other newspapers, but that they are not subscribed to any. To investigate the readers un- affected thoughts about the factors that are most important to them when choosing a newspaper, they were asked for the reasons why they chose the newspaper. All three SZ readers mentioned that the regional part (for Starnberg and south of Germany) of the newspaper is one of the reasons they subscribed to it. Another reason for all three of them is that it’s orientated left-liberal and contains informative and qualitative content. One person also states to read the SZ because it is honest (SZ reader 3). Another person mentioned that to choose the SZ because it reports seriously, neutrally and independently and does not belong to the Axel Springer publishing house (SZ reader 1). The BILD readers especially mentioned the entertainment value of the tabloid. Two of the participants said that they foremost read the newspaper because of the gossip about celebrities and random people (BILD reader 3). One person also states to read it because it is more provocative than other news- papers (BILD reader 3). Another person pointed out that he is loyal to BILD because it visualizes information rather than printing too much text. Also, this person reads it because of the sports section (BILD reader 2).
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Das Total von Moduln und Ringen

Das Total von Moduln und Ringen

Ein Rechtsmodul , der direkte Summe zweier totaler Untermoduln ist , kann allerdings auch dann total sein , wenn keiner der beiden totalen direkten Summanden RaT-Modul ist. So können wir beispielsweise für einen Rechtsmodul M , -der eine LE-Zerlegung besitzt , aber kein Harada-Modul ist , den Rechtsmodul M * M be­

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Total Gamification

Total Gamification

8 performance or sculpture. Games can adopt genres, or mas­ querade as medieval, futuristic, elegant, brutal or Gothic. In this book Tanya Krzywinska casts a critical glance upon the pleasure that Gothic forms invoke, and investigates the horror games sub­ culture, a segment that amounts to 20 percent of digital games. Markus Rautzenberg (this volume) describes video games as “an explorable universal metaphor of the digital medium” and points out that we “look through” games to see content without realising that it is the medium we are looking at while at the same time we acknowledge an indispensable distance from the medium. On one hand we can explore simulated worlds without being distracted by pixelation or other display peculiarities, but on the other hand an “uncertainty” still remains about whether we are inside the medium or outside (Rautzenberg, this volume). Our contemporary perception differs from how we experienced games in the days of eight­bit computing: a pixelated view guaranteed a permanent distance from the medium. It can be demonstrated in many instances that distance from a medium accompanies the reception of that medium in its early stages. Irony, laughter and mockery are fuelled by the artefacts, the glitches and the distortions that media, in their infancy, initially produce in abundance. This was the case for the car with its “horse­carriageness”, for early radio with its crackle and hiss, and for television with the constraint of 625 horizontal scan lines and half­images. 2 Mature media lose their obvious mediality. Games
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Inhalt - Content

Inhalt - Content

Lüpken, Thomas; Habekuss, Antje; Perovic, Dragan; Krämer, Ilona; Stein, Nils; Ordon, Frank?. Hochauflösende Kartierung der Virusresistenzgene rym11 und Ryd3 in Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.[r]

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Content / Inhalt

Content / Inhalt

Session 2: Biology, monitoring, control, scenarios of Diabrotica Effect of different temperatures on the development and fitness of western corn rootworm.. Einfluss unterschiedlicher T[r]

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Content

Content

Darwin goes to Sarajevo: Evolutionary Theories Underlying a Century of. Historiography on the Outbreak of the First World War[r]

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Content

Content

Region, Trade union and Class in Brazil’s Automotive Industry. 97[r]

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The effects of salt stress on physio-biochemical traits, total phenolic and mucilage content of <i>Plantago ovata</i> Forsk under <i>in vitro</i> conditions

The effects of salt stress on physio-biochemical traits, total phenolic and mucilage content of <i>Plantago ovata</i> Forsk under <i>in vitro</i> conditions

RWC decreased significantly with increasing salt stress, but no sig- nificant differences were observed in this parameter between the two 100 and 200 mM NaCl levels (Fig. 1a). The changes observed as a result of the reducing relative water content at 100 mM NaCl might have been due to the fast reaction of callus cells to the de- clining water availability in cells and the resulting loss of turgor pressure (al-khayri, 2002). Reduced RWC values due to in vitro salt stress have been previously reported for different glycophytes (g andonou et al., 2006) and halophytes such as Sesuvium portu- lacastrum (l okhande et al., 2010) and Suaeda nudiflora (C herian and reddy, 2003). Callus growth started to be appreciably inhibited at 100 mM NaCl compared to that in the absence of NaCl. The re- duced callus growth could be compromised from a reduction in the osmotic potential of the medium culture that enhances the require- ment for maintaining the turgor of the growing callus cells, a process that consumes energy and, eventually, leads to the declining callus
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