particular, Lixinski describes my work as “utopian” as it “imagines what international law can be”. Rather than that, I would say my book describes international law as it should be. When I analyse the World Heritage Convention (WHC) (which represents a relatively small part of my analysis), I am not blind to the fact that practice in the inscription and management of World Heritage sites is much gloomier than the theoreticalmodel that I propose in my book. The point I strive to make is that both the WHC and the practice resulting from its implementation must be revised to incorporate Indigenous rights in the WHC context. This is again linked to the point made above that a sound theoretical framework is crucial for the correct implementation of the regimes considered. Indigenous peoples’ rights are binding on WHC Parties even when they operate in a seemingly separated regime. Therefore, States have to consider and apply these rights in the context of the WHC.
Fourth, the presence and source of negative ties at workplace may be difficult to identify. Therefore, our study advises managers to map these ties by using network analysis tools. Network analysis can help managers to identify patterns of relationships and understand the dynamic web of relationships that have an impact on employees work. According to our theoreticalmodel, network analysis perspective not only identify an employee who makes it difficult for other employees to complete their work by withholding information or resources, but also provide a rich picture of how work actually happens. Fifth, our model advises HRM managers that their programs and practices should not focus only on increasing the ability and willingness of their employees. But they should take in consideration some variables that affect the employee ’s opportunity to perform, such as social influences (workplace ostracism) (Blumberg and Pringle, 1982). In our theoreticalmodel, we indicate that ostracized employees face greater difficulty in accessing to work-related network benefits such as information and resources. To reach high levels of performance, therefore, HRM managers should design opportunity-enhancing HR practices such as work teams, employee involvement and information sharing ( Jiang et al., 2012). Measuring ostracism and testing propositions
The theory renders process architecture design for EBP, and emergent organization generally. This is done as the deferred systems type. EBP can be designed as deferred systems. Elliman and Eatock (2005) have applied the ‘deferred design decisions’ design principle, stemming from the theory, to develop IT systems to support non -standard legal arbitration processes. Sotiropoulou and Theotokis (2005) have applied the theory to develop e-government systems using service-oriented process architecture (service-oriented architecture is cited later as an example of the proposed theoreticalmodel). The theory has been applied to develop tailorable information systems (Theotokis, Gyftodimes et al. 1996; Stamoulis D, Kanellis P et al. 2001) and e-learning systems (Dron, Boyne et al. 2003), where learning itself is characterised as a deferred system because of the temporal and cognitive distance required for learning to happen. These applications of the theory in diverse fields establish its generality.
company. Thus, intercity bus operators tend to occupy niches, in which the quality advantage of railways is comparatively small. Moreover, if market size (i.e. the number of customers on a line) increases, more bus operators will enter the market and the railway company will respond by reducing its price.
The hypotheses on market entry of buses and on price reactions of the railways that were derived in this theoreticalmodel have been tested empirically in Gremm (2018) and Gremm (2019). Both publications use the German intercity bus and railway market for their analysis. Gremm (2019) examines the market entry factors of bus operators concerning the exististing railway system. The results show that bus operators indeed enter with a higher probability and in larger numbers on those transport markets which are relatively large and on those ones where the travel time di fference between buses and trains is relatively low. However, for some other quality indicators investigated, the expected effects on market entry behavior could only partially be confirmed.
strange individual habits, such as to go on holidays in the peak summer season when tourism destinations are really congested.
In the model we present here, we take into account several aspects of season- ality, as detailed by available literature, and we will show that an individual firm – aiming at its maximum profit – has a lower incentive to reduce seasonality as compared to a policy-maker who interested in social welfare. Some (important) details are not taken into account by our model, even though these details would lead to an obvious strengthening of our hypothesis. For instance, in our theoreticalmodel, the marginal cost of production will be assumed to remain constant across all seasons. Available literature underlines the fact that production costs are higher in the peak season, but this detail is not considered in our model simply because we will show that the lower incentive for firms to reduce seasonality is not due to the fact that production costs are higher in the peak season.
For the theoreticalmodel that I construct in the second part of my paper to explain these observed patterns, I build upon the Ricardian model proposed by Acemoglu & Autor ( 2011 ). There is a unique good to be produced using an infinite number of occupations, which can be ordered by their level of complexity. There are three types of workers: low, medium, and high educated, which relate to the primary, secondary, and university educated workers in the data. Workers’ types differ in their productivity of performing each occupation, so that there is an optimal assignment of workers’ types to occupations. The key assumption of the model is that the comparative advantage of more educated workers relative to less educated workers increases with the complexity of the occupation. This assumption ensures positive assortative matching, where more educated workers are optimally assigned to more complex occupations. 3 The competitive equilibrium determines the following: 1) the occupational structure of employ- ment (the share of workers performing each occupation), 2) the assignment of workers’ types to occupations, and 3) the wages of each type of worker. I analyze the effects on these equilib- rium outcomes under three alternative policy experiments: (i) an increase in the share of high educated workers through a decline in the share of low educated workers, (ii) an increase in the share of medium educated workers through a reduction in the share of low educated work- ers, and (iii) an increase in the shares of both high and medium educated workers. I evaluate for each case the changes in the occupational structure of employment, overall and for each educational group, and various aspects of the wage distribution: average wages for each type of worker, growth incidence curves, poverty and inequality. 4 I find that the predicted effects
3, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
This paper develops a theoreticalmodel based on theories of equilibrium selection in order to predict success rates in threshold public goods games, i.e., the probability with which a group of players provides enough contri- bution in sum to exceed a predened threshold value. For this purpose, a prototypical version of a threshold public goods game is simplied to a 2 2 normal-form game. The simplied game consists of only one focal pure strat- egy for positive contributions aiming at an ecient allocation of the threshold value. The game's second pure strategy, zero contributions, represents a safe choice for players who do not want to risk coordination failure. By calculat- ing the stability sets of these two pure strategies, success rates can be put in explicit relation to the game parameters. It is also argued that this approach has similarities with determining the relative size of the strategies' basins of attraction in a stochastic dynamical system (cf. Kandori, Mailath, and Rob, 1993, Econometrica, Vol. 61, p. 29-56).
European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
Suggested Citation: Dewhurst, John (2006) : Competition Between Regions With Respect to Industrial Support - A TheoreticalModel, 46th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Enlargement, Southern Europe and the Mediterranean", August 30th - September 3rd, 2006, Volos, Greece, European Regional Science Association (ERSA), Louvain-la-Neuve
A theoreticalmodel is presented for the prediction of sound radiated from an unbaffled long enclosure with ground effect. This geometrical arrangement forms an idealized representation of traffic facilities such as tunnels and railway stations where sound propagates along the enclosures and radiates to the outside through the openings at both ends. The sound fields inside and outside the enclosures should be accurately predicted and thoroughly analyzed so as to determine an appropriate noise control strategy. In this paper, the Fourier transform technique and the mode matching method are firstly applied to transform the intractable boundary value problem into a scalar modified Wiener-Hopf equation. The solution of which contains infinitely many unknowns satisfying infinite linear algebraic equations susceptible to numerical treatment. Good agreement is found between the solutions obtained by the finite element method (FEM) and the proposed technique in a wide frequency range. Then, the far-field directivity patterns of the outside acoustic fields are emphatically illustrated and the formation mechanisms of lobes, zeros and the after radiation are discussed in details. In the end, the advantages and the application prospects of the proposed method are summarized.
EU Roaming Regulation: theoreticalmodel suggests a positive assessment
By Pio Baake and Lilo Wagner
Since June 15, 2017, mobile network operators in the European Economic Area may not impose surcharges for making telephone calls, sending text messages, or using data services in other EEA countries. The regulation was designed to create a digital domes tic market without adversely affecting consumers. The regulation raises the expectation of changes in mobile network operators’ tariff structures. Theoretical examination shows that as long as mobile network operators do not exclude a roaming option for users who travel only occasionally, everyone will benefit from the regulations—even occasional travelers. In this case, positive effects are also anticipated for overall social welfare. However, negative ef fects are likely if some tariffs exclude a roaming option. The market result is highly dependent on how strongly consumers differ in their user behavior. The fact that all three mobile network operators in Germany exclusively offer tariffs with roaming options is evidence in favor of a positive assessment of the EU regulatory measures.
documented by Iranian researchers (22). The self-efficacy construct included 10 items with four-point Likert scale and reliability of 85%, validity of 0.81 and cut- off point of 20, perceived barriers construct included 10 items with five-point Likert scale and reliability of 81%, validity of 0.83% and cut-off point of 25 and perceived benefits construct consisted of 10 items with five-point Likert scale and reliability of 85%, validity of 0.84 and cut- off point of 20 (22, 25). Self-reported dental cleaning behavior, the target outcome of this study, was derived from the stages of dental cleaning behavior change questionnaire which is based on the Trans-TheoreticalModel of behavior change. The reliability of the questionnaire among the Iranian population has previously been ascertained (26).
Our paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discussed the relation of our model to the literature. In Section 3 , we introduce the model and discuss the basic properties of the network formation process. Next, Section 4 shows that stochastically stable net- works exist, can be computed analytically, and are nested split graphs. After deriving the stochastically stable networks in Section 5 , we analyze their properties in terms of topology and centralization. Using four different network data sets, we empirically test our model in Section 6 . All proofs can be found in Appendix A . Appendix B gives all the necessary definitions and characterizations of networks used throughout the paper. In Appendix C , we provide some general results for nested split graphs in terms of their topology properties and centralization measures. For the purpose of motivating the em- pirical test of our model with the four data sets mentioned above, we provide an inter- pretation of our theoreticalmodel in terms of networks of banks and trade networks in Appendix D . Moreover, we extend our analysis in Appendix E by including linking costs.
Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider–with the help of a theoreticalmodel–the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy’s law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various strategies to increase drug exposure time of tumor cells. Citation: Welter M, Rieger H (2013) Interstitial Fluid Flow and Drug Delivery in Vascularized Tumors: A Computational Model. PLoS ONE 8(8): e70395. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0070395
The Lennard-Jones potential is:
u = 4ε [( σ /r ) 12 − ( σ /r ) 6 ] . (16)
The parameters of ε/k B and σ were 119.8 K and 3.405 Å. The force constant k c was calculated from k cσ 2 /ε = 63.4. The fixed density ρ was calculated from ρσ 3 = 0.80. The state referring to these conditions will be called here the standard case. Since a partial analytical integration is possible for this model, such an integration will be used instead of random sampling. Specifically, we sampled 1000 points between 0 and 5 Å at equal intervals along the distance axis. All reported results will be expressed in Å 3 units for partition functions, K for internal energies, and k B for configurational entropies. As for the simulated time profiles, arbitrary time unit will be used. As shown in next section, MD calculations have not been performed in this study. Rather, we have made numerical integrations by using the analytical formula to calculate partition function. Our main objective is not to reproduce the results of [ 13 ] at equilibrium, but to design new theoreticalmodel applicable to non-equilibrium states. It is in a future study that we will directly use the MD results carried out at non-equilibrium to construct a non-equilibrium partition function.
certain, common preference for the type of dwelling, living environment and mobility services. Following this preference more “tailor made” models can be developed and estimated. The second proposed improvement on the model approach is the usage of systematic choice sets. After it is determined to what destination group a household belongs to, a large amount of alternatives can be dropt because they are not acceptable for this type of household. When composing the choice set other, more personal issues can be taken along as well. These are aspects that concern the income, number of people, age and the personal network of activities of a household (work, relatives, education, leisure, etc.). Finally this disaggregated method is continued in the discrete choice model.
Abstract: A new model of non-equilibrium thermodynamic states has been investigated on the basis of the fact that all thermodynamic variables can be derived from partition functions. We have thus attempted to define partition functions for non-equilibrium conditions by introducing the concept of pseudo-temperature distributions. These pseudo-temperatures are configurational in origin and distinct from kinetic (phonon) temperatures because they refer to the particular fragments of the system with specific energies. This definition allows thermodynamic states to be described either for equilibrium or non-equilibrium conditions. In addition; a new formulation of an extended canonical partition function; internal energy and entropy are derived from this new temperature definition. With this new model; computational experiments are performed on simple non-interacting systems to investigate cooling and two distinct relaxational effects in terms of the time profiles of the partition function; internal energy and configurational entropy.
Investors’ Exchange LLC (IEX) is a newly approved public exchange that is designed to discour- age aggressive high-frequency trading. We explain how IEX differs from traditional continuous double auction markets and present summary data on IEX transactions by trader class and or- der type. Our primary contribution is a simple analytic model of IEX as a constrained version of the continuous double auction. The model predicts that IEX will generally improve price efficiency and lower transactions cost while increasing delay costs. A subset of the model’s predictions are testable in the field or in a laboratory environment.
In addition, a direct effect of noise sensitivity on perceived coping capacity is assumed. Kroesen et al.  found that the effect of noise sensitivity on annoyance disappears when the perceived capacity to cope with the noise is included in the analysis. In our model, we hypothesize that perceived coping mediates the effect of noise sensitivity on annoyance since it should be more difficult for noise sensitive persons to use coping strategies and in turn reduce annoyance. A further indirect effect of noise sensitivity on perceived control and coping is proposed via the concern about harmful effects of noise and source. Two directly observable variables were tested, as well. The demographic factors age and length of residence were expected to adversely affect the annoyance via noise sensitivity. In the model of Stallen,  noise exposure influences annoyance via perceived short-term disturbance due to noise. General socio-acoustic surveys, however, are usually designed to measure long-term effects (mostly referring to the last 12 months), but not to ascertain short-term disturbance. As supposed for long-term annoyance, ratings of disturbance might be affected by attitudes and beliefs and correlated highly with annoyance ratings. Therefore, the level of disturbance was treated as an aspect of the latent variable noise annoyance.
showing whether audiences’ national or gender identity guides them to select particular entertainment television series. Especially, the role of salience – as suggested within social categorization theory (SCT) - and subjective importance of group membership was focussed. However, the studies to be presented were not able to fill in all gaps. Results are ambiguous in that not all group-memberships seem to guide entertainment choices. This was also the case in previous studies on the subject matter (Harwood, 1997, 1999; Tarrant et al., 2001; Zillmann et al., 1995). Given the problems with applying SIT to media effects, we will suggest adaptations of the theory to accommodate it to the realities of media and selective exposure. As a result of these considerations an expanded theoretical two-process model of SIT in media effects research will be suggested. Processes apply to different kinds of media offerings.