108 Yannick LEBTAHI and Tiphaine ZETLAOUI TheoreticalFramework… sité des pratiques et des usages actuels. En effet, le statut des images change selon les supports utilisés et les contextes de réception. Leur circulation favorise les échanges et les liens entre les différents groupes d’acteurs. Si nous accompagnons maladroitement les images, nous risquons à notre insu de trahir leur sens originel. De plus, il peut en résulter des conflits ou des distorsions non prévues liées aux activités de projection et d’identification dans laquelle chaque récepteur est placé. Notre objectif sera alors de proposer un cadre méthodologique et une ébauche de modélisation à destination de tout chercheur en Sciences de l’Information et de la Communication ayant recours à l’audiovisuel. Il faut noter que le chercheur s’engage alors non seulement à bien mener sa recherche mais aussi à réaliser un projet audiovisuel en mesurant dès le début avantages et contraintes, enjeux de pou- voir et impacts scientifiques.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel, b IZA, Bonn
Recently, Constant, Gataullina, and Zimmermann (2009) established a new method to measure ethnic identity which they called the "ethnosizer". Using information on an individual's language, culture, social interactions, history of migration, and ethnic self- identification, the method classifies that individual into one of four states: assimilation, integration, separation or marginalization. A large body of literature has emerged examining the effects of immigrants' characteristics (age, gender, education, religion, etc.) on their ethnic identity using the ethnosizer. This note presents a basic theoreticalframework to shed light on the vast collection of empirical results obtained on this topic.
For the sake of clarification, we detail our assumptions. First, in the following analysis it is assumed that any change in the degree of efficiency is exogenous. Nevertheless, as Gibbons (2005) posits, the existence of internal disturbances within the organizations (miscoordination, lack of incentives, etc.) may be the source of inefficiencies. Second, the social welfare generated by con- sumption of public good (y) is measured in monetary value in the conventional way; that is, by computing the area under the curve of demand for the good and subtracting the cost of the inputs used in its production 8 . Additionally, to obtain accurate measurements of changes in consumer welfare we assume the demand functions involved to be compensated 9 . All in all, this theoreticalframework contributes to measure welfare impacts linked to changes (improvement/worsening) in
Ianina Scheuch 1
Received: 24 May 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published online: 11 January 2019 The Author(s) 2019
Abstract Organizations today operate in an increasingly complex and turbulent world in which unexpected events are omnipresent. Thus, they need to develop resilience capabilities to manage unexpected disruptions, maintain high perfor- mance, and even thrive and grow. In research, there are preliminary indications that diversity could play an important role in the development of resilience in organi- zations. However, although there are numerous studies on both resilience and diversity, the connection between the two constructs remains largely unexplored. Our paper aims to narrow this research gap by answering the following questions: What role does diversity play in the development of organizational resilience? What does this mean for resilience-enhancing diversity management? To answer these questions, we link existing research on elements of organizational resilience and outcomes of diversity in organizations. By developing a theoreticalframework, formulating propositions, and discussing implications for further research, this paper provides a foundation for future empirical research. Moreover, it offers useful insights into the successful management of organizational resilience.
Research in the field of students’ understandings of models and their use in science describes different frameworks concerning these understandings. Currently, there is no conjoint framework that combines these structures and so far, no investigation has focused on whether it reflects students’ understandings sufficiently (empirical evaluation). Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present the results of an empirical evaluation of a conjoint theoreticalframework. The theoreticalframework integrates relevant research findings and comprises five aspects which are subdivided into three levels each: nature of models, multiple models, purpose of models, testing, and changing models. The study was conducted with a sample of 1,177 seventh to tenth graders (aged 11 – 19 years) using open- ended items. The data were analysed by identifying students’ understandings of models (nature of models and multiple models) and their use in science (purpose of models, testing, and changing models), and comparing as well as assigning them to the content of the theoreticalframework. A comprehensive category system of students’ understandings was thus developed. Regarding the empirical evaluation, the students’ understandings of the nature and the purpose of models were sufficiently described by the theoreticalframework. Concerning the understandings of multiple, testing, and changing models, additional initial understandings (only one model possible, no testing of models, and no change of models) need to be considered. This conjoint and now empirically tested framework for students’ understandings can provide a common basis for future science education research. Furthermore, evidence-based indications can be provided for teachers and their instructional practice.
and Institute for International Political Economy (IPE) Berlin, Germany
Abstract: This paper analyses the long-run effects of financialisation and of the recent
financial and economic crises for 15 countries. In order to provide a theoreticalframework, we first outline three types of regimes under the conditions of financialisation, namely a debt- led private demand boom, an export-led mercantilist, and a domestic demand-led regime. We then take a look at the sectoral financial balances of the main macroeconomic sectors and at the growth contributions of the demand aggregates for each of the 15 countries, focusing in particular on the trade cycle before the crises. This enables us to cluster these countries according to the typology of regimes and describe the development dynamics among various groups, which were complementary and often mutually reinforcing, in the years leading up to the crises. Subsequently, we focus on the period following the outbreak of the crises and, by considering transmission mechanisms and main obstacles to recovery, analyse how countries in each of these clusters were affected. Finally, we focus on the regime shifts which have taken place in the course of the crises and we discuss the implications of these recent developments for the world economy.
During the last couple of years, the present paper’s authors intensively discussed number of disciplinary theoretical approaches to the concept of children’s risk for adverse educational outcomes within the new established Center for Research on Individual Development and Adaptive Education of Children at Risk (IDeA) in Frankfurt/Main, Germany. This discussion brought us to distinguish between three somehow independent dimensions which interact in complex and multiple respects when affecting children’s developmental trajectories that are important for their individual academic achievement. Each dimension includes a variety of different elements or factors. The two dimensions spanning the theoreticalframework we would like to introduce are (1) individual characteristics and (2) contextual factors related to the children’s family, their neighborhood and peers, the educational institutions they attend, and the societal circumstances and the political context, in which they live (see Fig. 1). Although, these factors are somehow distinct, they seem to simultaneously effect children’s behavior in academic settings and thus seem to be worthwhile to be considered simultaneously in research activities aimed at the better understanding of the risk factors of poor educational outcomes in children.
Jorge Onrubia-Fernández and A. Jesús Sánchez Fuentes
Fiscal adjustments consisting of spending cuts or tax increases are generally presented as the unavoidable way for achieving public finance sustainability in the long term. However, this view of fiscal consolidation processes is limited as it leaves out other aspects related to public sector performance which are relevant not only from the macroeconomic but also from the microeconomic perspective. This paper models Public Sector Performance (PSP) by proposing a theoreticalframework that integrates the conventional methodology for measuring its productive efficiency and the monetary assessment of social welfare changes linked to public policy reforms. Two equivalent measures of social welfare change generated by improving (or worsening) productive efficiency are deduced using duality theory. The first is obtained from the cost function, while the second arises directly from the production function. The results reveal that taking advantage of budgetary savings obtained from this approach constitutes a valuable tool for designing welfare- enhancing fiscal consolidation packages, meanwhile promoting sound fiscal balances and growth prospects over the long term.
One common tool for evaluating public projects is the cost-benefit analysis. Despite its limita- tions, governments and agencies rely on the framework’s results in support of decision making (Posner, 1999). Since the tertiary education across the globe is mainly publicly financed, one may think of a university as a governmental project. Thus, in the context of this thesis, the conceptual framework of a cost-benefit analysis shall be applied to the case of universities. The aim is to develop a theoreticalframework that shows what information is necessary in general to conduct a cost-benefit analysis on universities. Furthermore, the possible benefits of both academic research and teaching are being identified. In a last step, those possible benefits are being compared to the findings of selected (partial) studies regarding this topic. This analysis shall show whether the authors comply to the concept of a cost-benefit analysis or not, and how this affects their results in terms of accuracy and explanatory power. By doing so, this thesis shall help to understand the different viewpoints and shall give a clearer structure of the current debate about public funding of universities.
qualitative scenario technique, quantitative technology assessment for preliminary aircraft design or attempted to link these two concepts in a sequential way as in Strohmayer  and Phleps . The theoreticalframework presented in this paper is meant to encompass an approach and a view on the ATS which enables us to integrate previously disjointed theories, approaches and partial solutions into one overarching theory. The theoreticalframework for systems design including systems analysis of the ATS and concept design with an integrated approach to participatory futurology is fundamentally different from approaches that can be found in the works of Meussen and Becker  as well as Eelman . As an instrument of choice for participatory futurology we use scenarios. Herman Kahn, as a founder of modern term scenario, defined scenarios as “hypothetical succession of events with the objective of drawing attention to causal relationships and working towards decisions” . Classical scenario technique based on consistency matrices inherently lacks the quantification which is required by systems and aircraft designers. Quantification is also needed in order to conduct systems analysis for socio- technological planning on ATS level. We present a way of building “inherently quantitative” scenarios for the ATS as whole. The goal is a systematic and consistent framework for the ATS which is sufficiently abstracted in order to model and organize (in the ideal case) every possible research question concerning the ATS. To think the ATS as a whole does not mean to think every detail at once, but to understand the main driving interrelationships between stakeholders and external scenario factors. Because every
Recently, Constant, Gataullina, and Zimmermann (2009) established a new method to measure ethnic identity which they called the “ethnosizer”. Using information on an individual’s language, culture, social interactions, history of migration, and ethnic self- identification, the method classifies that individual into one of four states: assimilation, integration, separation or marginalization. A large body of literature has emerged examining the effects of immigrants’ characteristics (age, gender, education, religion, etc.) on their ethnic identity using the ethnosizer. This note presents a basic theoreticalframework to shed light on the vast collection of empirical results obtained on this topic.
From a theoretical viewpoint, borrowing from established grand theories supports a better understanding of HR phenomena. With its historical roots in practices and tools, HRM has to rely on other sciences for a theoretical foundation. Thus, it enriches the HRM-discussion if well established concepts from a different scientific field are ap- plied to HRM. In addition, such an approach contributes to the integration of HR re- search into the organisational theory discussion. This not only helps HR theory, but also strengthens the theoretical link to the general organisational theory debate, thus under- scoring the vital role HR plays in an overall view of organisations. Looking at HRM from a unified theoretical perspective also allows to discuss the great variety of HR as- pects with a single theoretical language. Thus, new ways of reconstructing and making sense of these phenomena can be developed because the categories of the framework can be used to reconstruct organisational reality in a different way than using classic or- ganisational and HR theory categories: It establishes similarities and differences between phenomena and actors that otherwise are regarded as conceptually and socially disperse (see Karpik 1978: 46, for a similar argument in organisation theory). Informal meetings of employees, working group processes or organisations as a whole can be analysed by focusing on the crucial elements of organising without getting distracted by highly visi- ble, but not very powerful surface phenomena. Of course, it depends on the chosen theoreticalframework which elements of organising are regarded as crucial.
Information from a large range of countries is accumulating in the literature on the effect of ethnic identity on economic behavior, such as participation in the labor mar- ket, income, and household ownership.
Battu et al. (2007) presented a theoretical model of the relationship between oppos- itional identities among ethnic groups and employment in the labor market. They showed that ethnic preferences are predicted to reduce labor market successes, where preferences are gauged in terms of remoteness, or otherwise, to white norms. Battu and Zenou (2010) illustrated this using data from Britain. They found that non-white individuals with extreme preferences experience a 6 to 7% lower probability of being in
4. Research framework and hypotheses
Although the constructs of T-O-E framework are assumed to apply more to large enterprises, schol- arly evidence (Awa, Baridam et al., 2015 ; Chau & Tam, 1997 ; Eze et al., 2013 ) shows that T-O-E framework has gained empirical validity across firm sizes and underpinned many ICT adoption in- quiries, especially those that focus on EDI or inter-organizational information systems (IOIS). Eze et al. ( 2013 ) and Chau and Tam ( 1997 ) adopted T-O-E framework in their study and identified the in- novation’s characteristics, organization’s technology, and external environment as quite useful in explaining and predicting adoption. Zhu and Kraemer ( 2005 ) found technology competence, firm size, financial commitment, competitive pressure, and regulatory support as critical adoption factors within T-O-E framework. Similarly, Kuan and Chau ( 2001 ) confirm the usefulness of T-O-E framework in small enterprises when they proposed a perception-based EDI adoption model with six determi- nants–cost structure, technical competence, industry pressure, government pressure, direct per- ceived usefulness, and indirect perceived usefulness. Other studies found environmental and organizational factors (Henriksen, 2006 ) more statistically significant determinants than technologi- cal factors even when Thong ( 1999 ) had found that adoption has significant relationship with tech- nology and organization.
The framework is presented is far to completely explain why networks exist. Furthermore, co- operation may exist for reasons that are not economically rational (or at least that were not theoretically expected). The fact that a network exist is not strictly explained by the economic or the social aspects. Thus, a mix of these two aspects constitutes the basis for the explanation of networks. In fact, most of the paper addresses causes of costs cuttings to regional development. In the case of transaction costs this perspective is obvious. However, in what concerns to resource dependence theory a shared identity among the network members is necessary. According to Dyer and Nobeoka (2000) Kogut and Zander´s argument are also applicable to networks if this identity is created. Reducing uncertainty, lowering costs and sharing common goals are certainly important contributes to regional development. However, in order to better assess those gains co-operation with local authorities is also needed. In fact this might constitute a critique to the paper here presented – the interaction between private and public actors is not stressed.
specifications of a model. However, in such a case it is necessary to apply
inference and combination of knowledge coming from different model specifications. In such a situation, it is possible to apply BMA, i.e. Bayesian Model Averaging. Through the estimation of all the models within a given set of data, this procedure allows one to determine which variables are robust regressors regardless of the specification. It also allows one to unequivocally establish the direction and strength given regressors possess, and it makes it possible to choose the best models of all possible configurations. Furthermore, using the jointness measures that are available within the BMA framework enables the determination of the substitutional and complementary relationships between the studied variables.
We have recently replicated our own analysis of the worldwide proportion of information workers 7 for
6 J. B a r n e s , D. L a m b e r t o n : The growth of the Australian informa-
tion society, quoted in: D. L a m b e r t o n : The theoretical implications of measuring the communications sector, in: D. L a m b e r t o n , M. J u s s a w a l l a (eds.): Communication Economics and Developmenty, New York 1976, Pergamon Press; S. D. W a l l : Four sector Time Series of the U.K. Labour Force 1841-1971, London 1977, UK Post Offi ce, Long Range Studies Division; S. L a n g e , H. R e m p p : Qualitative and quantitative aspects of the information sector, Karlsruhe Institut für Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, 1977; K. U n o : The role of communication in economic development: the Japanese experience, in: M. J u s s a w a l l a , D. M. L a m b e r t o n (eds.): Communication Eco- nomics and Development, Elmsford, NY, 1982, Pergamon Press.