In the first points in both questionnaires (for teachersandstudents) participants were asked to point out situations and spaces where they noticed changes after acoustic treatment. The presented data show that about 68% of children observed any sort of changes in functioning of the school and the most numerous group noticed general decrease of sound level in the building. Smaller but significant group pointed better speech intelligibility in various situations (Table 4).
The findings from Main Study 2 indicate that most teacher support actions are teacher-centered and instructional as opposed to providing scaffolding. This may be a result of teachers’ former training and/or subjective theories that they have to provide a certain result when needed. The majority of teachers support their students by carrying out actions for them instead of eliciting strategies for autonomous problem solving. This might be due to the fact that they believe they need to be so to speak omniscient and always provide the right answer. Moreover, the majority of teachers do not verify the success of their assistance – but this is crucial for the quality of teachers’ assistance andstudents’ success in learning. Few teacher support actions could be identified that foster self-regulated learning by means of supporting students’ use of cognitive, metacognitive, and socio-affective learning strategies and by means of raising students’ awareness of their learning processes. Thus, training alone would not necesarily trigger change in teachers’s support action but rather training together with meta-cognitive talk on the teachers’ perceived and adopted roles as good language teachers. Thus, an approach where teachersandstudents can be one and all, teachers, studentsand researchers (Finkbeiner, 2001, 2004) might be the answer and would have to be
Considerable differences between the views of pupils andstudents have been identified. Such differences indicate that, as students get older, teachers pay less attention to the aspects of quality class management in all its dynamics and multi-prospects. We can conclude that secondary school teachers are more fo- cused on achieving educational goals, while aspects of forming a suitable class climate remains less important. Lewis (2006) reported that teachers in secondary schools might see themselves as teachers of information and classes rather than teachers of individual student. Similarly, Lewis (1999, as cited in Lewis, 2006) found the stereotypical distinction between primary (elementary) and second- ary teachers: the first focus primarily on involving, supporting and educating the whole child, while the latter emphasise more surveillance and punishments to se- cure the establishment of the order necessary to facilitate learning. Harter (1996, as cited in Pianta, 2006) researched how relationships with teachers change from elementary to junior high school: “relationships between teachersandstudents become less personal, more formal, more evaluative, and more competitive” (ibid, p. 699). In contrast, many studies showed that high-quality relationships between teachersandstudents, adequate class climate, respect, consideration of feelings, trust between teachersand pupils, and appropriate support for teachers contribute to better learning outcomes (Hamre & Pianta, 2001; La Paro & Pianta, 2003 in Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Pianta, 2006).
2. On the point of equality between teachersandstudents: In a blog article on EJILtalk! , you speak about the talmid chacham, meaning the highest accolade of a scholar to be viewed as a knowledgeable pupil. May we call you one? And could you tell what has been one important lesson you learned from your students over the last, say five years?
As stated by Kushner (2002, p. 198), “innovations are acts of meaning, but there is no reason to imagine that the meanings are stable across individual lives”. For this reason, we understand that these mean- ings must be built and rebuilt with the help of other professionals who comprise a teachers community. We tend to think of innovations in a proactive manner always leading to a transformative action, but this means understanding innovation only from the perspective of the person who proposes it and not of the individuals “touched” by the programme, regardless of whether they are professors or students. For many of these people, innovations are things that usually occur unexpectedly. For this author, these people need a process in which experience and ideas, dis- satisfaction and ways of thinking, failures and learning, comprise a foun- dation. Experience is a test and preparation for entering into a process of change. From there is where we need to round off the perspective of innovation with that of professional development, understood as an area of the experiential learning of the participants themselves.
“The nurse has to have enough information to be able to integrate all systems and all the multidisciplinary care team; then it has to be generalist, has to know a little of each to provide integration, because otherwise, it would be the same that happens with several courses that are very specialized in their field, but cannot make a connection with another area, with another reality.” (Arcturus) For the students, the teacher must be fully aware of the reasons why and to which finality it is providing training. At the same time, future nurses should understand their role, questioning themselves about the professional profile they want to have and their importance to act in society. They also agree that they must always seek more information and knowledge beyond the built in class and that both - teachersandstudents – should, at the same time, question and be questioned.
Although significant limitations over prior studies could be resolved in the present study, namely the use of teacher self- reports, the narrow focus on specific aspects of instructional practice, the neglect of potential moderator effects, as well as specific facets of professional competences to which learning goals could be directed and specific addressees to which per- formance goals of teachers could be directed, some limitations do remain. Here, the relatively small sample on the teacher level has to be mentioned. This could have led to an oversight of (small) effects of teacher goal orientations. However, this does not place into question the identified effects. Their gener- alizability (at least for the population of mathematics teachers in secondary schools) is safeguarded through a relatively di- verse sample of teachersandstudents from different contexts. Nevertheless, future research should be conducted in different school subjects and grade levels using larger samples on the teacher level. Additionally, the cross-sectional design of the present study has to be mentioned—in that causal inferences in a narrow sense are not justified. Indeed, the causal direction opposed to the causal direction that we theoretically assumed may also be (additionally) plausible, e.g., that teachers adapt their goal orientations to student characteristics. Disentangling potential recursive associations is a relevant and challenging task for future research. Nevertheless, for two reasons, the theoretically assumed causal direction interpreting the associa- tions as effects of teachers’ goal orientations is more likely: Firstly, because teacher goal orientations were measured gener- ally without reference to the specific Mathematics classroom in which students’ perceptions of instructional practices and goal orientations were assessed. Secondly, because perceived class- room goal structures would not be expected to function as (full) mediators in the case of bottom-up effects of student character- istics on teachers’ goal orientations.
In order to involve students more actively in the demonstrations, Chame- ly-Wiik, Haky, Louda, and Romance (2014) proposed a specific SQER3 model (survey, question, experiment, recite, reflect, review) that provides guidelines for the development of quality demonstrations. This model consists of several steps: 1) Survey: focuses on key concepts and basic questions that arise during the dem- onstration; 2) Question: students develop a testable question based on observa- tions and prior knowledge; 3) Experiment: studentsandteachers develop an ex- periment to answer the question, make observations and collect data; 4) Reciting: students organise the data and verbalise the results; 5) Reflecting: students explain the results and develop additional questions needed to understand the concepts; 6) Reviewing: teachersandstudents review the key concepts and apply them to new situations. The SQER3 model can be easily used for most demonstrations, allowing for the flexible design and execution of chemistry demonstrations.
A small strand of the literature on education economics discusses language skills. Early studies analyze the effect of foreign teaching assistants on the academic achievements of undergraduate students (Borjas, 2000; Asano, 2008). The ambiguous effects found by these studies can be explained by the non-random assignment of teaching assistants across students. More recently, Seah (2018a) examines the effect of having a linguistically-similar teacher on the academic achievements of secondary school students in the United States. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS), he exploits within-student variation in test scores and the native language of teachers across two subjects. He finds no effect of being assigned to a linguistically similar teacher once the teacher’s ethnicity is controlled for. In related work, Chin et al. (2013) evaluate the effect of a bilingual education program on the achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) studentsand their classmates. Employing a regression-discontinuity design, they find no impact on the achievement of students for whom the program was designed (LEP students), but estimate a positive effect for their classmates.
More specifically, she shows that the effect is only significant for subjects with lower proportions of female teachersand for girls with less educated mothers.
A small strand of the literature discusses language skills of teachers. Early studies analyze the effect of foreign teaching assistants on the academic achievements of under- graduate students in university (Borjas, 2000; Asano, 2008). The ambiguous effects found by these studies can be explained by the non-random assignment of teaching assistants to students. In the study most closely related to this paper, Seah (2018b) examines the effect of having a linguistically similar teacher on the academic achievements of secondary school students in the United States. Using data from the NELS, he exploits within-student variation in test scores and the native language of teachers across two subjects. He finds no effect of being assigned to a linguistically similar teacher once the teacher’s ethnicity is controlled for. In related work, Chin et al. (2013) evaluate the effect of a bilingual education program on the achievement of limited English proficient (LEP) studentsand their classmates. Employing a regression-discontinuity design, they find no impact on the achievement of students for whom the program was designed (LEP students), but estimate a positive effect for their classmates.
der to have positive outcomes in school it is important to support students’ basic needs. This is possible through student centered teaching, informative individual feedback, and autonomy supportive and person centered behaviors (e.g., Fournés, 1994). Such topics should be more closely examined in teacher education pro- grams and staff development training programs for teachers (e.g., Bieg & Mittag, 2010). Recent research has shown that in-service training, combined with the use of student workbooks for enrichment, can promote intrinsic motivation and self- determination in secondary school (Mittag, Bieg, Hiller, Metz, & Melenk, 2009). However, the question about the relationship between teachers’ motivation for teaching andstudents’ motivation for learning is still open and must be further ex- amined. The present study fails to replicate the fi ndings of Roth et al. (2007) who observed a positive relation between teachers’ autonomous motivation for teaching andstudents’ intrinsic motivation. Further, additional quantitative and qualitative research is needed to clarify this question.
Academic achievement. Student achievement was first assessed using teacher-assigned school grades in German which summarize students’ accomplishments in reading and writing. School grades are typically assigned as a function of students’ progress in meeting curriculum standards based on teachers’ observations and evaluations of students’ performance in a series of oral and written tasks. In PIRLS, these school grades are reported on a 4-point scale (1: excellent; 2: good; 3: satisfactory; 4: poor), and were recoded before the analyses so that higher values represent higher achievement. Student achievement was also measured by the PIRLS standardized reading achievement test (composite reliability coefficient for Germany: KR-20 = .86; Mullis et al., 2007). PIRLS relied on a multi-matrix design (Shoemaker, 1973) so that each individual student received only a subset of texts (out of a pool of ten). Students were asked to read the texts silently and to answer multiple-choice (four response options) and open-ended questions about the texts. PIRLS 2006 used an item response theory approach to obtain comparable test scores for each student, and provides a set of five plausible values of reading achievement for each student. These values are randomly selected from a distribution of achievement scores that approximates the student’s true ability (for a more extensive description of this procedure, see Mullis et al., 2007). All analyses including standardized reading achievement were conducted separately for each of the five plausible values and properly aggregated afterwards using multiple imputation procedures (Little & Rubin, 2002) implemented in Mplus (Muthén, & Muthén, 2014).
rogate of a "ﬁrst stage") and with the effect of teacher quality on students’ test scores ( Chetty et al. , 2014a , a "second stage") the results of this paper are well-placed into the ex- isting literature on the US. Thus, the scope of the effects on the students in this study are likely to also extend to labor market performance in adulthood. These results are further substantiated by the ﬁndings that teachers who are selected because of the educational expansion performed better at high school (though not at university) and have a slightly different work ethic that is based more on extrinsic rather than intrinsic motivation. Potential policy implications are non-trivial, since not expanding the higher secondary education would not have been a solution either. Nonetheless, policy could very well have reduced its demand for teachers while sticking to the provision of a sufﬁcient amount of spots for students. Taking the evidence of this paper together with a further charac- teristic of the educational expansion – the student-teacher ratio that declined at the same
Similarly, Chou (2007) strongly argued that since classrooms are getting increasingly culturally diverse, prospective teachers should have the essential skills, knowledge and attitudes to deal with this enormous cultural and ethnic diversity. Chou regards mainstream teacher training/preparation programmes as responsible for preparing teachers for this diversity. In confronting suprema- cist ideologies, Allen’s (2004, p. 124) statement is insightful: ‘As people of color around the world engage in the struggle against global white supremacy, they should work to humanize both themselves and whites, when strategic’. Other areas of education where discriminatory practices must be banned are curricu- lum design and the production of materials. Most language teaching materials comprise textbooks that promote ‘the ideal male’, described as white, middle- class and a native speaker, a description which is viewed as the norm and an image universally accepted. Allen (2004) contends that, ‘In educational institu- tions, from kindergartens to doctoral programmes, whiteness is pervasive and constitutive’ (p. 131). Various curricular reforms such as including more cultur- ally diverse contents, pictures of students of colour and from various ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds can be implemented.
The CRISS scenarios are currently being piloted at schools. In this presentation, we will share the project’s early findings and showcase how the two frameworks, i.e. CRISS and KOM, can be used to analyse the interplay of digital and mathematical competencies. We therefore envisage addressing how teachers integrate digital competencies in their practice and in students’ mathematical learning.
Statewide exit exams are often believed to have a positive impact on school ef- fectiveness and the alignment between instructional practice and state stand- ards because of their mandatory nature and the stakes attached for studentsandteachers. They may also, however, lead to teaching to the test and to a perceived de-professionalization of the teaching role. While some studies suggest a narrow- ing of contents and an increase in teacher-centered instruction, little is known about how the impact on instructional practices and teacher cognitions varies be- tween diﬀ erent exam systems. This study compares the strategies teachers use to prepare their students for the exams at the end of upper secondary education in Finland, Ireland, and the Netherlands using a standardized questionnaire survey with responses from 385 teachers. The goal was to develop hypotheses about the relationship between diﬀ erences in the exam procedures and the stakes attached, and the diﬀ erences in teacher preparation strategies. The results suggest country- specifi c variations regarding teacher beliefs as to how much time should be spent on exam preparation; however, there were smaller diﬀ erences in the strategies applied. Regression analyses indicated that the way in which preparation inten- sity was associated with the stakes for studentsand schools, and the attitudes to- wards the exams themselves varied across the three countries. The diﬀ erent exam systems appeared to aﬀ ect preparation in markedly diﬀ erent ways, but neverthe- less led to the exercise of comparable strategies.
A phenomenological analysis as described by Giorgi was used to analyze the data (Giorgi, 1997, 2009). The primary goal of phenomenological analysis is to derive meaning units from the raw data in order to capture the experience of participants, namely teachers, related to a phenomenon, namely the support to vocational students’ development of preventive behaviour at work. After all interviews have been transcribed into verbatim, the corpus of data was analysed through the five-step process of the phenomenological analysis proposed by Giorgi (2009). First, a reading of the entire set of data was done in order to get a sense of the whole. Second, multiple other readings allowed to identify meaning units and to assign them a code. Open coding was favoured because of the in- ductive approach used. Units represented passages of discourse based on their meaning and relevance to the objective of exploring teachers’ experience toward the support to students’ development of preventive behaviour at work. The QSR NVivo 10 software was used to support the analysis. The third step was the transformation of meaning units into expressions that were revealing of the experience of participants. The fourth step allowed to synthetise a general structure of the comprehension of the phenomenon based on participants’ experiences. Finally, the fifth step was used to refine the structure in order to clarify and interpret data related to participants’ experience of the phenomenon. Several round trips between the raw interview data and the general structure allowed to fine-tune the analysis process. In order to improve validity of the analysis process, a second researcher verified the meaning units identified, the codes assigned and the strucure generated. Inter-rater agreement has been verified periodically through out the analysis process. After three rounds of coding, an inter-rater agreement has been found on more than 90 % of the meaning units identified and codes assigned. Also, when both researchers agreed that the strucure generated allowed for a comprehension of the phe- nomenon according to participants’ experience, a validation of the final results have been conducted with participants themselves. That final step ensured the representativness of the results obtained (Mukamurera, Lacourse, & Couturier, 2006).
Received: 06.12.2016; Accepted: 07.03.2017; Published: 26.04.2017
Abstract: Statistics indicate that even if young workers complete vocational training, as a group they are at risk of sustaining injury. It appears that a lack of training in the area of injury prevention may explain some of this effect. Teachers are considered to be key actors in injury-prevention training and in the process of developing students’ preventive behaviour at work, but little is known about the reality. The objective of this study was to understand how teachers experience their activities in support of stu- dents’ development of injury-prevention behaviour at work. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven teachers from four different vocational training programs. The content of the interviews was then examined using phenomenological analysis. Re- sults show representations participants form of occupational health and safety, of injury- prevention behaviour and of their roles as teachers in relation to prevention. A closer look at these roles reveals the daily challenges teachers encounter. Among other things, there seems to be a lack of continuity in the training process, insufficient pedagogical resources and resistance on the students’ part. Results offer an insight into teachers’ experience with their part in the support of vocational students’ development of injury-preventing behaviour. It appears they recognize having to play an active role in the development of injury-preventing behaviour at work among students, but have to face daily challenges affecting their teaching. Results of this study can serve as a starting point to make improvements to the injury-prevention training offered in vocational training centres.
The difference between ability and practice also ap- pears in the aspect of age. Our findings indicate that older teachers tend to foster students’ protective skills more, while in the study by Claro et al. (2018), younger teachers showed more skills in teaching digital literacy. However, Claro et al. also reveal that teachers with more experience exhibit higher ability. In this sense, the posi- tive association that we found between age and foster- ing protective skills might be related to the time they have spent in service rather than their age. Moreover, it is valid to consider the specific characteristics of teach- ers in Thuringia, which is the population of our study. First, the average age of teachers in this German fed- eral state for the 2017–2018 school year was 50.3 years (Statistisches Informationssystem Bildung, 2019). Sec- ond, most of these teachers were born and raised in the former German Democratic Republic. Therefore, it is plausible to assume that the topic of “protection of the private sphere” could be especially sensitive for older teachers who lived under constant observation by the state. This sensitivity could affect the importance they give to protective skills in the digital context.
The attribute # 4 referring to the concern for social environment is also highlighted by participants of the cooking program in their representation of the OSH as a collective responsibility. This attribute was thus not present in the discourse of participants from other study programs. It is true that among the four study programs taking part in this research, the cooking program is the one that prepares students for an occupation that requires the most collaboration. In the other programs, colleagues tend to work more parallel to each other without a production line or dependence on each other’s activities. A last attribute of the concept of preventive behaviour may be extracted from the discourse of participants; it is the attribute #5 related to the reflexivity and analytical skills of work situations. This characteristic is considered as a representation of the preventive behaviour at work by several participants, but is considered as a role by only one. Interestingly, it appears that teachers recognize the importance of reflexivity and analytical skills of work situations to develop preventive behaviour, but only one assigned a role to teachers in supporting students deal with this attribute. As it has been shown that strict compliance with safety regulations and cautious behaviour has little impact on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (Simard & Marchand, 1997), it is important to work on developing vocational students’ ability to express all of the attributes of the concept, including the capacity to assess work situations in order to mobilize the appropriate knowledge (Dejours, 1987; Simard & Marchand, 1997). Training in this sense should be offered to teachers.