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SAHRA - an integrated software tool for STPA

SAHRA - an integrated software tool for STPA

SAHRA (STPA based Hazard and Risk Analysis) as a software tool for STAMP/STPA improves the analysis work- flow by not only supporting the complete STPA process but by also offering a unique way to capture Step 1 and 2 using the visual style of mind maps. SAHRA is seamlessly integrated into the widely used UML solution Sparx Systems Enterprise Architect (EA). This integration enables synergies between design of a system and its safety analysis and thus allows to use STPA in the paradigm of safety-guided design.

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Severe injuries in passenger cars : development of a software tool for emergency diagnostics

Severe injuries in passenger cars : development of a software tool for emergency diagnostics

** Clinic for Trauma- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden Abstract In Germany averagely two million traffic accidents happen each year and emergency medical services are called to more than 400 000 patients. Even though this number is decreasing continuously (due to improvements in the fields of vehicle safety, road construction, and accident prevention) every case is yet a challenge for the rescuers and requires improvements in emergency medicine as well. Especially during diagnostics right at the accident scene, there are only limited instruments available to gain the necessary knowledge of the injuries suffered, to come to essential decisions about treatment or transport. To provide an additional diagnostic aid by scouting and estimating the situation, a software-tool calculating the likeliness of the most frequent severe injuries (AIS 3-6) of front occupants in passenger cars has been developed to deliver this necessary information about particular accident scenarios. To achieve this, logistic likelihood functions have been calculated in a multivariate regression analysis analysing all AIS 3+ injuries in the GIDAS database of the years 1999-2006 that happened more than four times.
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QCScreen: a software tool for data quality control in LC-HRMS based metabolomics

QCScreen: a software tool for data quality control in LC-HRMS based metabolomics

of ion suppression and technical variability as for example reviewed in [8]. In contrast to that, QC samples such as solvent blanks, selected standard mixtures and representative pooled matrix samples can be used for “between sample” standardisation. Typically, QC samples are analysed periodically within and across measurement sequences to monitor analytical sensitivity, precision, stability or sample carry-over of the analytical process [9]. Based on the different (QC) sample categories, both multivariate [10–13] and univariate [9] methods have been described to evaluate and illustrate the analytical perform- ance of individual samples and analytical features in the LC-HRMS data set(s) under investigation. Obviously, vis- ual inspection of short- and long-term stability of critical parameters such as the MS signal abundance, retention time and mass accuracy constitutes the first and most straightforward step in quickly assessing data integrity. While some of the available comprehensive software pro- grams for the processing of metabolomics data support different QC checks [7, 13–15], to the best of the authors knowledge no free, standalone software tool is available that provides a quick and intuitive assessment of quality in LC-HRMS raw data from several measurement se- quences based on the inspection of basic quality-related parameters.
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Conditional parameter estimates from mixed logit models: Distributional assumptions and a free software tool

Conditional parameter estimates from mixed logit models: Distributional assumptions and a free software tool

Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT Leeds, United Kingdom Received 17 November 2008, revised version received 1 July 2010, accepted 19 July 2010 Abstract A number of authors have discussed the possible advantages of condition- ing parameter distributions on observed choices when working with Mixed Multinomial Logit models. However, the number of applications is still rel- atively small, partly due to a limited implementation in available software. To address this situation, the present paper discusses the development of a freeware software tool that allows users to compute conditional distributions independently of the software used during model estimation. Additionally, the paper looks at what impact assumptions made for the unconditional distributions have on the results obtained with conditional distributions. Here, an application using stated choice data collected in Denmark shows that while the move from unconditional to conditional distributions possibly brings results closer together, some discrepancies do remain.
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Adapting Kano's Theory for weighting and implementing customers requirements on a software tool for assessing human reliability in manual assembly

Adapting Kano's Theory for weighting and implementing customers requirements on a software tool for assessing human reliability in manual assembly

Developing products and services suitable for customers and providing them with a high level of customer service, it is mandatory to identify and analyze explicitly expressed customer requirements, as well as non- expressed, but latently existing requirements (Shaharudin et al., 2018). In recent years, the model of customer satisfaction (Kano et al., 1984) increasingly achieved reputation in both, research and practical application (Turisová, 2015; Lo et al., 2017; Madzik, 2018) for structuring, classifying and valuating customer requirements. Additionally, to initiate a high level of dissemination of the software tool this paper illustrates a structured Kano survey taking 22 customer requirements into account with regard to the software-based evaluation of human reliability during the execution of manual assembly operations.
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‘nparACT package for R: A free software tool for the non-parametric analysis of actigraphy data

‘nparACT package for R: A free software tool for the non-parametric analysis of actigraphy data

For many studies, participants ’ sleep-wake patterns are monitored and recorded prior to, during and following an experimental or clinical intervention using actigraphy, i.e. the recording of data generated by movements. Often, these data are merely inspected visually without computation of descriptive parameters, in part due to the lack of user-friendly software. To address this de ficit, we developed a package for R Core Team [6] , that allows computing several non-parametric measures from actigraphy data. Specifically, it computes the interdaily stability (IS), intradaily variability (IV) and relative amplitude (RA) of activity and gives the start times and average activity values of M10 (i.e. the ten hours with maximal activity) and L5 (i.e. the five hours with least activity). Two functions compute these ‘classical’ parameters and handle either single or multiple files. Two other functions additionally allow computing an L-value (i.e. the least activity value) for a user-defined time span termed ‘Lflex’ value. A plotting option is included in all functions. The package can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archives Network (CRAN).
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Upgrade of the IMD software tool for the simulation of laser-matter interaction

Upgrade of the IMD software tool for the simulation of laser-matter interaction

The idea behind this thesis was to gain a tool for simulating the laser ablation process in metals and to apply this knowledge to the concept of laser-ablative micro-thrusters. These micro-thrusters can be characterized by their specific impulse I sp and momentum coupling co- efficient c m . From the data gained in Ch.6.3.5 we can calculate I sp and c m for the simulation of the ablation process. Fig. 7.2(a) shows the specific impulse calculated with IMD and Polly-2T while using the wide-range model for the permittivity, constant thermal conductivity and con- stant electron-phonon coupling. We see that for low fluences IMD and Polly-2T achieve almost the same I sp yet for higher fluences the specific impulse rises faster in Polly-2T then in IMD. This is plausible for lower surface fluences as Fig. 7.1 shows that for fluences of Φ surf < 0.74 J/cm 2 the absorbed energy in IMD is lower than in Polly-2T. However, for fluences Φ surf > 0.74 J/cm 2 the absorbed energy in IMD exceeds the one in Polly-2T, yet the specific impulse does not. A possible explanation for this behaviour might be that higher fluences trigger different phase transitions in the surface layer of Polly-2T simulations. This leads to vapor ejection for higher fluences that contains particles with higher velocities than the solid or liquid material ejected at lower fluences. Fig. 6.10 showed that the process of phase transitions is different in IMD and Polly-2T.
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WASI-2D - A software tool for regionally optimized analysis of imaging spectrometer data from deep and shallow waters

WASI-2D - A software tool for regionally optimized analysis of imaging spectrometer data from deep and shallow waters

An image processing software has been developed which allows quantitative analysis of multi- and hyperspectral data from oceanic, coastal and inland waters. It has been implemented into the Water Colour Simulator WASI, which is a tool for the simulation and analysis of optical properties and light field parameters of deep and shallow waters. The new module WASI-2D can import atmospherically corrected images from airborne sensors and satellite instruments in various data formats and units like remote sensing re flectance or radiance. It can be easily adapted by the user to different sensors and to optical properties of the studied area. Data analysis is done by inverse modelling using established analytical models. The bio-optical model of the water column accounts for gelbstoff (coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM), detritus, and mixtures of up to 6 phytoplankton classes and 2 spectrally different types of suspended matter. The reflectance of the sea floor is treated as sum of up to 6 substrate types. An analytic model of downwelling irradiance allows wavelength dependent modelling of sun glint and sky glint at the water surface. The provided database covers the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm in 1 nm intervals. It can be exchanged easily to represent the optical properties of water constituents, bottom types and the atmosphere of the studied area.
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Neuronale Steuerungsparadigmen für autonome Roboter realisiert durch ein flexibles Software-Tool

Neuronale Steuerungsparadigmen für autonome Roboter realisiert durch ein flexibles Software-Tool

Wird nun für alle Neuronen dieser Schicht die Funktion feed_forward aufgerufen, so wird für jedes Neuron der Schicht der Output über die eingestellte Aktivierungsfunktion gemäß Gleichung[r]

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Software Tool zur Simulation und Visualisierung des stationären Betriebsverhaltens der Asynchronmaschine

Software Tool zur Simulation und Visualisierung des stationären Betriebsverhaltens der Asynchronmaschine

This thesis is concerned with the development of a program with a graphical user interface to simulate and visualise the stationary operating behaviour of asynchronous machines by usin[r]

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Visual HFLCAL - A Software Tool for Layout and Optimisation of Heliostat Fields

Visual HFLCAL - A Software Tool for Layout and Optimisation of Heliostat Fields

While some of the core routines of HFLCAL are still in the original FORTRAN77 standard, most new features are programmed in FORTRAN95 and Visual-FORTRAN. It was decided to use Visual-FORTRAN for the user interface rather than setting up the program completely new in some other code like Visual-C++ or linking the HFLCAL code as DLL to a separate user interface. Visual-FORTRAN offers sufficient possibilities to create a windows-based graphical user interface with interactive dialogues, pop-up menus and display of results. The advantage is that all routines are combined in a single software project and handled with the same compiler. This facilitates the enhancement of the code with new features.
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ISO 26262 - Tool chain analysis reduces tool qualification costs

ISO 26262 - Tool chain analysis reduces tool qualification costs

troduce risks. A tool error may lead to the injection or non-detection of a fault in the product. For this reason the safety norm for road vehicles, ISO 26262, requires determination of a tool confidence level for each software tool. In this paper we present a model-based approach to represent a tool chain, its potential errors and the counter-measures for these. In this model tools are not only error sources, but can also act as error sinks for other tools by providing appropriate checks and re- strictions. The tool work flow in a project can be rearranged or extended to make the integrated tool chain safer than its parts and to reduce tool qualification costs greatly. The tool chain model not only identifies the critical tools, but also exposes very specific qualification requirements for these. The paper illustrates and aug- ments this approach with experiences and results from an application to a real in- dustrial automotive tool chain consisting of 37 tools.
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Explainable software systems

Explainable software systems

In this article, we have highlighted the importance of ex- plainability for future software systems. An explainable software system provides hints or indication on the ratio- nale why the system made a decision. Making software sys- tems explainable needs to be considered from the begin- ning of the development similar to other quality attributes. Future challenges include the definition of flexible expla- nation models that allow controlling the level of explana- tions (e. g., coarse-grained explanations for users vs. fine- grained explanations for developers) and approaches to efficiently derive explanation models from other engineer- ing artifacts such as requirements, user documentation, or code comments.
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Mehr Software–Sicherheit, mehr Software : Verlässlichkeit durch generalisierende und komponierende Abstraktion

Mehr Software–Sicherheit, mehr Software : Verlässlichkeit durch generalisierende und komponierende Abstraktion

Ebenso erhalten blieben in diesem Beispiel die Verbindungsstrukturen zwischen den Klassen aus dem ersten Beispiel, was jedoch nicht immer sein muss. In Abbildung 10 kann man dies an den mit Punkten gerasterten Klassen erkennen. Sie entsprechen den Klassen des Beispiels Abbildung 5. Da sich alternative Ausklammerungsmöglichkeiten ergeben können, könnten sich die Verbindungs- strukturen ebenfalls ändern. Dies hat jedoch auf die „logisch - mathematische“ Qualität der ge- fundenen Lösung keinen Einfluss, denn jede nach den Regeln des Distributivgesetzes der Booleschen Algebra gefundene Lösung ist eine korrekte Lösung. Im zweiten System in Abbildung 10 sind gegenüber dem System in Abbildung 5 durch die Einführung des Phänomens „Dreiecks abhängig“ und des Phänomens „Vieleck“ keine zusätzlichen Klassenelemente entstanden. Alles, was zur Bearbeitung von Dreiecken aus dem ersten System vorhanden war, ist vom Algorithmus im zweiten System voll benutzt worden. Es entstanden keine mehrdeutigen Zustand- oder Prozesselemente. Dies liegt in der ordnenden Strukturierungseigenschaft dieser Vorgehensweise, abgeleitet aus der systematisch ordnenden Strukturierungseigenschaft des Distributivgesetzes der Booleschen Algebra. Man kann erkennen, dass diese ordnende Eigenschaft auch bei zu erweiternden Software - Systemen vorteilhaft ist, in dem der Algorithmus gewährleistet, dass die Eigenschaften des alten und neuen Systems vollständig konsolidiert sind und damit keine mehrdeutigen Eigenschaften aufweisen.
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Abschlussbericht des Projekts SiLEST  (Software in teh Loop for Embedded Software Test) in der BMBF-Forschungsoffensive "Software Engineering 2006"

Abschlussbericht des Projekts SiLEST (Software in teh Loop for Embedded Software Test) in der BMBF-Forschungsoffensive "Software Engineering 2006"

Zur  Durchführung  von  SiL-Tests  und  PiL-Tests  ist  die  zu  testende  Software  mit  einer  Simulation  der  physikalischen  Umgebung  zu  koppeln.  Die  Art  der  Kopplung  kann  auf  unterschiedliche  Arten  erfolgen.  Zum  einen  können  die  zu  testende  Modelle  der  Regelungsfunktionalität  im  SiL-Test  oder  der  Softwaremodule  im  PiL-Test  direkt  in  die  Simulation der Umgebung eingebettet werden. Zum anderen können die Modelle und  Softwaremodule  separat  von  der  Simulation  der  Umwelt  betrieben  werden.  Der  erste  Ansatz  wurde  im  Rahmen  des  SiLEST-Projekts  für  den  Test  des  Motormanagementsystems  verwendet,  der  zweite  Ansatz  zum  Test  des  vollständig  integrierten  Lageregelungssystems.  Der  zweite  Ansatz  wird  im  Folgenden  detaillierter  betrachtet. 
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publish.UP Software-Fehlerinjektion

publish.UP Software-Fehlerinjektion

Die Zuverlässigkeit eines Softwaresystems wird nicht nur durch physikalisch un- vermeidbare Hardware-Ausfälle bedroht, sondern auch durch Programmierfehler („Bugs“), menschliches Versagen und fehlerhafte Interaktion zwischen verschiede- nen Softwarekomponenten. Fehlertoleranz beschreibt die Eigenschaft eines Softwa- resystems, auch in der Gegenwart solcher Fehlerursachen seinen Dienst erfüllen zu können [38]. Damit ein komplexes Softwaresystem wirklich zuverlässig wird, muss Fehlertoleranz in jeder Software-Abstraktionsschicht berücksichtigt werden. Es gibt hierzu diverse Fehlertoleranz-Maßnahmen, die meist auf einer Form von Redundanz beruhen [21]. Räumliche Redundanz beschreibt hierbei die Verwendung mehrerer funktionsgleicher (Hardware-)Komponenten, um den Ausfall einer Un- termenge dieser Komponenten verkraften zu können. Zeitliche Redundanz, oftmals in Software umgesetzt, beschreibt die mehrfache Ausführung einer Berechnung, um so fehlerhafte Ergebnisse in einer Untermenge der Ausführungen tolerieren zu können. Zudem gibt es, um Datenfehler maskieren zu können, informationelle Redundanz, womit fehlererkennende und -korrigierende Codes bezeichnet werden. Zahlreiche Studien [13, 53, 55] haben gezeigt, dass es utopisch ist, anzunehmen, dass ein komplexes Softwaresystem in allen Fällen korrekt funktioniert. Selbst wenn die Hardware ausfallsicher wäre, müsste mit fortschreitender Komplexität von einer ansteigenden Anzahl Bugs ausgegangen werden. [32, 40]
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LIBS - Ein Tool zur Untersuchung der

LIBS - Ein Tool zur Untersuchung der

Einerseits können alle für die Zusammensetzung des Zementes und der Gesteinskörnung relevanten Elemente erfasst werden, andererseits auch die für Schädigungsprozesse in Beton [r]

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Aeolus VirES Tool

Aeolus VirES Tool

• Observations filter with different quality indicators (instrument and satellite data, specific features (strong winds, strong wind gradients, altitude regions), usi[r]

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The tool space

The tool space

After the exploration phase has highlighted the need to understand interaction in a dual- display environment on a fundamental level and my first explorations with virtual input devices yielded encouraging results, I formalized the idea of virtual input devices in the Tool Space concept. On a theoretical level, the presence of tools as mediators and schemes of spatial activation and reification (see section 5.1.1) have – in addition to practical insights about ergonomics – contributed to the notion of maintaining separate physical spaces for input and output and focusing on novel opportunities for the design of indirect touch tools. Novel tools Conceptually, the Tool Space evolves in the desktop plane. As such, it can be based on interactive tabletops or composed of smaller flat touch-screen devices positioned on the desk. The touchscreen’s capabilities are used to dynamically render task-specific tool sets that consist of visible areas, suitable for multi-finger and potentially two-handed input. It is important that my conception of tools is not based on mimicry of analog tools, as exemplified for instance by TouchTools (Harrison et al., 2014). Instead, it is a generalization of the well-established track pad by means of touchscreen technology. This idea has a conceptual precursor in Bill Buxton’s templates for touchscreens and his subsequent idea of a window manager for touch tablets (Buxton et al., 1985), and is now extended with display capability and multi-touch sensing. On the one hand, this allows for a more complex tool composition, such as nested touch areas for both integral and separate control of parameters (see section 5.1.2). On the other hand, by employing multi-touch devices, the tools now allow for an increased input bandwidth.
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Eine Videokonferenz-Software für das iPhone

Eine Videokonferenz-Software für das iPhone

Bei der Implementierung werden einige Änderungen am Software-Design vorgenommen. Ursprünglich wurde jedes im Netzwerk-Thread empfangene Videopaket an den Decoder- Thread weitergereicht. Dort wurde es dekodiert und auf das Display ausgegeben, während der Netzwerk-Thread auf den Decoder-Thread wartete. Erst nachdem der Decoder seine Berechnungen abgeschlossen hatte, konnte der Netzwerk-Thread weiterlaufen. Grundsätz- lich wäre der Ablauf auch über einen einfachen synchronen Methodenaufruf zu realisieren gewesen. Zur Verdeutlichung ist der Ablauf noch einmal in der Abbildung 4.1 dargestellt. Das Designziel für die Unterteilung in unterschiedliche Threads lag darin, Prioritäten für die einzelnen Aufgaben verteilen zu können.
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