The results of our study testify to the effectiveness of comprehensive in- duction regarding various aspects of kindergarten children’s socialbehaviour. The results of socialbehaviour at the pretreatment stage were almost equivalent for the EG and the CG, and were average results compared to the norms. The only difference between the groups was found for the Anxious-Secure basic scale, where the EG achieved higher average scores than the CG. Furthermore, comparison of the CG results within a five-month interval showed almost no differences, except for an elevated level of aggressive behaviour in the group and more dependent behaviour towards the kindergarten teacher. In the CG, it may be possible that some unknown moderator variables were responsible for exerting influence on the children’s more aggressive and dependent behaviour at the second time of measurement. Given that the CG achieved significantly lower scores on the Calm-Aggressive and Autonomous-Dependent scales at the second time of measurement compared to the first time, this may contrib- ute in part to the differences between the EG and the CG on the Anxious- Secure scale.
their activities, the other half give them up completely. Students with lower edu- cated parents are up to three times more likely to cut back on their activities. We find no similar crowding out of scholastic involvement, but no substitution either. Interestingly, we find that the rise in instructional time has a differential impact on student political interest: it leads to a depolarisation at both ends of the spectrum, decreasing the share of students that report to be at least fairly interested in poli- tics while at the same time decreasing the share that report to be not interested at all. The size of these changes is very strong: every third student switches category. The results are robust to a different model specification, time trends, and seasonal variation; selection and implementation; and potentially confounding other reforms that are implemented during the observation period. They also withstand a series of placebo tests. We conclude that instructional time plays an important role in shaping student pro-socialbehaviour.
In contrast to the continuous gaze estimation task, eye contact detection uses a discrete output space, indicating the objects or people that a target person is looking at. For socialbehaviour analysis, such a discretised output is desirable as it allows to directly compute features like the amount of gaze a certain person receives from interactants. Due to the difficulty of estimating the gaze direction from ambient cameras, many works analysing eye contact in group interactions have fallen back to relying on head pose estimates as a proxy to gaze direction (Stiefelhagen, 2002; Gatica-Perez et al., 2005; Beyan et al., 2017b). In order to estimate gaze in spite of lacking direct observations of gaze direction, a number of works employed a Bayesian approach that is treating gaze direction as a hidden variable (Otsuka et al., 2005, 2007; Otsuka and Yamato, 2008; Ba and Odobez, 2010). For example, Ba and Odobez (2010) proposed a multimodal method to detect the focus of attention of meeting participants. Head pose estimates were augmented by a dynamic Bayesian network based context model incorporating participants’ locations, speaking proportion and activity on the projection screen in order to model participants’ visual focus of attention. However, incorporating information from the eye has the potential to obtain a much more accurate estimate of participants’ attention, especially as it was shown that significant differences exist between head pose and actual eye movements in group interactions (Vrzakova et al., 2016).
Abstract This article examines the rationales of Dutch politicians for tackling the perceived pressing problem of ‘anti-socialbehaviour’ (ASB) and the question did they copy the British approach? The first part will describe in short the concept of policy transfer and the recent British fight against ASB. The focus will be on the introduction of the Anti-socialBehaviour Order. The second part is an empirical study into the Dutch retreat from ‘condoning’ ASB, consisting of interviews with Dutch politicians focusing on their ideas for tackling ASB. Those are compared with the British’s rationales. This kind of comparative elite ethnography is not common in criminology, but this article aims at providing evidence of its benefits. By answering the research question an insight into the origins of policy in the sphere of criminal justice can be obtained.
distorted perceptions of refugees’ financial endowment among certain population groups in the receiving countries. In parallel, a counter-argument debates the role of smartphones as digital tools, as refugees’ "new window" to the outside world, which influences their socialbehaviour. It is argued that smartphones enable refugees to orient themselves wherever they are on their escape route and to communicate at any time regardless of their location. Within their transna- tional migration networks (e.g. David & Barwinska-Malajowicz, 2018; Schmitz, 2013; Pries, 2001, 2011; Schmiz, 2011), they can catch up with their families, friends and further associates (includ- ing those whom they meet in transition countries and on the route of escape). Making use of short messenger services, such as “WhatsApp”, smartphones allow refugees to quickly provide information to and exchange experiences with others. Such knowledge flows may under certain circumstances change refugees’ state of mind when it comes to the choice of the escape route or the destination or the place they move to in the receiving countries. Additionally, the fast exchange can not only provide the newest information on the political situation at home, but also on the current situation related to education, work and further socio-economic issues in the re- ceiving regions, so that refugees are aware of what to expect when arriving.
Nowadays, experts seem to have little time to deal with moral and social issues. But the more complex the use of the technology is, the more requirements and concerns must be considered. In a guideline recently published by IEEE on the ethically correct handling of autonomous and intelligent systems (13), the scientific disciplines involved are approached and advised about how they should act in order to follow ethical and social conventions. The following aspects, among others, are taken from that guideline and are extended.
predicted by non-random interactions with other group mem- bers and social network analysis has become a powerful tool to study these interactions. We experimentally studied the so- cial network structure in group-foraging subsocial spiders that naturally live in kin groups but accept immigrants. Spiderlings were individually marked and we observed interactions during six foraging trials in groups comprising (i) siblings, (ii) sib- lings with two non-siblings, and (iii) assorted spiderlings. In this foraging context, we found a higher social network struc- ture in sibling groups compared with assorted groups or sib- ling groups containing two non-siblings. We asked whether non-siblings in the treatment containing mostly siblings and two immigrants are excluded or less connected, which would explain the overall reduced social network structure of the whole group. We found that non-siblings were not generally excluded but that their presence negatively affected the net- work structure of the whole group. The connectivity of foreign individuals in this treatment was moreover predicted by their size relative to the other group members with very small and very large spiderlings being well connected. Our findings sup- port the idea that siblings have an advantage over unrelated individuals and that the social network structure may play a role in the evolution of socialbehaviour in spiders.
In this paper, we report on two interconnected experimental studies whose joint contribution is to provide, through careful design choices and through eliciting choices from a non-student population, a more thorough and robust understanding of this causal mechanism. Together, they contribute to the existing literature by establishing, in an incentivized setting, whether social information affects the perception of a descriptive social norm and thereby affects giving to a pro-social cause. By eliciting empirical expectations, we shed more light on a mechanism that operates through affecting descriptive norm perception. We implement additional design variations that provide further robustness to previous results . Experiment 1 follows Croson et al. , who provide social information in a survey experiment on charitable giving and, through mediation analysis, establish that social information affects hypothetical giving behaviour through changing the perception of a descriptive norm. Our design overcomes the potential hypothetical bias implicit in survey designs by implementing an incentivized design in which participants can donate actual money. In this, it builds on Bicchieri and Xiao , who use a classic dictator game combined with providing information on descriptive and injunctive norms and eliciting corresponding expectations. Their paper is an important stepping stone that highlights how receiving social information can affect expectations about both a descriptive norm and an injunctive norm at the same time. It is thus difficult to disentangle the independent influence that both kinds of norms have on behaviour . In their experiment, Bicchieri and Xiao  provide convincing evidence that both kinds of expectations can be affected to a similar degree by the same piece of information, but that the resulting pro-socialbehaviour is mainly affected by empirical expectations, with normative expectations having little independent effect. This insight is central for understanding the effect of social information on pro-socialbehaviour in situations where descriptive and injunctive norms are not aligned. Experiment 1 re-investigates this descriptive norm channel first identified in Bicchieri and Xiao  adding further robustness by using a non-student subject pool, by employing a modified dictator game with a real-world public good, by using a set of
more social interactions, and this may result in provoking more attacks in others. An alternative explanation could be that exploration is correlated with another trait important in social interactions, such as size or weapon morphology, and this is the trait directly correlated with the IGEs. Regardless of the mechanism driving this relationship, IGEs can cause heritable variation on the focal phenotype to become associated with heritable variation in a different trait of the interacting partners. Our example highlights that the evolution of behaviours expressed in a non-social context (e.g. exploration) can become ‘anchored’ to social traits (e.g. aggression) when IGEs are present on the latter. Specifically, this is true because the strong negative genetic correlation between DGEs and IGEs on aggression will likely fully constrain the microevolution of the socialbehaviour itself, and by consequence prevent selection from eroding genetic variation of any traits genetically correlated with social behaviours. For example, a genetic correlation with traits such as aggression and dominance means that the addictive genetic variance for traits that are causally intermediate between contest outcome/dominance and fitness (e.g. weaponry, resource-dependent traits) will also not all be available to facilitate a selection response (Wilson 2014). Importantly, this constraint would be present even when the DGEs of both traits are uncorrelated, as was the case in our study. In other words, had we not considered IGE, we would inappropriately have concluded that exploratory behaviour and aggressiveness were evolutionarily independent (Sih et al. 2004, Dochtermann and Dingemanse 2013).
understanding, can be held responsible for essentially anti-socialbehaviour”. 42
In Belgium, the Youth Protection of 1965 states that minors may not be put on par with adults with regard to the responsibility and the consequences of their acts. However, if a minor commits an ‘act that is described as a crime’ they should be made aware of the consequences of that offence. As a result, the Youth Protection Act does impose, instead of the punishments of the Criminal Code, other measures, including supervision, education, disciplinary measures, guidance, advice or support. Measures can be imposed on parents or on the minors themselves. The age of the minor in question is taken into account; different measures will be imposed before and after the age of 12 years (Art. 37). If possible, the judge may give preference to victim-offender mediation (Art. 37bis). To our knowledge, at the moment, jurisprudence with regard to offences committed by minors in the SNS environment is scarce. Whereas it is important that existing legal provisions may be applied in
The results of this study indicate that unrelated adult group-housed domestic dogs preferred playing in dyads to playing with more than one play partner. Except one, all 343 analysed play bouts were dyadic ones. This finding verifies our hypothesis (1) that in dogs under the circumstances of this study social play with multiple play partners may occur. Moreover the results support the “self-assessment” hypothesis (a) by Thompson (1998) which predicts that play should be dyadic and provides little support for the hypothesis (b) that play between three or more individuals is frequent (Spinka et al., 2001). Triadic play scenes indicate that dogs actually have the ability to play with multiple players. But why did they play with more than two partners so rarely? Our study groups were unstable and included no siblings as was the case in wolves where play among multiple partners was observed before (Cordoni, 2009; Feddersen- Petersen, personal communication; Heufelder, 2010). Since the domestication of dogs at least 12.000 years ago (Davis & Valla, 1978), dogs have lived in close association with people and today the majority is kept in households as single dogs. They became adapted to humans and their social life and socialbehaviour has changed compared to their ancestors. This degree of dependence on man is likely to have a major effect on any aspects of socialbehaviour (Bradshaw & Nott, 1995). Social play behaviour is a part of socialbehaviour and so it is not surprising that dog’s play behaviour differs from wolves (Feddersen-Petersen, 2008, p. 215; Miklosi, 2007; Zimen, 1992, p. 231). For these reasons we suggest that play in groups, so to say play with multiple individuals, could be reduced in adult unrelated domestic dogs housed temporary in unstable groups. This means that whereas social play among multiple partners makes sense in wolves and other canids which still live in stable family groups it makes no sense in the social environment of dogs which live in human company.
Individuals living in social groups frequently interact across a variety of contexts (e.g. feeding, mate choice, territory defence) with conspecifics that differ considerably in rank, size and internal (e.g. emotional) state. In order to respond to social challenges in an adequate way that reduces the costs and maximizes the benefits of interactions, group members rely on cognitive abilities to process and integrate social information (Shettleworth 1998). The ability to optimise the expression of socialbehaviour as a function of available social information is referred to as social competence (Oliveira 2009, Taborsky & Oliveira 2012). Group members often exhibit huge inter-individual variation in social traits. So far, only few studies investigated to what extent individual variation in social competence is caused by genetic predisposition, e.g. in humans by means of twin studies (McGuire et al. 1999, Kuo et al. 2004). In contrast, many studies strongly indicate that an individual’s social experience is an important factor that influences how it evaluates and chooses an appropriate behavioural response to a given stimulus. Individuals gain social experience through their own social interactions (e.g. “winner-loser effect”) (Hsu et al. 2006, Rutte et al. 2006) or by observing social interactions between conspecifics (“bystander effect”) (Oliveira et al. 1998, Earley 2010). In many species, for example lab mice (CD1 (ICR)) (Branchi et al. 2006), guinea pigs (Cavia apera f. porcellus) (Sachser 1998, Sachser et al. 2011), and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) (Bastian et al. 2003), a more complex social environment leads to improved social performance, which presumably leads to enhanced fitness. It has been proposed that improved social performance is due to increased opportunities for effective social learning in a more complex environment (White et al. 2010). Thereby, social experience gained during early ontogeny appears to affect the development of social competence particularly strongly. This may be attributed to the occurrence of specific sensitive windows for learning during early life (e.g. Fawcett & Frankenhuis 2015).
Quantifying influences of evaluation assumptions for touch biometrics: We examined the influence of several evaluation assumptions for mobile touch typing and targeting biometrics [P6, P7]. Our experiments show that one obtains overly optimistic results by 1) using data from a single day, or 2) assuming that the system knows other users or even the particular attacker, or 3) assuming fixed hand postures. We quantify these influences by comparing results obtained under different assumptions (e.g. changes in user authentication error rates). Our results and discussion emphasise that evaluation schemes for touch biometrics analyses need to be carefully considered with respect to their implied assumptions about deployments in practice. For example, evaluations with data from only one hand posture imply the (often unrealistic) assumption that users always interact with the same posture. Logging “natural” touch typing behaviour beyond the lab: We proposed and studied different filters for privacy-respectful logging of free text entry behaviour [P5]. We found that randomly logging short n-grams yields useful data for many research interests, yet filter parameters need careful con- sideration. Moreover, we contribute a keyboard app and backend which implement this concept to facilitate studies of touch typing behaviour, keyboard use, and related biometrics in the wild. Sec- tion 3.3.1 discusses more details.
The main aim of this review is to illustrate unexpected behaviour of ion channels, which might cross-pollinate advances between fields. To at least partly fulfil this aim, we restricted coverage to the pain field and the subsections are written by authors with a focus on the respective ion channel families. We consider as canonical any feature of an ion channel pore-forming protein, which can allow the flow of ions across membranes [ 1 ]. Although not universal, common features include regulation of the permeation (gating) by ligands and voltage; preference or selectivity for some ions over others; interaction with other cytoplasmic or membrane proteins; trafficking between the plasma membrane and reserve pools; heteromerisation of the channels; modulation by intracellular cascades e.g., by a change of phosphorylation state; and a change of expression levels, e.g., in inflammatory conditions. Less common and more on the line between canonical and noncanonical are features such as interaction with phospholipids or accessory subunits.
In our opinion, it becomes necessary to move away from traditional price volatility models, and focusing on the identification of the mechanisms that drive trading behaviour, as in our research question. The available literature on trading volume dependency in cryptocurrency markets is very limited. Notable exception to this are the papers by Tasca et al. ( 2018 ), Foley et al. ( 2019 ) and Chen et al. ( 2018 ). In particular, Tasca et al. ( 2018 ) attempt to identify different clusters within the Bitcoin economy by analyzing the trading patterns and ascribing them to particular business categories. Using network-based methods, the authors have identified three market regimes that have characterized Bitcoin transactions.
In contrast, PR president Nicolae Paun explained to the author that the PDSR -PR protocol was beneficial for the Roma for three reasons. First, for the first time in their history, an important political party was willing to engage the Romanian Gypsies in substantive discussions and to sign a policy agreement with them. Second, the PDSR committed itself to try to solve the Roma’s social problems through a national strategy to be elaborated by the PR. Finally, the PDSR agreed to coopt the PR into the governing process and promised two important places in the government: a state councillor at the President’s Office for Roma affairs and a governmental minister responsible for dealing with the Roma. Within weeks of its December 2000 electoral victory PDSR delivered. It appointed PR leaders Gheorghe Raducanu to the former, and Ivan Gheorghe (with the rank of deputy state secretary) to the latter post. Moreover, Madalin Voicu became an MP in the PDSR’s colours. Paun became Voicu’s successor as the MP for the Roma in the constitutionally allocated parliamentary seat. Perhaps inspired by the PR’s success, eighteen Bulgarian Gypsy organizations joined forces in December 2000 to call on political parties to pledge to improve the Roma’s conditions. Rumian Sechkov, head of the recently created National Council of the Roma, vowed that Gypsies would support only those parties in the April 2001 elections that agreed to put Roma on their lists and promised to increase Gypsy employment and support Romani language television programm es. Unfortunately, however, the results failed to materialize as no Roma (self-identified as such) managed to gain a seat in the legislature.
WF in rodents has been strongly associated with anxiety (Simon et al., 1994; Treit and Fundytus, 1988), such that more ‘anxious’ animals are stronger wall followers. While it might be unclear or doubtful whether an animal is ‘anxious’ the way humans are, the strength of WF changes with the administration of anxiolytic or anxiogenic agents (e.g. Choleris et al., 2001; Gentsch et al., 1987; see Prut and Belzung, 2003). Perhaps the animals have reasons to be ‘anxious’, since the open space can be dangerous, especially in the presence of a predator (Bonsignore et al., 2008). The fact that WF increases in aversive situations (Grossen and Kelley, 1972) also suggests that WF is a defensive strategy. Indeed, some authors have argued that all rodent OF behaviour is driven by the need for safety, and not exploration – if rats are provided with a shelter in an otherwise barren open field, they hardly ever leave the refuge (Genaro and Schmidek, 2000). Other authors have also argued that rats behave in a way to optimise security (Whishaw et al., 2006). However, voles voluntarily leave a shelter in an OF (Eilam, 2010), showing that security is not the only factor. There is probably a trade- off between optimising security while allowing some exploration. Where along this trade-off an animal ends up likely depends on several factors such as the species, the environment, and its feeding state.
Consistent differences in behaviour between individuals (i.e. animal personality) can affect fitness in a wide variety of species, including susceptibility to parasitism and pathogen infection. Indeed, individuals with a certain personality type could have a disproportional effect on the transmission dynamics. Studying the effects of animal personality on pathogen transmission is useful for epidemiological models and, in case of zoonotic diseases, for human health as well. Thus, good knowledge about the behavioural ecology of personality is required. Here, we used multimammate mice (Mastomys natalensis), a common pest species in sub-Saharan Africa and host for several zoonotic pathogens, such as Lassa virus, as a model system. Data were collected in Morogoro, Tanzania, between May and October 2017 in three 0.5 ha enclosures. During this period, we repeatedly recorded the behaviour of 207 individuals using the hole board test. We found that