We understand the changing trends in education merely as an indicator of the declining potential of academic qualifications, but not as an alternative. In an article on career management paradigm shifts, Philip S. Jarvis compares the key terms of the old and new paradigms. In the field of education, he cites, among other things, changes in terminology: from entitlement (to education, employment, etc.) to personal responsibility (for education, employment, etc.), from occupational titles to skills clusters, from diploma or degree to skills certification, from degree attainment to non-linear perpetual (lifelong) learn- ing, from (institutional) keepers of knowledge to democratisation of knowl- edge, from career guidance to career development/building/management, etc. (Jarvis, 2003). He goes on to say that while academic andtechnical qualifica- tions open doors to employment, it is career planning and management skills that largely determine selection, success and advancement (ibid.). The absence of career planning and management content in education programmes can, therefore, have an effect on the exchange value of knowledge in the labour mar- ket, and also on the attractiveness or otherwise of an individual educational option. Jarvis makes some fairly radical predictions with regard to education which suggest the future institutionalised and formal forms of education may become less attractive in comparison to non-formal methods of education. If we look at this from a Bourdieuian perspective, this may mean that academic qualifications will lose their value as an institutionalised form of cultural capi- tal. This could further mean that the role of higher education qualifications (compared to secondaryschool qualifications) will also change in the future regarding access to key positions in society and in terms of the conversion rate between economic and cultural capital.
courses can potentially limit their access to university (Eichhorst, et al. 2012). 1 In countries
where there is strong emphasis on university study, the result is that upper-secondary VET courses are stigmatised as being a ‘second-choice option’ (OECD 2000; Kogan 2008).
There are several ways in which countries are attempting to deal with the stigmatisation of VET courses in upper-secondaryschool. For example, Ireland and Finland introduced technical colleges (Institutes of Technology in the 1970s and Polytechnics in the 1990s respectively) that sit alongside universities and provide higher education pathways (qualifications at the ISCED 5A) for upper-secondary VET students. Alternatively in England (since 2014) and Australia (since the early 2000s), the focus has been to make it easier for upper-secondary VET students to access university. In England, new ‘tech level’ Diploma level VET courses have A-level status and count towards entry in specific University courses. Australia has progressed further down this path by integrating upper-secondary VET and academic courses in areas such as
Despite the importance of the career pathway chosen, however, there is relatively little evidence linking participation in secondary CTE to specific postsecondary career pathways. Using data that links high school CTE credits to postsecondary enrollment and pathways adds to the literature by investigating a census of high school students who take CTE courses in a variety of schooland labor market contexts. In particular, we focus on the link between enrollment in high school CTE courses and continuation into specific vocational or academic programs in college. Following Holzer and Xu (2019), we classify postsecondary students based on their enrollment in traditional academic andvocational programs. These pathways include six routes to an associate degree for students enrolled in community colleges (liberal arts/social sciences; science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs; general occupational programs; occupational business programs; occupational health programs; and applied STEM programs).
The unconditional quantile regressions are presented in Table 3 using the same specification as the last model in Table 2, which is repeated in the first column to facilitate comparison. We estimate four models corresponding to the 20 th , 40 th , 60 th and 80 th percentiles of the dependent variable. If one considers the dummy variables for social class 2 and 3, it is noticeable that they are larger in magnitude for the higher percentiles and indeed are not statistically significant for the 20 th percentile. So for weaker students, they are generally not helped nor hindered by their socioeconomic background. By contrast, at higher percentiles these effects very much come into play – see Figure 3(a). This is important as who gets high points determines access to the more prestigious university courses such as medicine, law and engineering. Policy discussions around access tend to focus simply on what proportion of particular demographic groups progress to university. These results suggest that attention should also be paid to which course they progress to, since this is where at least some of the socioeconomic gradient may be revealed. One could seriously underestimate the extent to which SES influences educational attainment if one only considers quantity and not quality also. A similar pattern holds with regard to the negative effect of students working part-time while preparing for their exams, with a relatively small effect at the 20 th percentile and the effect doubling higher up the distribution – see Figure 3(b).
skills required on the labour market. Parsons has continued to criticize learning based only on books and advocated for pupils to be trained for engaging in actions using the acquired professional skills.
Vocational counselling represents the young people’s training actions for choosing a profession taking into account the personality features of each person and the situation on the labour market and assistance for young people and adults in choosing their career and a proper job. For example, in Latvia the professional counselling is not very popular and the country is ranked third from the end of the European rankings on professional counselling services for young people (Veipa and Kozlovska, 2013). Thus, it is important to promote professional counselling services as they play an important role in the development of the modern society and in supplying quality employees.
4 Sampling and Descriptive Statistics
The aggregated student-level data consist of representative samples from the above- mentioned cross-sectional competence study (Seeber et al. 2018) and two waves from the ongoing longitudinal study, leading to a total sample size of 6,230 school students ranging from grade 7 to 10 (see timeline in appendix Figure A1). The sampling of all three samples follows the same procedure: First, we partition the whole population of interest, i.e., all students in the respective grade visiting a public school in the German federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, into subgroups by school type and the degree of urbanization (see also Oberrauch and Kaiser 2018). Next, we follow a two-stage cluster sampling procedure with selection of schools in the first stage and a random selection of one class per school in the second stage. The number of schools in each stratum is adapted to the proportions of strata in the target population. Beside these explicit stratification variables, we use school size as an implicit stratification variable. To avoid overrepresentation of schools, we size strata and deploy systematic sampling using sampling intervals in each stratum. Within the IRT analysis, we compensate remaining disproportionalities by means of design weights calculated by the inverse of student selection probability. The final sample consists of 6,230 students in 315 schools. Within the three competence studies, we surveyed basic demographics at the individual level as well as school characteristics at the cluster level.
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Figure 2: School principals’ traits perceived as significant Figure 2: School principals’ traits perceived as significant Hypothesis 5 was further supported by the participants’ answers on the last item of the questionnaire. They were requested to indicate the two least effective personal characteristics of their school principal. The results showed that according to 23% of the participants, “partiality” was the most common non-effective characteristic along with soft with students (22,3%). This answer did not differ significantly from those in the third part of the questionnaire which focused on the exhibited behaviour of the school principals. The answers showed that a total number of 86 participants (61,9%), noted a favourable school principal over certain teachers, while 86 participants (61,9%), agreed that some groups of teachers took advantage of their school principal. These findings definitely supported the belief that a great percentage of Greek school principals exhibited partial or unfair behaviour, verified hypothesis 5 and were in line with Lalas & Morgan (2006) who examined a wider field of social and educational justice focusing on virtues of fairness, equity, respect, care and compassion for all school members regardless gender, race, socioeconomic status or any other background characteristics. In addition, Lam & Yan (2011) and Tesfaw (2014) revealed that some teachers were disappointed and dissatisfied with the unequal allocation of work and unfair treatment. According to the equity theory, there is a social comparison process among employees. Employees look around and observe other employees’ efforts and the gained rewards from these efforts, the fair and equal or unequal delegation of duties, their relationships with other employees as well as the degree of trust in their working
Both teachers and pupils are directly included in the institution and, by co-existing therein, they (co)design its culture and climate through their values, attitudes and actions. At the same time, the institution, with the char- acteristics of its culture and climate, affects persons. Bečaj (2001) stresses that formation of school culture with an emphasis on tolerance, solidarity and co- operation, requires systematic and planned work. Every social community is a living organism with its own needs that operates according to its own rules. Consequently, such a community has to be formed first, then its ability of qual- ity operation has to be maintained; the latter can only be the result of planned and continuous work (ibid.). Since students spend the most time together in class, it is sensible to ask what educational features foster a cooperative climate, respect for people, and enable a teacher and students to co-design and actively participate in the educational process. It is important to be aware of the way that a teacher maintains student attention during class, of how clearly defined rules of cooperation and individual duties are, of the way discipline issues are resolved, to what extent students experience their teacher’s stimulation to ex- press their own opinions and suggestions, of the way the teacher forms the general atmosphere in the classroom: whether this is the case of a cooperative climate where students support each other in achieving their goals or there is a culture of competition where individual goals and achievements predominate. In other words, it is necessary to create such an educational climate in the class- room that will strengthen the responsibility of students (teachers and parents) towards oneself and others in the class (Hočevar, 2009, p. 213).
pleasant job environment and are averse to work in certain occupations, while men are not averse to work in risky jobs (Anker, 1997).
Furthermore, a portion of the gender wage gap remains unexplained, even after controlling for human capital and other observable differences (Ncube, 2012). Becker (1964) called this discrimination as taste discrimination, where the discriminators are willing to forgo an extra pay in order to have the group they prefer compared to an equally productive unfavourable group. Becker (1964) identified three distinct forms of discrimination in a competitive framework: employer, employee (or co-worker) and customer. According to Becker (1964), there three channels of labour market discrimination. Through the employer channel, employer pays a premium wage in order to employ the people they prefer (Becker, 1964). The discriminating employer in this case is unwilling to hire workers unless women or minority workers themselves „compensate‟ employers by accepting a lower wage (a wage below the wage paid to men) for identical productivity or by being more productive at a given wage (Agrawal, 2013). Thus, since they prefer men over women, they will pay more for men.
This paper builds on a large interview study (n=51) with vocational skills competition participants and their co-workers and employers in order to gather their perceptions of vocational expertise andschool-to-work pathways. The specific focus is on the former WSC medal and diploma winners’ perspectives on the development of vocational ex- cellence. The data includes interviews with Finnish WSC achievers (n=18) who have since entered working life (1-15 years of work experience), and their co-workers (n=17) and employers (n=16) from the same workplace. The fertility of the grounds for this research is based on two facts: Firstly, the former WSC achievers have been evaluated as excellent performers by an external international panel, and secondly, they have par- ticipated in a training program in which they received guidance from vocational expert mentors. The main goal of this study is to provide information about the advantages and disadvantages of the WSC training in relation to traditionally implemented VET in the context of Finland. This research focuses on an investigation of the WSC achievers’ and their non-competing co-workers’ perspectives on the main characteristics they consider important to performing well professionally, their vocational pathways after vocational education, and the most important external conditions that have supported their voca- tional development. The research questions asked by this study are the following:
The structure of the main DMVE components (Nokelainen, 2016; Pylväs et al., 2015) is based on Gagné’s (2004, 2010) differentiated model of giftedness and talent (DMGT). Chance is understood to play a predominant role in the DMGT as it includes both ge- netic and parental endowments affecting natural abilities and intrapersonal characteris- tics (Gagné, 2004, 2010). To investigate the role of natural abilities (gifts) in the develop- ment of vocational expertise and excellence, DMVE applies the original seven-dimension version of Gardner’s (1983, 1993, 1999) multiple intelligence (MI) theory that consists of 1) linguistic; 2) logical-mathematical; 3) musical; 4) spatial; 5) bodily-kinaesthetic; 6) interpersonal; and 7) intrapersonal intelligence. According to Martin (2001), in the workplace learning context, linguistic intelligence refers to an ability to read and produce professional documents and to communicate actively and adaptively with colleagues and clients. Logical-mathematical intelligence is related to technical awareness and an un- derstanding of hardware and software and objective and logical assessments of problems related to people or products. Musical intelligence is related to attendance to auditory cues, such as the tone, volume and sequence of people, machines or environments. Spatial intelligence involves the use of visual elements not only in work tasks and product or service development, but also in other concrete applications related to workplace produc- tivity or marketing. Bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence relates to the motor skills needed to carry out various work tasks, such as an ability to use tools or other equipment efficiently. Interpersonal intelligence is vital in everyday interactions with colleagues and clients, for example, to lead and work within teams and to give constructive feedback. Intrapersonal intelligence refers to a person’s self-awareness of one’s own feelings, goals, ethics and abilities in changing situations at work.
knowledge (Krueger and Kumar, 2004; Ryan, 2012). Consequently, there has been a debate about educational and training reforms in most developing countries on whether the focus should be more given to general education or more to technicalandvocational training when it comes to enhance individual labour market outcomes in terms of returns (earning) and employment opportunities (Psacharopoulos, 1987; Hanushek et al., 2011). Technicalandvocational programs have long been praised for their success in easing school-to-work transitions. As they are associated with reducing mass youth unemployment (Tilak, 2002; Müller and Gangl, 2003), higher starting salaries (Mane, 1999; Bishop and Mane, 2004) as well as providing early and effective matches with employer demands (Arum and Shavit, 1995; Heijke et al., 2003; Giret, 2011). Countries such as Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Netherlands, Denmark and Finland that have placed TVET at the core of their education and training system, both in term curriculum review and financing, have ultimately succeed in attaining structural transformation and industrialization, maintaining low youth unemployment rates and attain prosperity. In these countries TVET is the first option for most parents and students and TVET graduates makes more than 50 percent of all graduates with most of TVET graduates earnings relatively higher than those with university degrees. However, it is perceived that these positive results have short-term to medium-term effects, long-term effects may be rather negative (Goldin, 2001; Krueger and Kumar, 2004). Given the strong ties of the skills that technicalandvocational training embed to an individual’s to a specific context, TVET graduates risk to become obsolete in the future and in times of rapid technological change, this is likely to be problematic.
consistently providing assistance is a step in the right direction.
Improve Data generation and Dissemination
Supporting the proposal that TESDA focus more on regulation would be better NSTVET information. As shown in this report, it appears that TESDA has data on many components of NSTVET including (a) graduates including their profile from the IES, (b) TVET institutional providers including program offerings, (c) accredited assessment centers and assessors. One of the poorest segment on the information on NSTVET is the characteristics of the TVIs, the trainers, the assessment centers and assessors. Enrollment data by institution and programs is also not readily available. The enterprise- based provider database needs to be expanded to include enrollees, graduates and assessment test results. Similarly, the listing of community-based providers also need to done. Completing these missing components of the NSTVET information system needed to enable TESDA is to perform better its primary function of regulating the TVET industry.
schools) (Central Government, 2012b). Once being officially recruited, teachers’ working position is secured until their retirement, and schools have no authority to dismiss them. Second, teachers are affected by the norm of ‘equality’ between colleagues (Hallinger & D. T. Truong, 2016) as a consequence of Confucian values that put strong emphasis on group interdependence, mutual relationship (P. M. Nguyen et al., 2005; Phan & Locke, 2016), and socialist values of equality (T. Q. N. Nguyen, 2016). As traditional culture does not encourage individual initiative, teachers tend to do the same as all the others. This traditional norm is further supported by an equal teacher appraisal and remuneration system. In terms of teacher appraisal, teachers nationwide are evaluated by centrally determined indicators which are quite general and incompatible with local andschool features (Central Government, 2012b; MoET, 2018a). When making peer-reviews, for instance, teachers tend to give general feedback to maintain interpersonal harmony and avoid conflict as much as possible (Phan & Locke, 2016). Means of teacher appraisal are teacher self-assessment, peer-review of teacher groups, andschool leader’s reviews (MoET, 2018a). In the matter of remuneration, most public schools apply a tenure-based pay system that discourages teachers from making further efforts (Hamano, 2008). In addition, as students’ academic results are the key performance indicator of teachers as well as schools, teachers are rewarded when their students gain good results in academic testing and examinations. However, due to a limited budget, they mainly get praise from principals and only minimal monetary rewards (Hallinger et al., 2017; McAleavy et al., 2018)).
The bottom panel provides demographic information on the sample, where all characteristics are measured prior to initial polytechnic enrollment. Individuals are on average 33 years of age when they enter polytechnics. Thirty percent of individuals attended polytechnics in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The NUTS-4 regional unemployment rate is 14 percent, clearly illustrating the deep recession of the early 1990s. The pre-enrollment unemployment rate is actually higher for completers than for dropouts. About two-thirds of the sample are women, and women have higher completion rates of more than 20 percentage points compared to men. Two-thirds of the individuals are married, and approximately half have a partner who is employed. One third of the students have at least one child under age seven. About 96 percent speak Finnish as their native language. Matriculation exam results are around four on a six-point scale, and completers have similar exam results to dropouts. 8
Table 8 gives an overview of the different specifications used in the regression analy- sis. The variables covered by the different specifications are explained in more detail in Table 9. Specification 1 simply includes the dummy variable of interest (indicating whether the pu- pils attended the ‘support stage’ regime) and a control dummy variable for attending the fully comprehensive system. In other words: the regression results differentiate between effects of three options of tracking regimes (i.e. the earlier and the later tracking regime and the com- prehensive system). Individual characteristics (gender, immigration background andschool entry age) are added in specification 2. Specification 3 additionally includes family back- ground variables (i.e. indicating the presence of parents at home, parental employment, educa- tion, and behavior and the presence of siblings). I assume that the endogeneity bias is reduced as one moves from specification 1 to specification 3. Especially, the variables added in speci- fication 3 are mainly parental characteristics that influence the tracking regime choice as well as the children’s educational outcomes. Ideally one would also directly control for initial abil- ity of pupils, i.e. compare pupils who performed similarly before entering the different track- ing systems. However, no appropriate performance measure is available in the data. 18
Recent research on VET underline the importance of integrating formal education and workplace learning. This reflects the need for students and teachers to learn how to mediate between the different forms of expertise and the demands of different contexts and how to navigate the boundaries between them (Griffiths & Guile, 2003; Guile & Griffiths, 2001; Tuomi-Gröhn, Engeström, & Young, 2003). In the biennial international WorldSkills Competition (WSC), young people (aged 18-23 years) from over 60 coun- tries demonstrate their vocational competence in more than 40 trades (WSI, 2010). The competitors are selected to participate in the WSC based on their success in their voca- tional studies and in official national competitions. Before the four-day event is held, all competitors participate in an additional training programme. The individualized com- petition training is carried out in cooperation between vocational institutions (expert coaches, team leaders and panellists) and industry (e.g., mentors, sponsors, materials, equipment). As the WSC offers alternative perspectives on crossing the boundaries be- tween formal education and the workplace, and it finds itself on the political agenda as a strategy to heighten the status of vocational education and training (VET) (Euro- pean Council, 2010), it is highly relevant to more closely investigate the impact of skills competitions on participants’ learning opportunities, outcomes and motivation.
variation in compulsory schooling laws across US states. Machin, Marie and Vujic (2011) is another example, concluding that education can be an important measure for reducing crime, based on their UK study. Recent Swedish studies exploiting a compulsory school reform also find a negative impact of compulsory education on crime (Meghir, Palme and Schnabel 2011; Hjalmarsson, Holmlund and Lindquist 2011). These quasi-experimental studies have focused on compulsory schooling reforms or policies that affected the lower part of the educational distribution, while we study a different population at higher risk of criminal involvement. Further, these studies link educational expansion to adult crime while our study directly concerns age groups where criminal activity is relatively high, as well as the future criminal behavior of these groups. Our study bears similarities with the recent work on Norway by Brugård and Falch (2013). Using high school structure and geographic information in an IV setting they show that high school achievement decreases crime. Compared to our study, the data does not allow Brugård and Falch to study the time profile of criminal activity, hence making it difficult to draw conclusions concerning the mechanisms behind the decline.